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tu to , 



THE 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS 



OF f HE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 



FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1665, TO THE YEAR 1800; 



9[briligeli» 



WITH NOTES AND BIOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS- 



BY 



CHARLES HUTTON, LL.D. F.R.S. 
GEORGE SHAW, M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. 
RICHARD PEARSON, M.D. F.S.A. 



VOL. I. 

FROM 1665 TO 1672. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY AND FOR C. AND R. BALDWIN, NEW BRIDGE-STREET, BLACKFRIARS. 

1809. 



/(l(c3S'- 



LOAN STACK 



THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

THE PRESIDENT 

THE VICE PRESIDENTS 
THE COUNCIL 

AND THE REST OF 



THE FELLOWS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 



THIS 



ABRIDGMENT 



OF THE 



^J)tlo0optitcal Cransactions 



IS 



fJf^ith Permission) 



MOST RESPECTFULLY 



DEDICATED. 






PREFACE. 



At this period, when science is so generally cultivated, it can scarcely be 
necessary to enter into a minute detail of the various instances in which the 
Royal Society of London has contributed to the advancement of natural 
and experimental knowledge, by the publication of its Memoirs, under the 
title of Philosophical Transactions. These volumes consist of an invaluable 
collection of observations and discoveries made by the most eminent philoso- 
phers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; among whom may be 
mentioned a Boyle, a Newton, a Halley, and a Hales ; to say nothing of 
other celebrated philosophers, who have contributed to this Collection in 
later days and in our own time. 

It cannot then excite surprise that a work, enriched by communications 
from men so distinguished in the different departments of science, and which, 
from the variety of topics it embraces, may be consulted with equal advantage 
by the astronomer, the geometrician, the natural historian, the anatomist, 
the physiologist, and the chemist, — should be held in the highest estimation, 
not only in this country, but in every enlightened part of the globe. Indeed 
the Transactions of the Royal Society of London are justly regarded as a 
lasting and most honourable testimony to the genius and philosophical spirit 
of the British nation. No scientific library is complete without them. 

Every person, therefore, who entertains the least ardour for philosophical 
pursuits, cannot but be desirous of possessing so valuable a work. But, at 
the present period, few can satisfy their wishes in this respect, in conse- 
quence of the high price and extreme scarcity of the Original Collection ; a 



Yi PREFACE. 

complete set of which amounts to nearly 100 volumes. Indeed the early 
volumes^ indispensable to those who wish to trace the progress of science, are 
only to be casually procured. 

To supply this want of the Original, an Abridgment was long since under- 
taken by Mr. Lowthorp, and after his decease it was brought down by vari- 
ous continuators to the middle of the last century. But in that Abridgment, 
made at different times by different persons, not only was the order of the 
Original^ in the printing of the Memoirs, departed from, but a great num- 
ber of papers not reprinted in other works were omitted. However, not- 
withstanding these objections, even that Abridgment is now scarcely to be 
procured. 

Either, therefore, an entire re-impression, or a new Abridgment of the 
Philosophical Transactions, was called for. But the expences attending an 
entire re-impression of a work so voluminous, and containing such numerous 
plates, must deter every individual or association from attempting such an 
undertaking, as from the necessarily limited number of purchasers not even 
an indemnity, much less any emolument, could be obtained. Besides, many 
of the papers in the earlier volumes are not sufficiently important for re- 
publication. Instead, therefore, of a re-impression of the Philosophical 
Transactions at large, the present New Abridgment in Eighteen Volumes 
is offered to the public. It comprises whatever is most valuable in the Origi- 
nal, from its commencement to the close of the eighteenth century, together 
with Dr. Hooke's volume of Philosophical Collections. All the articles are 
presented in the same order in which they appear in the Original. The most 
important communications are reprinted entire, in the words of the respec- 
tive authors. The less important papers are given in an abridged state, so 
however as to retain, it is hoped, whatever is especially curious or useful in 
them. Those papers which, in the Original, are printed in foreign languages, 
are here translated ; one or two instances excepted, where, from the pecu- 
liarly delicate nature of the subject, there would have been a manifest impro- 



PREFACE. Til 

priety in giving; them in English. The omitted papers, of which however 
the titles have always been retained, are chiefly such as have been re-printed 
by the respective authors in separate works, still extant; the Proprietors being 
particularly desirous that their undertaking should not prevent those authors 
from deriving every possible advantage from their own publications. This 
circumstance has enabled the Editors to insert, at length, many valuable 
papers in some of the later volumes, which are not elsewhere preserved, and 
which would not easily admit of being abridged. 

In every instance where they appeared necessary to the elucidation of the 
subject discussed, the figures in the Original Transactions have been re- 
engraved, but for the most part on a reduced scale. 

Short Biographical Notices of deceased contributors to the original work, 
with Occasional Annotations, pointing out where the subject under conside- 
ration has been more fully investigated in some of the subsequent volumes 
of the Philosophical Transactions, or in other works — and, when the subject 
relates to Natural History, the insertion of the Linnasan generic and specific 
names, — constitute the accessory matter in this New Abridgment. And 
these additions, it is hoped, will give it some advantages over other Abridg- 
ments which have preceded it. 

To give further utility to the present Abridgment, a General Index has 
been subjoined, by way of Appendix to the concluding volume. And that 
this Index may be serviceable in referring to the Original, whenever the reader 
may think a paper has been too much curtailed, the following plan has 
been adopted in the printing — viz. at the head of every leaf are aflSxed the 
number and date of the corresponding volume of the Original, and at the 
title of every paper the corresponding page. 

On the whole, it is hoped, that this New Abridgment, on which the 
Proprietors have spared neither pains nor expence, will be found to contain 



Tiii PREFACE 

whatever is most valuable in the Original Work;* and that to those who are 
necessarily engaged in philosophical pursuits in the way of their profession, 
as well as to those who in their hours of leisure cultivate the sciences from 
taste, it will, up to the period which it embraces, be found to answer all 
the purposes of the more costly and scarcely procurable Transactions at 
large. 

* With the exception of certain papers before-mentioned, which have been reprinted in other 
works of easy access, and to which, in this Abridgment, reference has always been made. 



London, Jpril 26, 1809. 



COiVTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST. 



Pagt- 

.Advertisement, and Biographical Notice of Mr, Oldenburg 1 

Campani's Improvement of Optic Glasses 2 

A Spot in Jupiter's Belt, by Mr. Hook ibid 

Biographical Notice of the Campani's .'3 

Motion of the Comet of l664:, predicted by M. Auzout ibid 

Biographical Notices of Mr. Hook and M. Auzout ibid 

Ex^rimental History of Cold, by Mr. Boyle 4 

Biooraphical Notice of Mr. Boyle ibid 

Account of a Monstrous Calf j by Mr. Boyle 5 

Of a peculiar Lead Ore of Germany 6 

Of an Hungarian Bolus ibid 

New American Whale Fishing about Bermudas ibid 

Success of Pendulum Watches at Sea for the Longitude; by Major Holmes 7 

Character of M. de Fermat 8 

On Uvo Comets; by Sig. J. D. Cassini ibid 

Biooraphical Notice of J. D. Cassini ibid 

Reflections on Cassini's Account of Comets; by M. Auzout 9 

The Mines of Mercury in Friuli ; by Dr Walter Pope 10 

The blowing of Fire by the fall of Water; by the same 12 

On the ordering of Silk Worms; by :Mr. Edw. Dlgges ibid 

Account of Hook's Micrographia 13 

Experiments and Observations on May-dew; by Mr. 1. Henshaw ibid 

Motion of the Second Comet predicted; by M. Auzout 14 

Conjunction of tlie Ocean and the Mediterranean ; by M. Petit j 5 

Biographical Notice of M. Petit ibid 

Of killing Rattle Snakes; by Capt. Silas Taylor l6 

Persons killed by Subterraneous Damps; by Sir Rob. Moray ibid 

Mineral of Liege, yielding Brimstone and Vitriol; by the same 1/ 

Account of Mr. Boyle's Experimental History of Cold ibid 

Extraordinary Tides in the West of Scotland; by Sir Rob. Moray oq 

Apertures of Object Glasses and Lengths of Telescopes; by M. Auzout 22 

Auzout's Remarks on Hook's Instrument for Grinding Optic Glasses 23 

On illuminating Objects and burning Bodies by tlie Sun; by M. Auzout ibid 

Further Account of Campani's Optic Glasses ; by the same 04 

Campani's Answer and Auzout's Reply 25 

Adks and Mines at Liege; by Sir Robert Moray 27 

Of De Son's Method of breaking Rocks; by the same 28 

Observables on a Monstrous Head; by Mr. Boyle 29 

Observables in the Body of the Eari of Balcarras 30 

Breeding of Silk Worms and making Silk in France ibid 

Inquiries concerning Agriculture 32 

Account of Villette's Burning Glass 34 

The Optic Glasses and Telescopes of M. Hevelius and M. Huygens s6 

Biographical Notice of M. Hevelius ibid 

Representations in Wax, and Maps in Bas Relief 37 

Vol. I. * 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 

A white Fluid in Veins, &c. ; by Mr. Boyle 37 

Wood turned into Stone without petrifying Water 38 

A Stone in the Head of a Serpent in India; by P. Vernati ibid 

Making of Saltpetre in the Mogul's Dominions ibid 

Account of Hevelius's Prodromus Cometicus 30 

On Kircher's Mundus Subterraneus '. 40 

Biographical Notice of Athanasius Kircher ibid 

Further Account of the White Blood 41 

M. De Son's working Parabolic Glasses ibid 

Auzout on the Changes observable in the Earth and Moon ibid 

To Measure Distances at one Station j by M. Auzout 43 

To colour the whole Body of Marble by a liquor; by A. Kircher 44 

C^hina Wares made in Europe ibid 

An uncommon Spring in Westphalia, also Salt Springs, &c 45 

Of infusing Liquors immediately into the Mass of Blood; by Mr. Oldenburg ibid 

Trials made in Italy of Campani's new Optic Glasses ibid 

Further Relation of Whale Fishing about the Bermudas, &c 4g 

A remarkable Spring near Paderborn in Germany ibid 

Biographical Notice of Eustachio Divini ibid 

Uncommon Springs at Basil and in Alsace 47 

Of the Richest Salt Springs in Germany 48 

Swarms of strange and mischievous Insects in New England 4p 

The breeding of Snakes and Vipers ibid 

Observations of odd Constitutions of Bodies ; by Mr. Oldenburg ibid 

To Preserve Ice and Snow by Chaff; by Mr. Wm. Ball 5q 

Directions for Seamen on long Voyages; by Mr. Rooke ibid 

Biographical Notice of Mr. Rooke ibid 

Shadow of Jupiter's Satellites passing over his Body 51 

Permanent Spot in Jupiter, showing the Rotation on his Axis 52 

Account of the Lyncei, an Italian Academy; also Uleg Beig's Catalogue of Stars ibid 

Appendix to the Directions for Seamen, &c. ; by Mr. Hook 53 

Ditlerence between Hevelius's and Auzout's Observation of Comets ibid 

Distance of the Sun and Moon from the Eartli, by the observed Parallax ibid 

An Observation of Saturn 54 

Of Barometers, and Observations made with them; by Dr. Beale ibid 

Observations on Vipers; by Sig. Redi 58 

Of an Earthquake near Oxford ; by Dr. Wallis and Mr. Boyle ^g 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Wallis ibid 

Observations on the Barometer; by Dr. Wallis (,0 

The Rotation of Jupiter on his Axis; by Mr. Hook and M. Cassini jbjd 

An Account of some Books . 62 

Observations and Directions concerning the Barometer; by Mr, Boyle ibid 

Remarks for the Natural History of a Country; by the same 53 

Account of Mr. Boyle's Origin of Forms and Qualities 65 

New Observations on the Planet Mars; by Mr. Hook ibid 

Preserving of Birds taken out of the Egg; by Mr. Boyle qq 

Unusual Method of propagating Mulberry Trees in Virginia ibid 

Refracting the Rays of Light to a great Distance by a small Sphere ; by Mr. Hook ibid 

Of shining Worms in Oysters; by M. Auzout Qj 

Medical Effects of Touch and Friction; by Mr. Oldenburg ibid 

Permanent Spot in Jupiter, also on the Optic Glasses of Campani and Divini . . (,8 

Account of Dr. Sydenham's Methodus Curandi Febres (jg 

Certain Problems in Navigation ; by Mr. Nicholas Mercator ibid 

Biographical Notice of Mr, Nicholas Mercator ibid 

New Contrivance of a Wheel Barometer; by Dr. Hook 72 

Four Suns and two uncommon Rainbows observed in France ibid 

Of Thunder and Lightning at Oxford ; by Dr. Wallis 74 

Of shining Fish3 by Dr. Beale • 75 



CONTENTS. " III 

Page 

Remarks on a Body's descent in Water , 76 

A New Statical Baroscojje; by Mr. Boyle 77 

Rotation of the Planet Mars about his Axis; by Mr. Hook 80 

Period of the Rotation of Mars; by J. D. Cassini 81 

Phases of the Planet Jupiter; by Mr. Hook 83 

Observation of Saturn; by the same 84 

Sad Effect of Thunder and Lightning; by T. Neale, Esq ibid 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Thevenot's Voyages; 2. On tlie Inundation of the Nile; 3. Hobbes's 

De Principiis et Ratiocinatione Geometrarum 85 

Artificial Cold without tlie help of Snow, Ice, Hail, Wind, or Nitre; by Mr. Boyle 86 

Account of two Books, viz. 1. Euclidis Elem. Geom. &:c. 2. Rose's English Vineyard 89 

Hypothesis on the Flux and Reflux of the Sea ; by Dr. Wallis ibid 

Appendix to ditto, being an Answer to some Objections to the same 101 

Animadversions on Mr. Hobbes's Book De Principiis et Rati. Geom. by Dr. Wallis 10/ 

Biographical Notice of Mr. Hobbes ibid 

Obsei-vations of the Solar Eclipse of June 22, \666 Ill 

Inquiries and Directions concerning Tides; by Dr. Wallis 112 

Considerations and Inquiries concerning Tides; by Sir Robert Moray 113 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Hevelii Descriptio Cometae; 2. Is. Vossius de Nili et aliorum Flu- 

minum Origine; 3. Le Discemement du Corps et de I'Ame 115 

Biographical Notice of Isaac Vossius Il6 

Tables for observing the Tides ; by Sir Robert Moray 118 

Other Inquiries concerning the Sea ibid 

On the Parenchymatous Parts of the Body; by Dr. Edmund King lip 

Observations on Petrifications; by Dr. Beale ibid 

Worms tliat eat Stones and Mortar; by M. de la Voye 120 

Observations on Somersetshire; by Dr. Beale 121 

To find the Year of the Julian Period; by M. J. De Billy ibid 

Biographical Notice of Father de Billy ibid 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Tentamina Physico-Theologica de Deo, kc; 2. Honorati Fabri 

Theologi tractatus duo; 3. M. de Bourges relation du Voyage, &:c 122 

A Petrifaction; by Mr. Ph. Packer ibid 

Inquiries concerning Mines; by Mr. Boyle 123 

Answers to Queries; by M. Hevelius 126" 

Answers to Queries; by M. Joh. Schaffer 127 

Method of Transfusing Blood from one Animal into another; by Mr. Boyle 128 

Account of some Sanative Waters in Herefordshire; by Dr. Beale 131 

Of Vitriolate Water, &c. ; by the same • 132 

Inquiries for Turkey; by Mr. H 'ibid 

Optic Glasses made of Rock Crystal; by Eustachio Divini IS* 

Account of the Grain of Kermes for Coloration; by M. Vemy ibid 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Chris. Merret Pinax rerum natur. Britan. Sec. 2. Guarini Placita 

Philosophica; 3. L. Bellini Gustus Organum J 35 

Biographical Notice of Laurence Bellini ibid 

Calculation of a Solar Eclipse; by M. Hevelius 137 

The Stars in the Constellation Cygnus, wnth tlie New Star; by the same ibid 

To measure the Diameters of the Planets, Sec. ; by M. Auzout 138 

Method of preparing the Bononian Stone for shining ibid 

A Swedish Stone affording Sulphur, Vitriol, Alum and Minium 139 

A Shower of Ashes in tlie Archipelago; by Capt. Wm. Badily 140 

Concerning Salamanders living in Fire; by M. Steno ibid 

An uncommon Accident in two aged Persons; by IVIr. Colepress 141 

Account of two Books, viz. 1. Ism. Bullialdi ad Astronomos Monitaduo; 2. Felibien Entretiens 

sur les Vies, &c. des plus excellens Peintres ibid 

Biographical Notice of Ismael Bulliald ibid 

Trials proposed by Mr. Boyle for the Transfiision of Blood, &c 143 

A Method of observing Eclipses of the Moon ; by Mr. Rooke 145 

Halos about the Moon; by tlie Earl of Sandwich 146 

a 2 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Toads and Spiders Innoxious; by Dr, N. Fairfax , ' i4g 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Descartes, Lettres de; 2. Riccioli Astrononiia Reformata; 3. G. 

Blasii Anatome Medullae Spinalis, &c ', 147" 

Biographical Notice of M. Descartes ibid 

Biographical Notices of J. B. Riccioli and of Gerard Blasius 148 

Load-stone dug out of the Ground in Devonshire ; by Dr. Edw. Cotton 149 

Remarks on Load-stones and Sea Compasses; by Mr. Oldenburg ibid 

Effects ol'the Air-pump on Plants, Seeds, and Eggs of Silk "Worms; by Dr. Beale 150 

Observations on Ants ; by Dr. Edmund K ing ibid 

Account of Sig. Chapuzeau's book, Histoire des Joyaux, &c 152 

The Directions for Seamen explained 153 

An easier and safer Way of Transfusing Blood; by Dr. Edmund King 158 

Another Experiment of the Transfusion of Blood; by Dr. T. Coxe 159 

Letter on the Transfusion of Blood; from M. Denis ibid 

Reuniting of the separated Bark of Trees ; by Dr. Merret 1()0 

To recover Cherries almost withered ; by the same ibid 

The American Aloe with indented Leaves; by the same l6'l 

On Gascoigne's Micrometer; by Mr. Rd. Townley ibid 

The Nebulosa in Andromeda, and the Star in the Whale's neck; by M. BuUiald l6'2 

Communication of the Thoracic Duct with the Emulgent Vein; by M. Pecquet i6"3 

Biographical Notice of M. Pecquet ibid 

Description of several Kinds of Granaries 1()4 

Inquiries for Hungary, Transylvania, Egypt, and Guinea ibid 

Experiments for improving the Art of Gunnery; by Sir Robert Moray l65 

Magnetical Experiments ; by Mr. Sellers l66 

Effects of the Transfiision of Blood at Paris, and of two Monstrous Births ifiT" 

Account of two Monstrous Births in' Devonshire; by M. Colepress ibid 

Some Observations made both in Mines and at Sea 1()'8 

Hail-stones of an unusual Size; by Dr. Nath. Fairfax ibid 

Account of a number of Stones found in one Bladder; by the same ibid 

A Well and Earth in Lancashire taking Fire at a Candle; by T. Shirley, Esq 169 

Account of A. Kircher's China Illustrata ibid 

On the Invention of the Transfusion of Blood ; by Mr. Oldenburg 170 

Injection of Liquors into the Veins of Animals; by Sig. P'racassati ibid 

Discoveries on the Brain and the Tongue; by Sig. Malpighi 171 

Biographical Notice of Marcellus Malpighi ibid 

Experiment on Blood grown cold ; by Sig. Fracassati 170 

Quicksilver at the Roots of Plants, and Shells on Mountains ; by Sig. Septali 173 

Observations on a Voyage to the Caribbee Islands ibid 

Magnetical Experiments, &c. ; by Mr. Colepress 177 

Account of two Books, viz. 1. Sprat's History of the Royal Society; 2. Needham de FormaLo 

Foetu, &c ibid 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Walter Needham ibid 

Account of more Trials of Transfusion of Blood, &c. ; by Mr. Oldenburg I83 

On the Mendip Lead Mines; by Mr. Joseph Glanvil 186' 

Magnetical Variations ; byM. Petit 187 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Gilbert ibid 

Biographical Notices of Wm. Burrowes, Edmund Gunter, and Henry Gellibrand 189 

Account of Books ; viz. I.Boyle's Considerations on Subordinate Forms; 2. Swammerdam de 

Respiratione et Usu Pulmonum; 3. Observ. sur un Grand' Poisson, &c. ; 4. Klobii Historia 

Ambrse igo 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Swammerdam ibid 

Of preserving Annuals by blowing into their Lungs; by Mr. Hook 194 

Description of Mr. Gascoigne's Micrometer ; by Mr. Hook 195 

On a Dog drawing breath like a wind broken Horse; by Dr. Lower 197 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Lower ibid 

Anatomical Observations on a Human Body; by Dr. Fairfax 199 

vOtlier obsei-vations and peculiarities both in Men and Brutes ; by the same 200 



CONTENTS. 



V 



Page 

Of injecting Liquors into the Blood; by Mr. Boyle 201 

On the Epiploon which covers the entrails of Animals; by Malpighi 202 

Account of Trannflision performed on Arthur Coga j by Dr. King 203 

Account of Trials of Transfusion in France ; by Mr, Oldenburg 204 

Of injecting medicated Liquors into Veins; by Dr, Fabritius 205 

Of the Tides, Wells, Whale Fishing, &c. at Bermudas ; by Rd. Norwood 206 

Biographical Notice of Mr. Norwood ibid 

De Billy's method for the Julian Period, demonstrated; by Mr. Colhns 207 

Biographical Notice of Mr. John Collins ibid 

Experiments on the Light of Shining Wood and Fish; by Mr, Boyle 211 

Account of Dr, Willis's Pathologiae Cerebri et Nervosi Generis Specimen 214- 

Biographical Notice of Dr, Willis ibid 

Comparison between Burning Coal and Shining Wood; by Mr, Boyle 215 

On a hitherto unnoticed Blemish in a Horse's Eye ; by Dr. Lower 2l6 

Of Spots seen in Venus ; by S, Cassini 217 

On the Cure of a Phrensy, by Transfusion; by Dr, J. Denis 218 

History and Description of an Hermaphrodite ; by Dr. Tho. Allen 223 

Account of Books; viz, 1, Nouveaux Elemens de Geometric; 2. Synopsis Optica, Arith, Hon. 
Fabri, 3. De Vi Percussionis, Joh, Al, Borelli: 4. Nicolai Stenouis, Musculi Descriptio (Jeo- 

metrica 224 

Biographical Notices of Borelli, and of Steno ibid 

On Grinding Optic-glasses of Non- spherical Figures; by F. Smethwick, Esq 226 

Tides observed at Plymouth; by M. S. Colepress 007- 

Inquiries and directions for the Antilles ibid 

Answers to some of the Queries relative to Vegetables and Animals 230 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Saggi di Naturali Esperienze fatte nel Academia del Cimento; 

2, Vera Circuli et Hyperbolae quadratura, a Jac. Gregorio 232 

Biographical Notice of James Gregory ibid 

The Squaring tlie Hyperbola; by Lord Viscount Brouncker 233 

Biographical Notice of Lord Brouncker ibid 

On some Medicinal and Anatomical subjects; by Mr, Michael Behm 237 

On the Variety of Tides in different parts of England; by Dr, Wallis 238 

Time of the Tides observed at London; by Mr. Henry Phillips 239 

Account of Books; viz. 1. W. Sengwerdius de Tarantula ; 2. R. de GraafFEpistola circa Partes 
Genitales; 3. Joh. Van Horne^ Observat, circa Partes Genitales, in utroque Sexu, Prodromus 241 

Biographical Notices of Regner de Graaf, and Van Home ibid 

Obser\'ations on Deafness; by the Rev. Dr. William Holder 242 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Holder ibid 

Mons. Mariotte's Discovery touching Vision; by Mons. Justel 243 

Biographical Notice of Edn:iund Mariotte ibid 

M. Pecquet's Answer to Mariotte 245 

Anatomical Discoveries and Observations; by Dr. Clarck o-iS 

Biographical Notices of Caspar Asellius ; T. Bartlioline; and Olaus Rudbeck 04.7 

Biographical Notice of John Riolan 049 

On the Comet which appeared in Italy and Portugal, in March 1668 250 

Account of Books; viz, 1. Geometriae Pars Universalis, Auth. Jac, Gregorio; 2, Branker's 
Translation of Rohn's Algebra; 3. Wilkin's Essay towards a Real Character, and Philosophi- 
cal Language; 4. Lubienietz Theatrum Cometicum 251 

Biographical Notice of Bishop Wilkins 254 

Account of the Controversy on Astronomy, between Angelis and Riccioli ibid 

Account of tlie Differences respecting Transfusion . ; 258 

A Sand-flood at Downham, in Sufiblk; by Tho. Wright, Esq 204 

On the Magnetical Variation, and tlie Tides, near Bristol; by Captain Sturmy n(j^ 

An Easy Help for Decayed Sight 266 

On the Antiquity of the Transfusion of Blood 267 

Mr. Gregory's Answer to Huygens's Animadversions on his Book oGS 

Account of Books; viz. 1 . Discours Physique de la Parole, par Cordemoy ; 2, De Iniinitis Spi- 



VI CONTENTS. 

. • Page 

ralibus Inversis, &c. Auth. Steph. de Angelis^ 3. Michaelis Angeli Ricci Geometrica Exer- 

citatio; 4. La Venerie Royale du Sig. de Salnove 268 

Biographical Notice of Michael Angelo Ricci 269 

Contrivance for a Picture on a Wall in a Light Room ; by Mr. Hook ibid 

Of Counterfeiting Opal, and making Red Glass 5 by Mr. Colepress 270 

Account of R. de Graaf, de Virorum Organis Generat. Inservien. et Mercator's Logarithmo- 

technia 271 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Nathaniel Highmore ibid 

A Note relative to the Article on helping decayed sight, at page 266 275 

On the Success of Experiments at Dantzick, of Infusing Medicines into Veins ibid 

A further Account of the Mendip Mines; by Mr. Glanvil 276 

Of Osteocolla, &c. near Frankfort on the Oder ; by J. C. Beckman 278 

Extract of a Letter on the Virtues of Antimony 279 

Biographical Notice of Olaus Borrichius ibid 

Account of Books ; viz. 1. Olai Borrichii De Ortu et Progressu Chemiae Dissertatio; 2. Evelyn's 

Translation of the Sieur de Cambray on Painting; 3. Anderson's Stereometrical Problems; 

4. Elai)hographia sive Cervi Descriptio, Auth. J. And. Graba 280 

Biographical Notices of Mr. Evelyn, and of Robert Anderson 280-1 

The Variations of the Magnetic Needle predicted; by Mr. Henry Bond 282 

Concerning the True Use of the Lymphatics ; by M. de Bils 283 

Biographical Notice of M. Louis de Bils ibid 

Of the Tides, Whales, Spermaceti, &c. of Bermudas; by Mr, Rd. Stafford ibid 

Of the Polishing Telescopical glasses by a Tvirn lath 284 

Concerning Cochineal ; ibid 

Queries concerning Vegetation 28.5 

Concerning a Bullet voided by Urine; by Dr. Fairfax 286 

Account of Books; viz. 1. J. Hevelii Cometographia ; 2. Ren. Descartes Epistolae ;^. Scrutinium 

Chymicum Vitrioli, Auth. J. G. Triumphio ; 4., F. de la Boe Sylvii Praxeos Medicae Idea 

nova 289 

Tides observed in the Long Road near Bristol; by Captain Sam. Sturmy 290 

Observations of the Minerals in Mexico; by an English Gentleman 292 

Observations in Jamaica; by Mr. Norwood, jun 295 

Account of Mayow's Tractatus duo, prior de Respiratione, alter de Rachitide , , ibid 

Account of a Discourse concerning the Abuses of Apothecaries 298 

AMetliod of working Convex Spherical Glasses on a Plane; by S. Mancini ibid 

Of Experiments of Transfusion made at Bologna 300 

Description of a jNew Microscope ; by Eustachio Divini 301 

Testis Examinatus ; by Vadlius Dalhirius Bonglarus 302 

Account of Boyle's Continuation of Physico Mechanical Experiments, and Sympson on the 

Scarborough and other Spas 303 

Experiments on the Running of Sap ; by Doctors Beale and Tonge 304 

Observations in the East Indies ; by Sir Phillip Vernatti 307 

The General Laws of Motion ; by Dr. John Wallis ibid 

The Law of Nature in the Collision of Bodies; by Dr. Christopher Wren 310 

Biographical Notice of Sir Christopher Wren ibid 

Account of Tycho Brahe's Historia Coelestis . . ; 312 

Biographical Notice of Tycho Brahe ibid 

Account of R. P. And. Tacquet's Opera Mathematica 314 

Biographical Notice of Tacquet ibid 

A Continuation of Observations on Vegetables ; by Dr. E. Tonge 317 

Extract of Dr. Harvey's Account of Thomas Parr 319 

Account of Harvey's Discoveiy of the Circulation of the Blood ibid 

Account of De Viscerum Structura ExercitatioAnatomica, Mar. Malpighii 322 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Thomas Wharton ibid 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Francis Glisson 323 

Account of Ephemerides Mediceorum Syderum, ex Hypoth. et Tab. J. Cassini 325 

Description of Dr. Chr. Wren's Perspective Instrument ibid 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

An Observation of Saturn, made at Paris ; by M. Huygens and M. Picard 326 

Biographical Notices of M. Huygens, M. Picard, and M. Slusius 326-7 

Account of Renati Fr, Slusii Mesolabum, and of Lower's Tractatus de Corde ibid 

Additioiiiil Observations on Vegetables; by Dr. Tonge 332 

Connection of Parts of a Tree, with those of the Fruit; by Dr. Beale 334 

The Laws of Motion on the Collision of Bodies; by M. Huygens 335 

On the Resolution of Equations in Numbers ; by Mr. Collins 338 

Supplement to the Biographical Notice of Mr. Collins, at p. 207 ibid 

Account of Praeludia Botanica Roberti Morison 341 

Biographical Notice of Robert Morison ibid 

Account of CI. Salmasii Praefatio in Librum de Homonymis Hyles latricae 343 

Biographical Notice of Salmasius ibid 

On the Use of Pendulum Watches for finding the Longitude; by M. Huygens ibid 

Account of two Parhelia seen in Hungary ; by Dr. Ed. Brown 349 

Conferences at Paris for Improving Painting and Sculpture ibid 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Beverege's Institutionum Chronologicarum Libri duo; 2. Holder's 

Elements of Speech; 3. Anderson's Gauging promoted ; 351 

Use of an Hyperbolical Cylindroid, for Grinding Glasses; by Dr. C. Wren 353 

Exi^riments on the Motion of Sap; by Mr. Willoughby and Mr. Ray 354 

Biographical Notice of Francis Willoughby, Esq ibid 

Concerning Damps in the jMines of Hungary 356* 

A Chronological Account of the Eruptions of Mount ^tna 357 

-Account of a woman having a Double Matrix 358 

Account of Books ; viz. 1. T. Hobbes Quadratura Circuli, &c. confutata, Auth. J. Wallis; 
2. Historia Genral de Ethiopia a Alta; 3. Webb's Essay on the Language of China; 4. On 

the Way of Teaching the Latin Tongue 359 

Observations concerning the Bath Springs; by Mr. Joseph Glanvill 36 1 

On the Icy and Crystalline Mountains of Helvetia ; by Mr. Muralt 365 

Some Observations concerning Japan ibid 

Of M. de Villette's Metalline Burning Concave 367 

Account of Books; viz. 1. MalpighiiDissertatio Epistolica deBombyce; 2. Description Anato- 
mique d'un Cameleon, &c. ; 3. Labyrinthus Algebrae, Auth. J. G. Ferguson; 4. Wittie's 

Answer to Sympson's Hydrologia Chymica ibid 

The Weight of Water in Water ^Jvith Common Balances; by Mr. Boyle 374 

Observations on Two Voyages to ^le East Indies; by Mr. Rd, Smithson 375 

On the Varieties and Comparative EXj^ences of Slate; by Mr. Sam. Colepress 3/6 

On some Shell Snails, and tlie darting of Spiders 377 

Account of Books ; viz. 1. Geo. Sinclari Ars Nova et Magna &c. ; 2. Leyser, Observationes 
Medicae; 3. O. Tachenii Hippocrates Chymicus; 4, Bartholin de Cygni Anatome; 5. Straachii 

Brev. Chronol. ; 6. Labbe Abr>'ge Chronol 380 

Biographical Notice of George Sinclair ibid 

Making of Sea Salt in France by the Sun 382 

On the Eruptions of Mount ^tna 383 

On M. Steno's Discours sur I'Anatomie du Cerveau 387 

On divers Minerals emitted by Mount iEtna 389 

On the Organs of Generation; by Dr. King and Dr. de GraafF ; 390 

Uncommon Swelling of a Woman's Breasts; by Dr. Wm. Durston 393 

Account of Books ; viz. l.Dary's Gauging; 2. Charas Histoire Naturelle des Animaux, &c. . . 395 

Biographical Notice of Moses Charas ibid 

Dr. Chr. Wren's Engine for Grinding Optic Glasses 396 

On the Salt Springs and Salt-making at Nantwich; by Dr. Wm. Jackson 397 

On the Death of the Large-breasted Woman; by Dr. Wm. Durston 402 

Account of Books ; viz. 1. Boyle's Philos. Essays; 2. Mutoli, del Movimento della Coraeta; 3. 

Bartholin de Cometis; 4. Evelyn's Sylva et Pomona ibid 

Biographical Notice of Erasmus Bartholin 403 

Transactions at Paris relating to the Transfusion of Blood 404 

Another Letter on the Large- breasted Woman; from Dr. Durston 405 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 

Appendix to the Discourse on the Salt Work; by Dr. Jackson 405 

On the Quicksilver Mines in Friuli; by Di*. EcUv. Brown 4-07 

On the Lake Zirchnitzer Sea, in Carniola; by the same 409 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Wallis, Mechanica; 2. Highmore,de Hysterica &c. 3. Charas, Nouv, 

Experiences sur la Vipere; 4. Kircheri Magna Sciendi; 5. Bayle, Systemede la Philosophic; 

6". Kerckrlngii Spicilegium Anatomicum 410 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Theodore Kerkring 413 

Predictions of a Celestial Phenomenon; by Mr. John Flamsteed 414 

Biographical Notice of Mr. John Flamsteed ibid 

On the Baroscope and Thcrmoscope; by Dr. J. Beal 415 

Biographical Notice of Dr. John Beal ibid 

On the Baroscope and Thermoscope; by Dr. Wallis 4l6' 

Dr. Wallis on Mr. Hobbes's Quadrature of the Circle, &c 417 

On the Languedoc Canal in France; by M. Riquet 418 

On the Scarborough Spa, also a Salt Spring and a Medical Spring ; by Dr. Highmore 41 9 

On the Causes of Mineral Springs, &c. ; by Dr. J. Beale 420 

The Use of Vaults, Wells, &c. for promoting Salt, Minerals, &c. ; by the same ibid 

Account of M. Thurston's Book, de Respiratione ibid 

On Natural Curiosities about Connecticut; by J. Winthrop, Esq 421 

Reflections relating to Medical Springs ; by Dr. J. Beale 423 

On the Motion of Sap in Trees ; by Francis Willoughby, Esq ibid 

Cassini's Method of finding tlie Apogees, &c. of the Planets; by Mr. Mercator 424 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Redi, Generatione degl'Insetti; 2. Zwelfer, Pharmacopoeia Regia; 

3. Dr. Willis, Affectionum Hysteric. &c 429 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Francis Redi ibid 

A Way for the Prolongation of Human Life, bcc. ; by M. de Martel 433 

Magnetical Variations at Rome; by M. Auzout 434 

Anatomical Observations, and Two Odd Births; by S. J. Grandi 435 

The Mines, Minerals, Baths, &c. of Hungary, Src, by Dr. Edward Brown 436" 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Edward Brown ibid 

On tlie Bleeding of Walnuts ; by Dr. Ezerel Tonge 441 

On the Sycamore, Poplar, Walnut, Oak, and Stellar Fish ; by Fr. Willoughby, Esq ibid 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Elsholtii Clysmatica Nova; 2. N. Hobokeni Anatomia Secundinae 

Humanae; 3. J. L. Gansii Coralliorum Historia 440 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Nicolas Hoboken ibid 

On tlie Choroides as the Principal Organ of Sight ; by M. Mariotte 443 

The Copper Mine at Herrngroundt in Hungary ; by Dr. Edw. Brown 4.5O 

The Baths of Austria and Hungary; also Stone Quarries, Talc Rocks, &:c. by the same ibid 

Account of Books; viz. 1. de Beaufort, Cosmopoeia Divina; 2. J. Amerpoel, Cartesius Mosai- 

zans 4o6' 

New Spanish Drill Plough ; by John Evelyn, Esq 457 

On Halos, Parhelias, &c. ; by M. Huygens ibid 

On Mineral Waters ; by Dr. R Wittie 463 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Divine History of the World; 2. Travagini GyriTerrae Diurni Indi- 
cium; 3. M. Seneschallo Quaestio Triplex de Anno, Mense et Die, &c.; 4. H. Grube, 

Comment, de Modo Simpl. Medic. &c. ; 5. D. Major de Lacte Lunae, &c ibid 

On Teaching Deaf and Dumb Persons; by Dr. John Wallis 464 

On the Sal-gem Mines in Poland 469 

The Way of Making Vinegar in France 470 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Dr. Wallis, Mechanica; 2. A. Marchetti Exercitationes Mechanicae; 

3. Wm. Clarke's Natural History of Nitre 471 

Pneumatical Experiments on Respiration ; by Mr. Boyle 473 

Account of Books; yiz. 1. R. Sheringhara De Anglorum Origine; 2. Dr. Wm. Sympson's 

Vindication of Hydrologia Chymica; 3. M. Des Tourneillis Vindicat. of Descartes' System 489 

Contmuation of Mr. Boyle's Experiments on Respiration 490 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Boyle's Tracts about Cosmical Qualities; 2. Ray's Catal. Plant. 

Angl ; 512 



CONTENTS. ix 

Page 

Biographical Notice of Mr. John Ray 513 

The Variation of the Magnetic Needle, &c.} by M. Hevelius 514 

On Dr. Wallis's Hypothesis of the Tides; by Mr. Jos. Childrey 5i6 

Dr. Wallis's Answer to the same 520 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Fr. Bayle, Dissertationes Medicae Tres; 2. Swammerdami Historia 
Gener. Insectorum; 3. Mr. Hobbes's Creed, by M. Tenison; 4. F. J. Burrhi Epistolae duae 

ad T. Bartholinum 523 

New Anatomical Discoveries from France 526 

Strange Effects of Thunder at Stralsund ibid 

On a New Star in the Swan, and on Saturn's Ring; by M. Hevelius 528 

On the same New Star, from Paris 530 

On Saturn's Ring; by M. Huygens and Mr. Hook ., jbid 

Some Anatomical Engagements, of Laur. Bellini 531 

A Monstrous Birth at Plymouth ; by Dr. Tim. Clark ibid 

Insects lodging in Old Willows; by Dr. Edmund King 532 

On the same ; by Francis Willoughby, Esq 533 

On Spiders projecting their Threads ; by Mr. John Ray 535 

Account of Books ; viz. 1 . Du Hamel de Corporum Affectionibus ; 2. De Nuland Elementa 
Physica; 3. Discourse on Local Motion; 4. Cavina Physico Astron. ; 5. Rosetti Demonstr. 

Fisico Matematica 536 

Biographical Notice of John Baptista du Hamel ibid 

Natu*^! Rock Salt in Cheshire; by Mr. Adam Martindale 53^ 

Insalubrity of the Country about Rome; by J. B. Donius ibid 

Progress of Artificial Conglaciation, at Florence 54O 

Eclipse of tlie Moon, and Conjunction of Venus and the Moon; by M. Hevelius 542 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Boyle, Origo Formarura et Qualitatum; 2. J.Webster's Metallogra- 

phia ; 3. Lettera di Fr. Redi 543 

Experiments on Iceland Crystal ; by Dr. Er. Bartholin 545 

On making Salt Water Sweet; by a French Gentleman 54^ 

On another Passage of the Urine ; by tlie same 55O 

On Quantities of Wood under Ground in Lincolnshire 5.51 

On the Stone Quarr>' near Maestricht 552 

Account of some Books; viz. 1. Boyle's Tracts on the Air; 2. Elementa Geometriae Planae, a 
JEg. Fr. de Gottignies; 3. Fabry, Synopsis Geometrica; 4. Fabry, Dialogi Physici; 5. Ant. 

Molinetti Dissertat. Anatomicae . jbid 

Mr. Ray on the Acid Juice found in Ants 554. 

Mr. Lister on the same Juice of Ants, and Bleeding of the Sycamore ^^^ 

Biographical Notice of Mr. Martin Lister jbid 

Mr. Ray on the Bleeding of the Sycamore, and on tlie Mulberry 558 

Dr. Tonge on the Running of Sap, and on Birch Water 559, 5(10, 551 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Miscellanea Curiosa, &c.; 2. Fabri, Physica in decern Tractatus 

distributa ' ibid 

Solution of a Chorographical Problem ; by Mr. John Collins 5^3 

Observations on the Mines of Cornwall and Devon 555 

Account of Books ; viz. 1. P. Fr. Lana, Prodrome di alcune Inventioni, &c.; 2. J. H. Meibomii 

de Cerevisiis, &c 574, 

Biographical Notice of Meibomius 5-5 

Motion of the Sap in Trees; by M. Lister, Esq , 575 

On the same Subject; by Fr. Willoughby, Esq 57^8 

Remarks on the same ; by Mr. Lister 579 

Swarm of Bees, Cyder, Sap, and Transplanting; by Rd. Reed, Esq 5gO 

Observations on Colours and Dyes ; by tlie same 5S2 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Th. Kerkringii Anthropogenise Ichnographia; 2. Le Grand Philoso- 

phia Veterum; 3. J. Rohault Traite de Physique; 4. Novae Hypotheseos de Puimon. motu 588 

On Sap, Apples, Pears, Bees, &c. by Dr. Beal 5Sp 

Observations on Upper Egypt, by F. Brothai ^gi 

Irregular Tides of the Euripus; by J. B. Babin 5^2 

VOL. I. b 



X CONTENTS 

Page 

Hurricanes in Northamptonshire ; by Mr. J. Templer 593 

Petrifactions in Human Bodies j by Mr. Cbr. Kirkby 594 

Account of Books} viz. 1. Fr. de le Boe Sylvii Praxis Medicae, &c. ; 2. G. L. Vanslebio Rela- 
' tione dello Stato dell'EgyptOj 3. T. Kerkringii Comment, in Currum Triumphalem Antimo- 

nii &c. ; 4. J. Ott de Natura Visionis ^gs 

Biographical Notice of Basil Valentine ^gS 

On Insect Husks of the Kermes kind3 by Mr. Lister 598 

An Incombustible Substance in some Mines in Italy 599 

Experiments on Icej by S. Car, Rinaldini ibid 

On a Viviparous Fly, and Spiders; by M. Lister 6OO 

An Insect feeding on Henbane; by the same 602 

Observations on Glow Worms; by M. J. Templer 603 

Account of Books; viz. 1. Boyle's Usefulness of Exper. Nat. Philos.; 2. Enchiridion Metaphy- 
sicum, per H. M. ; 3. Diophanti Arithmet. lib. sex ; 4. Hobbes, Rosetum Geometricum ; 

5. A Solid in a Solid ; by N. Steno ibid 

Biographical Notice of Diophantus 604 

The Insect from the English Kermes; by Mr, Lister 607 

The New Star near the Beak of Cygnus ; by Hevelius ibid 

Another Account of the same from France 6O8 

Dr. Wallis's Answer to Mr. Hobbes's Rosetum Geomet gH 

Account of Books; viz. 1. J. A. Borelli De Motionibus a Gravitate Dependentibus ; 2. Car. de 
la Font, Dissertationes de Veneno Pestilenti; 3. Lower, Tractatus de Corde, &c. 4. Fr. de le 
Boe Sylvii Oratio de Affect, Epidem.; 5. Leibnitz, Hypothesis Physica Nova; C. Edw. 

Pococke, Philosophus Autodidactus ibid 

Biographical Notice of G. Wm. Leibnitz 6l3 

of Wm. Edward Pococke 6l4 

Intimation of certain Philosophical Particulars 6l5 

On Spontaneous Generation, and Insects smelling of Musk; by Mr, Ray 617 

Bees lodged in Old Willows; by F. Willoughby, Esq 6I8 

Further Account of the Stellar Fish, &c ibid 

Opinion on tlie Hypothesis Physica Nova of Leibnitz; by Dr. Wallis ibid 

Account of Books; viz, 1. Theo. Gale on the Original of Human Literature; 2. J. J. Becheri 
Exper. Chymicum no\'um; 3. J. Mic. Fehr De Absynthio Analecta; 4, Mat, Tillingius De 

Laudano Opiato 619 

Biographical Notice of John Joachim Becher 620 

Compression of Air under Water 622 

Answer to Mr. Hobbes's Four Papers; by Dr, Wallis 623 

Spots in the Sun, observed at Paris 631 

Vegetable Excrescences ; by Mr. Lister 633 

Account of Books; viz 1. and 2, Dr, Barrow, Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae; 3. On the Mo- 
gul Empire, by M. Bernier; 4. J. A, Borelli Hist, Incendii ^tnaei ibid 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Isaac Barrow ibid 

On the Frankfort Edit, of the Philos. Trans 639 

On a Lunar Eclipse, Sept. 8, I671 ibid 

Dissection of a Porpoise; by Mr, Ray ibid 

Biographical Notice of Gulielmus Rondeletius 640 

On the kind of Wasps called Vespae Ichneumones ; by F. Willoughby, Esq 644 

On Musk-scented Insects and Petrified Shells; by Mr. Martin Lister 645 

On Vegetable Excrescences and Ichneumon Worms ; by the same 646 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Wallisli Tractatus de Motu; 2. Dan. Ludovici de Pharmacia Mo- 

derna, &c. ; 3. Sylvaticilnstitutio Medica, &c. ; 4. Pauli Quadripartitum Botanicum 647 

On Spots in the Sun ; by Mr. Hook 648 

Observations of a Solar Eclipse ; by the same ; ibid 

Lunfe ad Fixas Appulsus; a J. Flauistedio 649 

Vegetable Excrescences, Wasps, Tarantulas, &c. ; by Mr. Lister ibid 

Account of Books, viz, 1. Naval Architecture, by N. Witson; 2. Bourdelot, Rech. sur les 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Viperes; 3. Fr. Lachmund, Admirandorum Fossilium Descrip. 4. Lower de Catarrhis ; 5. G. 

VoigtiiDeliciae Physicae 651 

Biographical Notice of M. Bourdelot 654 

Solar Spots observed at Paris 656 

Saturn observed at Paris G^J 

Some Celestial Phaenomena ; by Hevelius ibid 

Solar Spots and a Lunar Eclipse ; by Dr. Fogel 659 

Appearances of Saturn ; by Mr. Flainsteed 660 

On Glow- worms ; by Mr. J. Templer ibid 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Grew's Anatomy of Vegetables} 2. M. Petit, la Nature du Froid 

et du Chaud; 3. La Dioptrique Oculaire, par le Pere Cherubin ibid 

Biographical Notice of Dr. Nehemiah Grew ibid 

_ Fatlier Cherubin 066 

Of Veins in Plants; by Mr. Martin Lister 668 

On the Speaking Trumpet; by Sir Samuel Moreland 670 

Biographical Notice of Sir Samuel Moreland ibid 

On a Mineral Balsam ; by Sig. M. A. Custagna 672 

The Lyon's Burning Concave, and an odd Salt; by F. Franc. Lana ibid 

The Pleiades observed in l671 ; by Mr. John Flamsteed 673 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Pardies Elem. de Geometries 2. R. de Graaf de Succo Pancreaticoj 

3. Grimaldi de Lumine, Coloribus et Iride, Sec; 4. Meibomius de fabrica Triremium .... 674! 

Biographical Notice of Father Grimaldi 675 

New Theory of Light and Colours; by Mr. Isaac Newton , 678 

Biographical Notice of Sir L Newton ibid 

Account of Books, viz. 1. History of the East Indies, byBaldaeus; 2. Ant. le Grand, Institutio 

Philosophiae ; 3. Salmon's Advancement of Music 688 

A New Catadioptrical Telescope ; by Mr. I. Newton 69I 

Remarks on the same ; by M. Huygens 6^4 

Mr. Newton 695 

Epitome Binae Metliodi Tangentium D. Wallisii ibid 

On a New Comet; by M. Hevelius . 696 

On Eggs found in all sorts of Females 697 

Account of Books, viz. L Morison, Plantaixun Umbell. Distributio nova ; 2. Hodges, Pestis 

Narratio Historica; 3. Dr. Sherley's Essay on Stones; 4. Dr. Clermont, de Acre, Solo, &c. 702 

On the New Telescope, with Apertures and Charges; by Newton 703 

Answers to Objections to his Telescope; by the same , 705 

Observationes Jovis ad duas Fixas; a J. Flamsteed 706 

Spot and Rotation of Jupiter ; by S. Cassini ibid 

On a New Comet; by the same 708 

Account of Books, viz. 1. De Resistentia Solidorum iUex. Marchetti; 2. Tabula Numerorum 

Quadratorum; 3. Graaf de Mulierum Organis Generat. &c, 4. Pardies de la Connoissance 

des Bestes 710 

Considerations on M. de Berce's Remarks on the New Telescope; by Newton 7n 

Experiments proposed by Mr. Newton, relative to his Theory of Light and Colours 714 

Of a Stone cut from under a Man's Tongue; by Mr. Lister 716 

Concerning animated Horse-hairs; by the same 717 

On Persons pretending to be stung by a Tarantula; by Dr. T. Cornelio 719 

On the Aponensian Baths ; by John Dodington, Esq 720 

On the Formation of Cr}^stals; by Father Lana ibid 

A Lake yielding a poisonous Substance, and on Amber; by Mr. Kirkby 721 

Account of Books, viz. 1. Dr. Willis, de Anima Brutorum; 2. Charas, Experiences sur la 

Vipere; 3. Dr. Barbette's Chirurgical and Anatomical Works; 4. Wm. Hughes's American 

Physician 722 

On tlie Languedoc Canal ; by M. de Froidour 723 

Objections against Newton's Theory of Light and Colours j by F. Pardies 726 

Mr. Newton's Answer to the same 730 

Calculi in a Dog and a Horse 732 

b2 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Account of Books, viz. 1. Boyle on Gems; 2. Swammerdam, Uteri Muliebris Fabrica; 3. Cas- 

sini on Refractions and the Sun's Motion; 4. Dr. Sharrock on Vegetables 733 

Quaeries proposed on his Theory of Light and Colours ; by Newton , . . . . 734 

On a Communication with the Ductus Thoracicus ; by Dr. Needham 736 

A second Letter on Newton's Theory, &c.; by F. Pardies 738 

Answer to the same; by Newton 740 

Account of Books, viz;, 1. Dr. Tonstal on Scarborough Spa; 2. New England's Rarities, by 
J. Josselin; 3. Edw. Bolnest on preparing Animals^ 8cc. ; 4. Miscellanea Curiosa Phy- 

sica, &c 743 



THE CONTENTS CLASSED UNDER GENERAL HEADS. 



Natural Philosophy — Acoustics, Astronomy, Hydraulics, Hydrostatics, Hydrology, 
Magnetics, Meteorology, Optics, Pneumatics. 



CPage 
AMPANrS Improvement of Optic 

Glasses 2 

A Spot in Jupiter ; by Mr. Hook 3 

Motion of a Comet ; by M. Auzout 3 

Exper. History of Cold; by Mr. Boyle 4 

Pendulum Watches for the Longitude; by 

M. Holms 6 

Two Comets ; by J. D. Cassini 8 

On Cassini's Account of Comets; by Auzout 9 

On the Second Comet; by Auzout 14 

The Languadoc Canal ; by M. Petit 15 

Tides in the West of Scotland; by Sir R. 

Moray 20 

Apertures, &c. of Telescopes ; by Auzout, . 22 

Auzout on Hook's Grinding Optic Glasses. . 23 
Illuminating and Burning by the Sun ; by 

Auzout ibid 

On Campani's Optic Glasses ; by Auzout. . 24 

Campani's Answer, and Auzout' s Reply. . 26 

Account of Villette's Burning Glass 34 

Optic Glasses and Telescopes ; by Hevelius, 

&c 36 

Grinding Parabolic Glasses ; by De Suns. . 41 

Changes in the Earth and Moon; by Auzout 43 

Trials of Campani's Optic Glasses 45 

Shadow of Jupiter's Satellites 51 

Jupiter's Rotation on his Axis 52 

Italian Academy, and Uleg Beig's Stars. . . . ibid 
Hevelius's and Auzout's Observations on 

Comets 53 

Distance of the Sun and Moon from the 

Earth ibid 

An Observation of Saturn 54 

Barometers, and their Observations ; by Dr. 

Real ibid 

Barometrical Observations; by Dr. Wallis 60 

Rotation of Jupiter; by Hook and Cassini. . ibid 

Barometer Observations, &c.; by Mr. Boyle 62 

Observations on Mars; by Mr. Hook.... 65 

Refracting Rays of Light 3 by the same. ... 66 



Page 
Jupiter's Spots ; and Optic Glasses of Cam- 

pani and Divini (Jg 

The Wheel Barometer; by Mr. Hook. ... 72 
Mock Suns and Rainbows, observ. in France ibid 

Thunder at Oxford; by Dr. Wallis 74 

Descent of Bodies in Water 76 

Statical Baroscope ; by Mr. Boyle 77 

Rotation of Mars ; by Mr. Hook 80 

by M. Cassini 81 

Phases of Jupiter ; by Mr. Hook. . '. 83 

Observation of Saturn ; by the same 84 

Effects of Thunder, &c. ; by Thomas Neale, 

Esq ibid 

Artificial Cold without Snow, &c.; by 

Mr. Boyle 86 

On the Tides ; by Dr. Wallis 89 

Appendix to the same loi 

Solar Eclipse, June 22, 1666 11 1 

Inquiries about Tides ; by Dr. Wallis 112 

by Sir R. Moray. ... 113 

Tables for obser\"ing Tides ; by the same. . lis 

Inquiries about the Sea ibid 

Optic Glasses of Rock Crj'stal; by Divini 134 

Calculat. of a Solar Eclipse; by Plevelius. . 137 

New Star in Cygnus; by the same ibid 

To measure the Planets Diam. ; by Auzout 138 

To observ^e Lunar Eclipses ; by Mr. Rooke 145 

Halos about the Moon; by Earl Sandwich 146 

Loadstone in. Devonshire; by Dr. Cotton.. 149 
Loadstones and Sea Compasses; by Mr. 

Oldenburg ibid 

Effects of the Air-pump on Plants, &c, ; by 

Dr. Beale 150 

On Gascoigne's Micrometer ; by Mr. Townley 161 
Nebulosa in Andromeda, and Star in Collo 

Ceti ; by Bulliald 1^2 

Magnetical Experiments ; by Mr. Sellers. . 166 

Large Hailstones ; by Dr. Fairfax i6"8 

Magnetic Experiments; by Mr. Colepress. . 177 

Magnetic Variations j by Mr, Petit 137 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Descr. Gascoigne's Micrometer; by Hook 195 
Tides, Wells, Whale-fishing, &c.j by Mr. 

Norwood 206 

Spots seen in Venus ; by Cassini 217 

Grinding Optic Glasses; by Mr. Smethwick 22() 
Tides at Plymoutli ; by Mr. Colepress. . . . ibid 

Variety in Tides .; by Dr. Wallis 238 

Tides at London ; by Mr. Phillips 239 

Marriotte on Vision ; by Mr. Justcl 243 

Answer to ditto ; by M. Pecquet 245 

Comet in March 1668 250 

Controversy between Angells and Riccioli 254 
Magnetic Variations and Tides; by Capt. 

Sturmy 265 

Easy Help for Decayed Sight 266 

Gregory's Answer to Huygens 268 

Picture on a Wall in a Room ; by Hook. . 269 

Note to the Help for Decayed Sight 275 

Magnetic Variations; by H. Bond 282 

Polishing Telescopic Glasses 284 

Tides near Bristol; by Capt. Sturmy 29O 

Working Spherical Glasses ; by Manecini. . 298 

New Microscope ; by Divini 301 

Boyle's Physico-Mechanical Experiments. . 303 
Saturn observed; by Huygens and Picard. . 326 
Huygens's Pendulum Watches for the 

Longitude 343 

Two Parhelia seen by Dr. Edward Brown, . 349 
Grinding Optic Glasses; by Dr. Wren. . . , 353 
Villette's Metalline Burning Concave. . . . 367 
Weight of Water in Water ; by Mr. Boyle 374 
On Voyages to the East Indies ; by Mr. 

Smithson 375 

Wren's Engine for Grinding Glasses 396 

Celestial Phaenomena; by Mr. Flamsteed. . 414 
Baroscope and Thermoscope ; by Dr. Beal 415 

. by Dr. Wallis 4l6 

Languedoc Canal ; by M. Riquet 418 

Cassini's Method for Apogees, &c. ; by 

Mercator 424 

Magnetic Variations at Rome; by Auzout 434 
Principal Organ of Sight ; by Mariotte. . . . 443 

Halos, Parhelias, &c. ; by Huygens 457 

Experiments of Respiration ; by Boyle. . . . 473 

Continuation of Ditto 49O 

Magnetic Variations ; by Hevelius 514 

On Wallis's Tides; by Mr. Childrey 5l6 

Dr. Wallis's Answer to ditto 520 

Effects of Thunder at Stralsund 526 

New Star and Saturn's Ring ; by Hevelius 528 

On the same New Star, from Paris 530 

On Saturn's Ring ; by Huygens and Hook ibid 
Artificial Conglaciation at Florence 540 



Page 

Lunar Eel. and Conjunct, of ? and J ; by 

Hevelius 542 

On Spots in the Sun ; by Mr. Hook 548 

On a Solar Eclipse ; by the same ibid 

On Colours and Dyes; by Mr. Lister 582 

Irregular Tides of the Euripus; byj. P. Babin 592 
New Star near the Beak of Cygnus; by 

Hevelius 60/ 

Account of the same from France 6O8 

Intimation of some Philosophical particulars 6IS 
On the Hypothesis Physica nova of Leibnitz; 

by Dr. Wallis 6I8 

Compression of the Air under Water 622 

Spots in the Sun observed at Paris 631 

On a Lunar Eclipse, Sept. 8, I671 63Cf 

Lunae ad fixas Appulsus ; a J. Flamstedio. . 649 

Solar Spots observed at Paris 656 

Saturn observed at Paris 657 

Solar Spots and a Lunar Eclipse; by Dr. 

Fogel 659 

Appearances of Saturn ; by Mr. Flamsteed 66O 
On the Speaking Trumpet ; by Sir S. More- 
land 670 

On the Lyon's Burning Concave, and an odd 

Salt 672 

The Pleiades observed in 1671 ; by Mr. J. 

Flamsteed 673 

New Theory of Light and Colours ; by Mr. 

Isaac Newton 678 

New Catadioptrical Telescope ; by Mr. J. 

Newton 691 

Remarks on the same ; by M. Huygens . . 694 

by Mr. Newton 695 

A New Comet; by Mr, Hevelius 696 

On the New Telescope, with Apertures and 

Charges ; by Mr. Newton 703 

Answer to Objections to his Telescope ; by 

Mr. Newton 705 

Observationes Jovis ad duas fixas, by J. 

Flamsteed 706 

Spot and Rotation of Jupiter; by S. Cassini 708 
Considerations on Berce's Remarks on the 

New Telescope; by Mr. Newton 711 

Experiments proposed by Mr. Newton, on 

his Theory of Light and Colours 714 

Objections against Mr. Newton's Theory of 

tlie same ; by Mr. F. Pardies 726 

Mr. Newton's Answer to the same 730 

Queries on his Theory of Light and Colours ; 

by Mr. Newton 734 

A Second Letter on tlie same; by M. 

Pardies 738 

Answer to the same ; by New^ton 740 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



Miscellanies — Agriculture, Antiquities, Architecture, Grammar, History, Music, 
Painting, Perspective, Sculpture, Travels, Voyages, 



Page 
Blowing of Fire by Fall of Water j by Dr. 
Pope 12 

Inquiries in Agriculture 32 

Maps in Bas-Relief and Wax 37 

To Colour Marble by a Liquor j by Kircher 44' 

China Wares made in Europe ibid 

To preserve Ice and Snow by Chaff j by 

Mr. Ball 50 

Directions for Seamen; by Mr. Rooke, . . . ibid 

Appendix to Ditto ; by Mr. Hook 5S 

Inquiries for Turkey ; by tlie same 132 

To prepare tlie Bononian Stone 138 

Uncommon Accident in two Persons 3 by 

Mr. Colepress 141 

Directions for Seamen explained 153 

To recover Cherries, nearly withered; by 

Dr. Merret I60 

Several kinds of Granaries 16'4 

Inquiries for Hungary^ Egypt, &c ibid 

A Well and Earth taking Fire ; by T. Shirley, 

Esq \69 



Page 

On a Voyage to the Caribbee Islands 173 

A Sand-flood at Dowiiham; by T. Wright, 

Esq 2(34 

Counterfeiting Opal, and making Red Glass ; 

by Mr. Colepress 270 

On the Abuses of Apothecaries 2.98 

Dr. Chr. Wren's Perspective Instrument. . 325 
Improving Painting and Sculpture at Paris. . 340 
Varieties and Expences of Slate; by Mr. 

Colepress 376 

Making of Sea Salt by the Sun 382 

Prolongation of Life; by M. de Martel. . . . 433 
New Spanish Drill Plow; by J. Evelyn, 

Esq 457 

Teaching Deaf and Dumb Persons; by Dr. 

Wallis 464 

Making of Vinegar in France 470 

To make Salt Water sweet 549 

On the Languedoc Canal; by M. de 

Froidour 723 



Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry, &c. 



Of a Monstrous Calf; by Mr. Boyle .... 5 

Killing of Rattle Snakes ; by Cap. Taylor . . 16 

On a Monstrous Head ; by Mr. Boyle .... 29 

On Earl Belcarras's Body 30 

A White Fluid in Veins : by Mr. Boyle 37 

Further Account by the same 41 

Infusing Liquors into the Blood; by Mr. 

Oldenburg 45 

Effects of Touch ; by the same 67 

On Parenchymatous Parts; by Dr. King . . II9 

On the Transfusion of Blood; by Mr. Boyle 128 

Trials proposed for ditto ; by the same .... 143 

An Easier Way for ditto; by Dr. King .... 158 

Anodier Experim. for ditto; by Dr. Coxe . . 159 

A Letter on ditto; from M. Denis ibid 

Thoracic Duct and Emulgent Veins; by M. 

Pecquet 1^3 

Effects of Transfusing Blood, at Paris .... l67 

Two Monstrous Births at ditto ibid 

in Devonshire; by Mr. Colepress ibid 

A Number of Stones in a Bladder ; by Dr. 

Fairfax 168 

Invention of Transfusing Blood; by Mr. Ol- 
denburg 170 

Injection of Liquors in the Veins ; by S. Fra- 

cassati ibid 

On the Brain and the Tongue; by S. Mal- 

pighi 171 



Exper. on Blood grown cold; by S. Fracas- 

sati 172 

More Trials of Infiising Blood 3 by Mr. Ol- 
denburg ' 1 83 

Blowing into Animals* Lungs ; by Mr. Hook 194 
A Dog breathing like a wind- broken Horse; 

by Dr. Lower 197 

Anatomical Observations ; by Dr. Fairfax . . 199 

by tlie same .... 200 

Injecting Liquors into the Blood; by Boyle 201 
The Epiploon on the Entrails; by Malpighi 202 
Exper.> on Transfusion ; by Dr. King .... 203 

Ditto in France; by Mr. Oldenburg 204 

Injecting Liquors into Veins; by Dr. Fabri- 

tius 205 

Blemish in a Horse's Eye; by Dr. Lower . 216" 
Phrensy cured by Transfusion ; by Mr. Denis 218 
Of an Hermaphradite ; by Dr. Allen .... 223 
Anatomical and Medical Subjects; by Mr. 

Behm .... 237 

Observations on Deafness; by Dr. Holder . . 242 
Anatomical Discoveries; by Dr. Ciarck . . 246 

Differences in Transfusion 258 

Antiquity of Transfusing Blood 267 

Organs of Generation ; by De Graaf 27 1 

Transfusing Medicines at Dantzick 275 

True Use of the Lymphatics;, by De Bills . . 283 
A Bullet voided by Urine; by Dr. Fairfax 286 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Exper. of Transfusion at Bologna ,'300 

Testis Examinatus ; by V D. Bonglaras , . 302 
Dr. Harvey's Account of Thomas Parr .... 319 

Harvey's Discoverj'of the Circulation ibid 

Tractatus de Corde; by Dr. Lower 327 

Case of a Double Matrix 358 

L'Anatomie du Cerveauj by M. Steno 387 

Organs of Generation j by Dr. King and De 

Graaf . . . '. 3^0 

Large Swelling of a Woman's Breasts ; by 

Dr. Durston 393 

Death of tlie same "Woman; by the same 402 

Transactions on Transfusion at Paris 404 

On the Large-breasted Woman 3 by Dr. 

Durston 405 



Anatomical Observations, and Odd Births j 

by Grandi 435 

Anatomical Discoveries from France 526 

Anatomical Engagements of L. Bellini .... 531 

A Monstrous Birth ; by Dr. Clarck ibid 

On Another Passage for tlie Urine 550 

Mr Ray on the Acid Juice found in Ants . . 554 
Mr, Lister on the same, and on the Bleeding 

of Sycamore 556 

Dissection of a Porpoise; by Mr. Ray .... 639 

On Eggs found in all sorts of Females 69T 

Of a Stone cut from under a Man's Tongue; 

Mr. Lister 716 

Calculi in a Dog and a Horse 732 

On the Ductus Thoracicus ; by Dr. Needliam 736 



Natural History — Mineralogy , Botany, Zoology, &c. 



A Peculiar Lead Ore in Germany 

A Hungarian Bolus 

American Whale Fishing 

Mercuiy Mines in Friuli; by Dr. Pope 

Ordering of Silk Worms; by Mr. Digges . . 

On May-dew ; by Mr. Tho. Henshaw .... 

Subterraneous Damps; by Sir R. Moray . . 

Mineral of Liege, with Brimstone, &c. by 
the same 

Mines at Liege; by the same 

Of Breaking Rocks ; by the same 

Silk Worms and Silk in France 

Petrified Wood, witliout Water 

A Stone in the Head of a Serpent ; by P. 
Vernati 

Making Salt Petre in Mongolia 

Curious Springs in Westphalia 

Whale-fishmg Continued 

Remarkable Springs at Paderborn 

, . at Basil 

Salt Springs in Germany 

Strange Insects in New England 

Breeding of Snakes and Vipers 

Odd Constitutions of Bodies; by Mr. Olden- 
burg .._ 

,On Vipers ; by Sig. Redi 

Earthquake; by Dr. Wallis and Mr. Boyle 

Nat. Hist, of a Country ; by Mr. Boyle 

Preserving of Birds ; by the same 

Mulberry Trees in Virginia 

Shining Worms in Oysters ; by M. Auzout 

Of Shining Fish ; by Dr. Beale 

On Petrifactions ; by the same 

Worms tliateat Stone, &c. ; by M. De la Voye 

Remarks on Somersetshire ; by Dr. Beale . . 

A Petrifaction ; by Mr. Packer 

Concerning Mines ; by Mr. Boyle 

Answers to Queries; by Hevelius 



Page Page 

6 Answers to Queries, by J. SchefFer 127 

ibid On Sanative Waters; by Dr. Beale 131 

ibid Vitriolate Water, &c.; by the same 132 

10 Grain of Kermes; by M. Verny 134 

12 A Swedish Stone yielding Sulphur, &c. . . 139 

13 Shower of Ashes; by Cap. Badily 140 

16 On Salamanders; by M. Steno ibid 

Toads and Spiders innox ious ; by Dr. Fairfax 146 

17 Observations on Ants ; by Dr. King 150 

27 Closing the Bark of Trees; by Dr. Merret 16O 

28 The American Aloe; by the same 16I 

30 Observations on Mines and at Sea 168 

38 Quicksilver at the Roots of Plants, &c. ; by 

Sig. Septali 173 

38 Mendip Lead Mines; by M. Glanvil 186 

ibid Shining Wood and Fish; by Mr. Boyle .... 211 

45 Burning Coal and Shining Wood ; by ditto 215 

46 Enquiries for the Antilles 227 

ibid Queries on Vegetables and Animals 230 

47 On the Mendip Mines; by Mr. Glanvil . . 276 

48 Osteocolla, &c. near Frankfort; by J. C. 

49 Beckman 278 

ibid On the Virtues of Antimony 279 

Tides, Whales, &c. of Bermudas, by Mr. 
ibid Stafford 283 

58 Concerning Cochineal 284 

59 Queries on Vegetation ibid 

( 3 On the Mexican Minerals 292 

66 Observations on Jamaica; by Mr. Norwood 295 
ibid On the running ofSap; by Drs.Beale and Tonge 304 

67 On the East Indies; by Sir Ph. Vernatti . . 307 
75 Observations on Vegetables; by Dr. Tonge 317 

119 Additional ditto; by the same 332 

120 Connectionof Trees and Fruit; by Dr. Beale 334 

121 On the Motion of Sap; by Messrs. Wil- 

122 loughby and Ray 354 

123 Damps of the Hungarian Mines 356 

126 Eruptions of Mount iEtna 357 



CONTENTS. 



XVII 



Page 

On the Batli Springs ; by Mr. Glanvill 361 

The icy and Cr)'stalline Mountains of Hel- 
vetia j by M. Muralt 365 

Observations concerning Japan ibid 

On Shell Snails and Darting of Spiders 377 

On the Eruptions of Mount ^tna 383 

Minerals emitted by Mount ^Etna 389 

Salt Springs, &c, at Nantwichj by Dr. 

Jackson 397 

Appendix to ditto ; by the same 40.5 

Quicksilver Mines in Friuli; by Dr. Brown 407 
Zirchnitzer Sea, in Camiola; by the same 409 
Scarborough Spa and other Springs ; by Dr. 

Highmore 419 

The Causes of Mineral Springs j by Dr. 

Beale 420 

On Vaults, Wfells, &c. producing Salt, &c. 

by the same ibid 

Curiosities about Connecticut j by J. Win- 

throp, Esq. 421 

On Medical Springs ; by Dr. Beale 423 

The Motion of Sap 5 by Fr, Willoughby, Esq. ibid 
The Mines, Minerals, Baths, &c. of Hun- 
gary ; by Dr. Brown 436 

The Bleeding of Walnuts ; byDr. Tonge.. 441 
The Sycamore, Poplar, Walnut, Oak, and 

Stellar Fish; by Fr. Willoughby, Esq. .. ibid 
Copper Mine at Herrngroundt ; by Dr. 

Brown 450 

Baths, Stone Quarries, Talc Rocks, &c. 3 by 

the same ibid 

On Mineral Waters ; by Dr. Wittie 463 

On the Sal-gem Mines in Poland 469 

Insects in Old Willows ; by Dr. King 532 

■ by Fr. Willoughby, Esq. 533 

Spiders projecting their Threads; by Mr. 

Ray 537 

Rock Salt in Cheshire; by Mr. Martindale 539 
Insalubrity of the Country about Rome ; by 

J. B. Donius ibid 

On Iceland Crystal; by Dr. Bartholin .... 545 
Wood under Ground in Lincolnshire .... 551 

The Stone Quarry near Maestricht 552 

Mr. Ray on the Bleeding of the Sycamore, 558 
Dr. Tonge, on the Running of Sap, &c. 559-60 



Pag* 

Observations on the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon 565 

Motion of the Sap in Trees; by Mr. Lister 57G 

On the same; by Mr. Willoughby .578 

Remarks on the same ; by Mr. Lister .... 579 
Swarm of Bees, Cyder, Sap, and Transplant- 
ing ; by Rd. Reed, Esq 580 

On Sap, Apples, Pears, Bees, &c. ; by Dr. 

Beale 589 

Obser\'ations on Upper Egypt ; by F. Brothai 59 1 

Hurricane in Northamptonshire 593 

Petrifactions in Human Bfxlies 594 

On Insect Husks of the Kermes kind ; by 

Mr. Lister .598 

An incombustible Substance m some Mines 

in Italy 599 

On a Viviparous Fly and Spider; by Mr. 

Lister goO 

An Insect feeding on Henbane; by the same 602 
On Glow-worms; by Mr. I. Templer .... 603 
The Insect from the English Kermes 5 by 

Mr- Lister 607 

Spontaneous Generation, and Insects Smel- 
ling of Musk; by Mr. Ray 617 

Bees in Old Willows; by Mr. Willoughby 6I8 
Vegetable Excrescences ; by Mr. Lister .... 633 
The Wasps called Vespae Ichneumones ; by 

Fr. Willoughby, Esq 644 

Musk-scented Insects and Petrified Shells; 

by Mr. Lister 645 

Vegetable Excrescences and Ichrteumon 

Worms ; by the same 646 

Wasps, Tarantulas, &c. by the same .... 649 
On Glow-worms; by Mr. I. Templer .... 66O 

Of Veins in Plants; by Mr. Lister 66S 

On a Mineral Balsam ; by Castagna 672 

On Animated Horse-hairs; by Mr. Lister . . 7 17 
On Persons Stung by a Tarantula; by Dr. 

Cornelio Jig 

Formation of Ciystals; by Father Lana . . 720 
On the Aponensian Baths; by John Doding- 

ton. Esq ibid 

On a Lake yielding a Poisonous Substance, 
and on Amber; by Mr. Kirkby 721 



Chronology, Geography, Mathematics, Mechanics, Navigation, &c. 



To measure Distances at one Station; by 

Auzout 43 

Problems in Navigation; by N. Mercator 69 
Animadversions on Mr. Hobbes; by Dr. 

Wallis 107 

The Year of the Julian Period ; by De Billy 121 

Exper. in Gunnery ; by Sir R. Moray .... l65 

On the Julian Period j by Mr. Collins .... 207 

VOL. I. c 



Squaring the Hyperbola; by Lord Brouncker 233 
General Laws of Motion; byDr. Wallis . . 307 

— by Dr. Wren . . 310 

by Mr. Huygens 335 

Resolution of Numeral Equations ; by Mr. 

Collins 338 

Dr. Wallis against Mr. Hobbes's Quadrature 

of the Circle 417 



XVUl 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Solution of a Chorographical Problem j by 

Mr. John Collins 563 

Dr. Wallis's Answer to Mr. Hobbes's Rose- 

tum Geomet 6ll 



Page 
Answer to Mr. Hobbes by Dr. Wall is .... 623 
Wallisii Epitome binse Methodi Tangen- 
tium 695 



Books, of which an Account is given in this Volume. 



Anderson's Stereometrical Problems 

Anderson's Gauging Promoted 

Amerpoel, Cartesius Mosaizans 

Boyle's Exper. History of Cold 

Origin of Forms and Qualities . . . . 

Bourges, Relation du Voyage, &"€ 

Bellini Gustus Organum 

Eullialdi ad Astronomos Monita 

Blasii Anatorae Mednllae Spinalis 

Boyle on Subordinate Forms 

Branker's Algebra 

Borrichii De Ortu et Progressu Chemiae . . 
Boyle, Physico-Mechanical Experiments . . 

Brahe, Historia Ccelestis 

Beverege, Institutio Chronologica 

Bartholin, De Cygni Anatome 

■ De Cometis 

Boyle, Philosophical Essays 

Boyle, Systeme de la Philosophie 

Beaufort, CosmopcRia Divina 

Bayle, Cosmical Qualities 

Bayle, Dissertations Medicse 

Burrh, Epistolse ad Bartholinum 

Boyle, Tracts on Air 

Usefulness of Experim. Philos 

Borelli, De Motionibus a Grav. Dep 

Becher, Experim. Chymicum Novum .... 
Barrow, Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae . . 

Bernier, on the Mogul Empire 

Borelli, Hist. Incendii -^Etnaei 

Bourdelot, Recherches sur les Viperes .... 

Barbette's Chirurg. et Anat. Works 

Boyle on Gems 

Bolnest, on Preparing Animals, &c 

Chapuzeau, Histoire des Joyaux 

Cordemoy, Discours Phys. de la Parole, &c. 

Charas, Histoire Nat. des Animaux 

Experiences sur la Vipere ...... 

Clarke, Natural History of Nitre 

Cavina, Physico Astron 

Cherubin, La Dioptrique Oculaire 

Clarmont, De Acre, Solo, &c 

Charas, sur la Vipere 

Cassini's Sun's Motions and Refractions . . 

Descartes, Lettres de 

Epistolae 



Description Anatomique d'un Cameleon 

Dary, Treatise on Gauging 

Divine History of the World 



2 50 Du Hamel, De Corporum AfFectionibus . . 5S6 

351 Discourse on Local Motion ibid 

45(5 Diophantus, Arithmet. lib. sex 603 

17 Euclidis Elem. Geom. &c 89 

6'5 Evelyn, Translat. of Cambray on Painting 280 

122 Ethiopia, Historia de 359 

135 Evelyn, Sylva et Pomona 402 

141 Elshclti, Clysmatica Nova 442 

147 Fabri, Theologi Tractatus duo .......... 122 

1()0 Synopsis Optica 224 

251 Ferguson, Labyrinthus Algebrae 367 

280 Fourneillis, Vindicat. of Descartes' System 489 

303 Fabri, Physicain decem Tractatus 56'l 

312 Font (dela), Dissertat. de Veneno Pestilenti 61I 

351 Fehr, De Absynthio Analecta 619 

380 Guarini, Placita Philosophica 135 

402 Geometrie, Nouveau Elemens de 224 

ibid Gregory, Circuli et Hyperbolas Quadratura 232 

410 De Graaf, Epistola circa Partes Genitales . . 241 

456' Gregory, Geometriae Pars Universalis .... 251 

512 De Graaf, de Virorum Organis Generat. . . 271 

523 Grab, Cervi Descriptio 280 

ibid Gansius, Coralliorum Historia 442 

552 Le Grand, Philosophia Veterum 588 

603 Gale, Original of Human Literature 6'19 

611 Grew, Anatomy of Vegetables QQo 

619 Grimaldi, de Lumine, Coloribus et Iride . . 6"74 

633 De Graaf, de Succo Pancreatico 674 

623 Le Grand, Institutio Philosoph 688 

ibid De Graaf, deMulierum Organis Generat. . . 710 

6"51 Hook, Micrographia 13 

722 Hevelius, Prodromus Cometicus 39 

733 Hobbes, de Principiis et Rati. Geometr. . . 85 

643 Hevelius, Descriptio Cometae 115 

152 Van Home, Observat. circa Partes Genitales 241 

268 Hevelius, Cometographia 289 

395 Harvey, Account of Thomas Parr 319 

410 Highmore, de Hysterica, &c 410 

47 1 Hoboken, Anatomia Secundinae 44.2 

536 Hobbes, Rosetum Geometricum 603 

660 Histoiy of the East Lidies 688 

702 Hodges, Pestis Narratio Historica 702 

722 Hughes, American Physician 722 

7S Z Josselin, New England's Rarities 743 

147 Kircher, Mundus Subterraneus 40 

289 - China Illustrata I69 

367 Klobius, Historia Ambrae J90 

395 Kircher, Magna Sciendi 410 

463 Kerkring. Spicilegium Anatomicum ibid 



CONTENTS. 



xa. 



Page 
Kerkring. Anthropogeniae Ichnographla. . . . 588 
■ Comment, in Currum Triumph. 595 

Lubienitz, Theatrum Cometicum 251 

Lower, Tractatus de Corde 327 

Latin Tongue, way of Teaching it 359 

Labbe, Abrego Chronologique 380 

Leyser, Observationes Medicae ibid 

Local Motion, Discourse on 536 

Lips. Miscellanea Curiosa 56 1 

Lana, Prodromo di alcune Inventioni 574- 

Lower, Tractatus de Corde 6ll 

Leibnitz, Hypothesis Physica Nova ibid 

Ludovici, de Pharmacia moderna 6'47 

Lechmund, Admirandopora Fossil ium .... 6,51 

Lower, de Catarrhis ibid 

Merret, Pinax Rerum Natur. Brit 135 

Mercator's Logarithmotechnia 271 

Mayow, Tractatus duo, &c 295 

Maipighi, de Viscerum Structura 322 

Morison, Prseludia Botanica 34'1 

Maipighi, Dissert. Epistolica de Bombyce . . 367 
Mutoli, del Movemento della Cometa .... 402 

Major, de Lacte Lunse 463 

Marchetti, Exercitationes Mechanicae .... 47 • 

Meibomius, de Cerevisiis, &c 57-i 

H. M. Enchiridion Metaphysicum 603 

Meibomius, de Fabrica Triremium 674 

Morison, Plantarum Umbell. Distrib 702 

Marchetti, de Resistentia Solidorum 710 

Miscellanea Curioso Physica 743 

Nile, on tlie Inundation of 85 

Nuland, Elementa Physica 536 

Ott, de Natura Visionis 593 

Pardiesj le Discemement du Corps, &c. .. 115 

Poisson, Observ. sur un Grand 19O 

Pulmon. Usu Nova Hypothesis de 588 

Pococke, Philosophus Autodidactus 61I 

Paulus, Quadripartitum Botanicum 647 

Petit, la Nature du Froid et du Chaud 66O 

Pardies, Elemens de Geometric 674 

de la Connoissance des Bestes . . 710 

Rose, the English Vineyard 89 

Riccioli, Astronomia Reformata 147 

Ricci, Geometr. Exercitatio 268 

Redi, Generatione deg' Insetti 429 

Ray, Catalogus Plantamm Angliae 512 

Rosetti, Demonstr. Fisico Materaatica .... 536 

Redi, Lettera di 543 

Rohault, Traite de Physique 588 

Sydenliam^ Methodus Curandi Febres .... 69 



Page 

Sprat, History of the Royal Society 177 

Swammerdam, de Respiratione, &c 19O 

Steno, Musculi Descriptio Geometrica .... 224 

Saggi di Naturali Esi^erienze fatte, &c 232 

Sengwerd, de Tarantula 241 

Salnove, la Venerie Royale 268 

Sylvius, Praxeos Medicae Idea nova 289 

Sympson, on the Scarborough and other Spas 303 

Syderum Ephemerides Mediceorum 325 

Slusc, Mesolabium, &c 327 

Salmasius, Praefatio in lib. de Homon 343 

Sinclair, Ars Nova et Magna, &c 380 

Strauchius, Breviarium Chronologicura. . . . ibid 
Seneschalle, Questio triplex de Anno, &c. 463 

Sheringham, de Anglorum Origine 489 

Swammerdam, Historia Gener. Insect 523 

Sylvius, Praxis Medicae, &c 595 

Steno, a Solid in a Solid , 603 

Sylvius, Oratio de Aft'ect. Epidem 61I 

Sylvaticus, Institutio Medica, &c 647 

Salmon, Advancement of Music 68& 

Sherley, Essay on Stones 702 

Swammerdam, Uteri Mul. Fabrica 733 

Sharrock, on Vegetables ibid 

Thevenot, Voyages 85 

Tentamina Physico-Theologica 122 

Trumphius, Scrutinium Chymicum, &c. . . 289 

Tacquet, Opera Matliematica 314 

Tachenius, Hippocrates Chymicus 380 

Thruston, de Respiratione 420 

Travagine, Gyri Terrae Diurni Indie 463 

Tenison, on Mr. Hobbes's Creed 523 

Tilling, de Laudano Opiato 619 

Tabula Numeromm Quadratorum 710 

Tonstal, on Scarborough Spa 743 

Vossius, de Nili et Aliorura Fluminum . . 11 5 
Willis, Pathologia Cerebri et Nervosi, &c.. . 214 
Wilkins, real Character and Universal Lang. 251 

"VVebb, on the Language of China 359 

Wittie, on Sympson's Hydrol. Chymica . . 367 

Wallis, Mechanica 410 

Willis, AlFectionum Hysteric 429 

Wallis, Mechanica 471 

Webster, Metallogi'aphia 543 

Vanslabio, dello Stato dell' Egypto 595 

Wallis, Tractatus de Motu 647 

Witzen, Naval Architecture 651 

Voightius, Deliciae Physicae 651 

Willis, de Anima Brutorum 722 

Zwelfer, Pharmacopaeia Regia 429 



XX 



CONTENTS. 



Biographical Notices of tlie following Authors in this P'olume. 



Page 

Anderson.. ..... 281 

Aselli 247 

Auzout 3 

Barrow 633 

Bartholin, Eras... 403 

Bartholine, The. . 247 

Beal 415 

Becher 620 

Bellini 135 

Billy 121 

Bils 283 

Blase 148 

Bond 189 

Borelli 224 

Borrichius 279 

Bourdelot 654 

Boyle 4 

Brahe 312 

Brown 436 

Brouncker 233 

BuUiald 141 

Burrowes 1 89 

Campani 2 

Cassini 8 

Charas 395 

Cherubin 666 

Collins 207 

338 



Page 

Descartes 147 

Diophantus 604 

Divini 46 

Du Hamel 5^6 



Evelyn, 



280 



Fermat 8 

Flanisteed 414 

Gellibrand 189 

Gilbert 187 

Glisson 323 

Graaf 241 

Grand 

Gregory 232 

Grew 660 

Grimaldi 675 

Gunter 189 

Harvey 319 

Hevelius 36 

Highmore 271 

Hobbes 107 

Hoboken 442 

Holder 242 

Hook 3 

Home 241 

Huygens 326 



Page 

Kirkring 413 

Kircher 40 

Leibnitz 6l3 

Lister 556 

Lower 197 

Malpighi 171 

Marriotte 243 

Mercator 6Q 

Moreland 670 

Morison 341 

Needham 177 

Newton 678 

Norwood 206 

Oldenburg 1 



Pardies 726 

Pecquet - . . . 363 

Petit 15 

Picard 326 

Pococke 614 

Ray 513 

Redi 429 

Ricci 269 

Riccioli 148 



Page 

Riolan 249 

Rooke 50 

Rondelet 640 

Rudbeck 247 

Salmasius 343 

Sellers l67 

Sinclar 380 

Sluse 327 

Steno 225 

Swammerdam ... 190 

Sylvius 289 

Tacquet 314 

Valentine 596 

Vossius 116 

Wallis 59 

Whaley 468 

Wharton 322 

Wilkins 254 

Willis 214 

Willoughby 354 

Wren 310 



THE 

PHIL©SOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; 
ABRIDGED. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xjLFTER a short address to the Royal Society, Mr. Henry Oldenburg,* 
their second or under secretary, and the collector and publisher of these 
Transactions, adds a few lines, by way of introduction, stating the inten- 
tions, the motives, and the occasion for publishing them ; viz. that it was in- 
tended, for the advancement of science and the benefit of mankind, to make 
known to the world, , through this channel, the results of the labours, not only 
of those persons who were members of this Society, but also of other learned 
men, in this and other countries ; that by the communication of such discoveries 
others might be stimulated and encouraged to similar exertions, in promoting 
and extending the various branches of natural knowledge. Mr. Oldenburg 
then enters immediately on the memoirs or papers themselves ; which are pre- 
sented in the following order: 

* Mr. Oldenburg (who sometimes wrote his name Gmbendol, transposing the letters) was a 
native of Germany, bom in Bremen about the year l6'26. He came to England, as consul for his 
countrymen, in the time of Charles the First, in which capacity he remained at London during Crom- 
well's usvupation. He afterwards attended some young noblemen, as tutor, to Oxford, where he 
became acquainted with the gentlemen who commenced the Royal Society, to which he was apr 
pointed the assistant under Dr. Wilkins, the first secretarjv'in which capacity he was very useful, 
by the extensive correspbndence he held with the learned men of other countries, as well as by tlie 
arranging and publishing of the Philosophical Transactions, which he continued to do till the 136"th 
Number inclusive, June 25, l677 ; when he was succeeded in his office of secretary, as well as in 
publishing the Transactions, by Mr. Hook. Mr. Oldenburg was a man of considerable abilities, and 
was very active in promoting the views of the Society. He died at Charlton, near filackheath, in 
August 1678, being only in tlie 52d year of his age. 
VOL. I. A 



2 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

A71 Account of Camp AN fs Improvement of Optic Glasses ^ 

N' 1, p. 2. 

The improvement of optic glasses, not long since attempted at Rome by 
Signer Giuseppe Campani,* is described in a book, entitled, Ragguaglio di 
nuove Osservationi, lately printed in the said city, in which the following 
particulars are contained: — 

The first regards the excellence of the long telescopes, made by the said 
Campani, who pretends to have found a way to work great optic glasses with a 
turn-tool, without any mould. And it having hitherto been found by ex- 
perience, that small glasses are in proportion better to see with, on the earth, 
than large ones; that author affirms, that his are equally good for the earth, 
and for making observations in the heavens. Besides, he uses three eye- 
glasses for his great telescopes, without finding any Iris, or such rain-bow 
colours, as usually appear in ordinary glasses, and prove an impediment to 
observations. 

The second concerns the circle of Saturn, in which he has observed nothing, 
but what confirms M. Huygens's Zulichem system of that planet, published by 
that worthy gentleman in the year 1659. 

The third respects Jupiter, in which Campani affirms he hath observed, by the 
goodness of his glasses, certain protuberances and inequalities, much greater 
than those that have been seen there hitherto. He adds, that he is now 
observing, whether those sallies in the said planet do not change their situation ; 
which if they should be found to do, he judges that Jupiter might then be said 
to turn upon his axis; which, in his opinion, would serve much to confirm the 
opinion of Copernicus. Besides this, he affirms, he has remarked in the belts 
of Jupiter, the shadows of his satellites, and followed them, and at length seen 
them emerge out of his disk. 

* There were two brothers (Matthew and Joseph) of this name, Campani, residing in Rome in 
those times, botli very eminent for their mechanical contrivances of optical and philosophical in- 
struments, and for several treatises on such subjects ; particularly relating to pendulums, or time 
pieces, for the longitude ; also to spectacles, and to telescopes, of which it is said they made the very 
best and largest in their time ; being then as famous for their refracting telescopes, as Herschel is 
now for his large reflectors. It is said it was by their telescopes that the first Cassini made his best 
observations and chief discoveries in tlie heavens ; and they still show at Paris, among the astrono- 
mical antiquities, several of Campani' s object glasses, of eight, ten, and twelve inches diameter. — 
Other circumstances relating to their telescopes maybe seen in several parts of these Transactions) as 
inN°'4, 8, 12, &c. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. f 

A spot in one of the Belts of Jupiter. By Mr. Hook. 

N^l.p.S. 

The ingenious Mr. Hook * did, some months since, intimate to a friend of 
his, that he had, with an excellent twelve-foot telescope, observed, some days 
before he then spoke of it, (viz. on the 9th of May 1(564, about nine o'clock 
at night) a small spot in the largest of the three obscurer belts of Jupiter; 
and that, observing it from time to time, he found, that within two hours after, 
the said spot had moved from east to west, about half the length of the diameter 
of Jupiter. 

The Motion of the Comet Anno 1664, predicted by M. Auzout.'\ 

N" 1, p. 3. 

The motion of comets was hitherto thought so irregular, as not to be reduci- 
ble to any laws, and astronomers had always contented themselves with observing 
exactly the places through which they passed, and where they ceased to appear; 

* Mr. Robert Hook who became celebrated as a philosopher and mathematician, was bom in 1^35 
in the Isle of Wight. Having a natural taste for painting, he became the pupil of Sir Peter Lely, 
but soon quitted this pursuit, the oil-colours being injurious to his health. He was then placed under 
the tuition of Dr. Busby, from whom he acquired a knowledge of the languages. About the year 
1653 he went to Christ-church, Oxford, and became a member of the philosophical society of 
learned men then associating in that university. He there assisted Dr. Willis in his chemical 
operations; and afterwards became assistant to Mr. Boyle. In 1662 he was appointed curator 
of experiments to the Royal Society, and in l664 professor of mechanics to that learned bodyj 
at the same time he was also elected professor of geometry in Gresham college. After the 
fire of London he produced a plan of his own for rebuilding the city, which procured him the 
appointment of one of the city surveyors, though his plan was not carried into effect. In 1 668 
he had a dispute with Hevelius respecting telescopic sights, which he supported with such warmth 
as to give great offence to his scientific friends. In 1671 he attacked Sir Isaac Newton's 
Theoiy of Light and Colours; and when that philosopher's Principia came out. Hook pretended 
that the discovery concerning the force and action of gravity was his own, which occasioned 
tliat patient man to feel some just resentment against him. In 1677 he succeeded Mr. Oldenburg as 
secretary to the Royal Society. In 1691 archbishop Tillotson created him M. D. by warrant. He 
died in 1702. Mr. Hook was author of several valuable works, besides many curious papers in the 
Phil. Trans. A posthumous vol. of his writings appeared in folio, 1705. He was a man of great 
mechanical genius, and the sciences are highly indebted to him for several valuable instruments and 
improvements. It is said he was rather deformed in his person^ of a penurious disposition, and ex- 
tremely jealous of his reputation as an original discoverer. 

f M. Adrian Auzout, a French mathematician and astronomer, of some reputation, was born at 
Rouen, and died in 1691. It is said he invented tlie micrometer; and wrote a treatise on that in- 
strument, published in l693. It is also said he was the first person who applied the telescope tp 
astronomical quadrants, 

A 2 



4 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

till M. Auzout first attempted to foretel the line of motion of the comet 
Anno 1664 ; exhibiting an ephemeris, in which he determines for every day its 
place in the heavens, the hour of its coming to the meridian, and that of its 
setting, until its too great distance, or its approach to the sun, should hide it 
from our eyes. This ephemeris is founded on the supposition of its moving 
justly enough in the plane of a great circle, inclined to the equinoctial about 30°, 
and to the ecliptic about 49° or 49§°, cutting the equator at about 45^°, and 
the ecliptic at 28° of Aries, or a little more. Then M. Auzout proceeds to show 
how the motion of this comet is to be traced on the globe, and to calculate the 
several places of its appearance in the heavens; and in particular, he finds by his 
calculations what the least distance of the comet from the earth should be, when 
it is in opposition to the sun; a circumstance that may serve, as he thinks, to 
decide the grand question concerning the motion of the earth. 

^71 Experimental History of Cold. By the Hon. Robert Boyle* 

N'l.p.S. 

The chief heads of this work are, 

1 . Experiments touching bodies capable of freezing others. 

2. Experiments and observations touching bodies disposed to be frozen. 

3. Experiments touching bodies indisposed to be frozen. 

4. Experiments and observations touching the degrees of cold in several 
bodies. 

5. Experiments touching the tendency of cold upwards or downwards. 

6. Experiments and observations touching the preservation and destruction 
of eggs, apples, and other bodies by cold. 

7. Experiments touching the expansion of water and aqueous liquors by 
freezing. 

8. Experiments touching the contraction of liquors by cold. 

9. Experiments in consort, touching the bubbles, from which the levity of 
ice is supposed to proceed. 

10. Experiments about the measure of the expansion and the contraction of 
liquors by cold. 

* The Honourable Robert Boyle, son of Richard earl of Cork, was born Jan. 1627:, and died 
Dec. 1691. He was one of the first founders of the Philosophical Society, and the Royal Society, 
to which he continued, through the whole course of a long and active life, one of the most usefiil of 
its members, by his numerous and valuable communications, and other services. A more ample ac- 
count of the life and labours of this very celebrated man will be given hereafter in the detached volume 
of memoirs. 



VOL. I.j PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 6 

1 1. Experiments touching the expansive force of freezing water. 

12. Experiments touching a new way of estimating the expansive force of 
congelation, and of highly compressing air without engines. 

13. Experiments and observations touching the sphere of activity of cold. 

14. Experiments touching differing mediums through which cold may be 
diffused. 

15. Experiments and observations touching ice. 

16. Experiments and observations touching the duration of ice and snow, and 
the destroying of them by air, and several liquors. " 

17. Considerations and experiments touching the primum frigidum. 

18. Experiments and observations touching the coldness and temperature of 
the air. 

19. Of the strange effects of cold. 

20. Experiments touching the weight of bodies frozen and unfrozen. 

21. Promiscuous experiments and observations concerning cold. 

A7i Account of a monstrous Calf. By the Hon. Robert Boyle. 
N"' 1 and 2, pp. 10 and 20. 

This monstrous production was found in the uterus of a cow, killed by a 
butcher at Limington, in Hampshire. Its hinder legs had no joints: its feet 
were parted, so as to resemble the claws of a dog, [No. 2, p. 20] : and 
its tongue was triple, one to each side of the mouth, and one in the middle. 
Between the fore legs and hind legs was a great stone,* on which the calf rode, 
weighing 20 lbs. The outside of the stone was of a greenish colour, but, some 
small parts being broken off, it appeared a perfect free-stone. 

In the further account, inserted in the second number, it is added, that the 
surface of the stone was full of little cavities, and that when broken, it exhi- 
bited a great number of small pebble stones of an oval figure. Its colour (in- 
ternally) was grayish, like free-stone, but intermixed with veins of yellow and 
black. 

* As this remarkable concretion was not subjected to chemical analysis, its real nature must remain 
unknown. It might be a deposition of osseous matter, (phosphate of lime) ; but it is more probable 
that it was similar in its composition to the urinary calculi of herbivorous quadrupeds, and that it was 
formed either from the water of tlie allantois or of the amnios. 



6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

Of a peculiar Lead Ore of Germany * and the Use of it. N" 1, p. 10. 

Among several minerals lately sent from Germany was a kind of lead-ore, more 
considerable than all the rest, because of its singular use for essays upon the 
cuppel, seeing that there is not any other metal mixed with it. It is found in 
the Upper Palatinate, at a place called Freyung, and there are two sorts of it^ 
one of which is a kind of crystalline stone, and almost all good lead; the other 
not so rich, and more farinaceous. By the information, coming along with it, 
they are fetched, not from under the ground, but, the mines of that place having 
lain long neglected, by reason of the wars of Germany and the increase of 
waters, the people, living thereabout, take it from what their forefathers had 
thrown away, and had lain long in the open air. 

Of an Hungarian Bolus, of the same [rnedicinal] Effect with the Bolus 
Armenus. Anonymous. N^A^p.!!, 

The bolar earths were formerly in high repute as medicines, but they are 
rarely prescribed by modern physicians. In whatever part of the globe they are 
found, their effects upon the human body are the same. 

Of the New American Whale-Fishing about Bermudas. By a Seaman, 

N" 1, p. 11. 

Though many attempts at mastering the whales of these seas had been un- 
successful, by reason of their extraordinary fierceness and swiftness, yet it had 
been lately undertaken; and fit persons being out at sea seventeen times, and 
fastening their weapons a dozen times, killed two old female whales, and three 
cubs. The length of one of the old ones from the head to the extremity of the 
tail was 88 feet; its tail 23 feet broad, the swimming fin 26 feet long^ and the 
gills three feet long, with large bends underneath from the nose to the navel ; 
on her after-part, a fin on the back, and the inside inlaid with fat like the caul 
of a hog. The other old one was about 6o feet long. Of the cubs, one was 33, 
the other two were about 25 or 26 feet long. Their shape was very sharp 
behind, like the ridge of a house ; the head pretty bluff, and full of bumps on 
both sides ; the back perfectly black, and the belly white. Their swiftness and 
force are surprising : one of them, that had been struck, towed the boat after 
him for six or seven leagues in three quarters of an hour. When wounded 
they make a hideous roaring, at which all the whales within hearing flock to the 

* The spathose lead ores are common in many parts of Germany, and are, in general, remarkably 
rich. 



VOL. 1.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 7 

place, yet without striking or doing any harm. These whales are supposed to 
resemble that species called jubartes; they are without teeth, and longer than 
the Greenland whales, but not so thick. Their feeding on grass, growing at 
the bottom of the sea, appeared by cutting up the great bag or maw, in which 
was found about two or three hogsheads of a greenish grassy matter. The 
largest sort of these whales might afford seven or eight tuns of oil. The cubs 
yield little, and that a kind of jelly only. The oil of the old ones congeals like 
hog's lard, yet burns well. The oil of the blubber is as clear and fair as whey; 
that boiled out of the lean interlarded, hardens like tallow, sputtering in the 
burning; and that made of the caul resembles hog's lard. 

A Narrative conceiving the Success of Pendulum Watches at Sea for 
the Longitude. By Major Holmes. iV" 1, p. 13. 

The relation lately made by Major Holmes concerning the success of the 
pendulum watches at sea, two of which were committed to his care and ob- 
servation in his last voyage to Guinea, by some of our eminent virtuosi and 
grand promoters of navigation, is as follows : — 

The Major having left that coast, and being come to the isle of St. Thomas 
under the Line, he adjusted his watches, put to sea, and sailed westward, 
seven or eight hundred leagues, without changing his course ; after which, 
finding the wind favourable, he steered towards the coast of Africa, N. N. E. 
but having sailed upon that line about two or three hundred leagues, the 
masters of the other ships, under his conduct, apprehending that they should 
want water, before they could reach that coast, did propose to him to steer 
their course to the Barbadoes, to supply themselves with water there. 
The Major having called the master and pilots together, and caused them 
to produce their journals and calculations, it was found that those pilots dif- 
fered from the Major in their reckonings, one of them eighty leagues, 
another about a hundred, and the third more ; but the Major judging 
by his pendulum watches, that they were only some thirty leagues distant 
from the isle of Fuego, which is one of the isles of Cape Verde, and that 
they might reach it next day, and having a great confidence in the said 
watches, resolved to steer their course thither ; and having given order so to 
do, they got the very next day about noon a sight of the said isle of Fuego, 
finding themselves to sail directly upon it, and so arrived at it that afternoon, 
as he had said. 

These watches having been first invented by the excellent M. Huygens, and 
fitted to go at sea by the Right Honourable the Earl of Kincardin, both fel- 



8 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

lows of the Royal Society, are now brought to a wonderful perfection. The 
said M. Huygens, having been informed of the success of the experiment made 
by Major Holmes, wrote to a friend at Paris a letter to this effect : — 

'^ Major Holmes at his return has made a relation concerning the usefulness 
of pendulums, which surpasses my expectation : I did not imagine that the 
watches of this first structure would succeed so well, and I had reserved my 
main hopes for the new ones. But, seeing that those have already served so 
successfully, and that the others are yet more just and exact, I have the more 
reason to believe that the finding of the longitude will be brought to perfection. 
In the mean time I shall tell you, that the States did receive my proposition, 
when I desired of them a patent for these new watches, and the recompense 
set apart for the invention in case of success ; and that without any difficulty 
they have granted my request, commanding me to bring one of these watches 
into their assembly, to explicate unto them the invention, and the application 
thereof to the longitude ; which I have done to their contentment." 

The Character of M. de Fermat, Counsellor of Parliament at 
Tholouse, lately deceased. N° 1, p.l5. ^ 

This excellent person died in l663. He was a general scholar and a man 
of universal genius ; cultivating jurisprudence, poetry, and mathematics, but 
especially the latter, for his amusement. Fermat was author of several learned 
works, on subjects relative to which he maintained a correspondence with the 
most learned men of his time, with whorti he was justly placed among those of 
the first rank, both for genitis and acquirements. 

Many particulars of his life and writings may be seen more at large, in 
several books published on biography, &c. 

Extract of a Letter, lately written from Rome, touching the late 
Comet, and a New one. By Signior John Dominici Cassini.* 
N" 2, p. 17. 

I cannot enough wonder at the strange agreement of the thoughts of 
that acute French gentlemen. Monsieur Auzout, in the Hypothesis of 

* John Dominic Cassini, a celebrated astronomer, was born in Piedmont l625, and educated 
among the Jesuits at Genoa. He had such a turn for Latin poetry, that some of his compositions were 
printed when he was no more tlian eleven years old. He afterwards devoted himself wholly to mathe- 
matics, particularly astronomy, and in ]6o() he was appointed professor of mathematics at Bologna. 
In l6"52 he made an accurate observation of a comet which then appeared; and he determined geome- 
trically the apogee and eccentricity of a planet, from its true and mean place; a problem which Kepler 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Q 

the comet's motion, with mine ; and particularly at that of the tables. 
I have, with the same method by which I find the motion of this comet, 
easily found the principle of that author's Ephemerides, which he then 
thought not fit to declare; and it is this, that this comet moves about the 
Great Dog, in so large a circle, that that portion, which is described, is ex- 
ceedingly small in respect of the whole circumference of it, and hardly dis- 
tinguishable by us from a straight line. 

Concerning the new comet you mention, I saw it on the 1 1 th of Februar)', 
about the 24th degree of Aries, with a northern latitude of 24° 40'. The cloudy 
weather h'as not )^t pennitted me to see it in Andromeda, as others affirm to 
have done. 

'^ 
Extract of a Letter, written from Paris, containing some Reflections on 
part of the preceding Letter. By M. AuzouT. N° 2, p. IS. 

As to the h}^othesis of Geov. Dominic Cassini, touching the motion of the 
comet about the Great Dog in a circle, whose centre is in a straight line drawn 
from the earth through the said star, I believe it will shortly be published iiv 
print, as a thought that occurred to me in discoursing with one of my friends, 
who maintained that it turned about a centre, because its perigee had been over 
against the Great Dog, as I had noted in my Ephemerides. This particular I 
long since declared to many of my acquaintance. I have added an observation^ 
which I find that Signior Cassini has not made, viz. that there w^as ground to 
think, that the comet of l652 was t^e same with the present, seeing that, 
besides the parity of the swiftness of its motion, the perigee of it was also 
over against the Great Dog. But, to state what grounds I had for these 
thoughts, I said, that if they were true, the comet must needs accomplish its 
revolution from ten to twelve years, or thereabouts. But, seeing it appears not 
by history that a comet has been seen at those determinate distances of time, 

had pronounced was impossible to be solved. In l663 he was appointed inspector-general of the for- 
tifications of the castle of Urbino, and superintendant of tlie rivers in the ecclesiastical state. His 
astronomical pursuits, however, were still continued with the greatest diligence, and many important 
discoveries were the reward of his industry. In 1 666 he printed at Rome a collection of astronomical 
pieces, and among others a Theory of Jupiter's Satellites. Lewis XIV. of France desired leave of the 
pope for Cassini to come to Paris, which was granted in 1669 ; but the time of his stay was Iknited 
to six years. At the expiration of the term he was commanded to return ; and, on his refusal, his 
places were taken from him. Cassini was the first professor of the royal observatory at Paris, which 
was finished in 1670. Here he made numerous observations, and in l6Si he discovered four satel- 
lites of Saturn. In 1695 he went to Italy to examine the meridian line which he liad settled in 16'55. 
In 1700 he continued, through France, that meridian line which had been begun by Picard. Hq 
died in 1712, in the 87th year of his age. 

VOL. I. B 



10 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

nor that, over against the perigee of all the other comets of which particular 
observations are recorded, are always found stars of the first magnitude, or such 
others as are very notable, besides other reasons that might be alleged, I shall 
not pursue this speculation ; but rather suggest what I have taken notice of in 
my reflections upon former comets, which is, that more of them enter into 
our system by the sign of Libra and about Spica virginis, than by all the other 
parts of the heavens. For both the present comet, and many others register- 
ed in history, have entered that way, and consequently passed out of it by the 
sign Aries ; by which also many have entered. 

I have observed the position of the comet since January 28, every day, when 
the weather permitted, viz. January ig, Februarys, 6, 10, 17, 19, 24, 26, 
27, and March 6, 7, 8. I left it on March 8, at the 18° of the horn of Aries, 
almost in the same latitude ; and I am apt to believe, it will be eclipsed ; which 
I wish I may be able to observe this evening, if it be not already passed. 

On the Mines of Mercury in Friidi ; and a JVay of producing Wind 
hy the Fall of Water. By Dr. Walter Pope. N' 2, p. 21. 

The mines of mercury in Friuli, a territory belonging to the Venetians, are 
about a day's journey and a half distant from Goritia northwards, at a place 
called Idria, situated in a valley of the Julian Alps. They have been, as I am in- 
formed, these l6o years in the possession of the emperor, and all the inhabi- 
tants speak the Sclavonian tongue. In going thither, we travelled several 
hours in the best wood I ever saw before or since, being very full of firs, oaks, 
and beeches, of an extraordinary thickness, straightness, and height. The town 
is built, as usually towns in the Alps are, all of wood, the church only except- 
ed, and another house wherein the overseer lives. When I was there, in 
August last, the valley, and the mountains too, out of which the mercury was 
dug, were of as pleasant a verdure as if it had been in the midst of spring, 
which they there attribute to the moistness of the mercury ; how truly, I dispute 
not. That mine which we went into, the best and largest of them all, was 
dedicated to Saint Barbara, as the other mines are to other saints : the depth 
of it was 125 paces, every pace of that country being, as they informed us, 
more than five of our feet. There are two ways down to it ; the shortest per- 
pendicular way is that whereby they bring up the mineral in great buckets, 
and by which oftentimes some of the workmen come up and down. The other, 
which is the usual way, is at the beginning not difficult, the descent not being 
much ; the greatest trouble is, that in several places you cannot stand upright : 
but this holds not long, before you come to descend in earnest by perpendicu- 
lar ladders, where the weight of one's body is found very sensibly. At the end 



VOL.1.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 11 

of each ladder there are boards across, where we may breathe a little. The 
ladders, as we said, are perpendicular, but, being imagined produced, do not 
make one ladder, but several parallel ones. Being at the bottom, we saw no 
more than what we saw before, only the place whence the mineral came. All 
the way down, and the bottom, where there arc several lanes cut out in the 
mountain, is lined and propt with great pieces of fir-trees, as thick as they can 
be set. They dig the mineral with pickaxes, following the veins. It is for the 
most part hard as a stone, but more weighty; of a liver-colour, or that of 
crocus metallorum. I hope shortly to show you some of it. There is also some 
soft earth, in which you plainly see the mercury in little particles. Besides 
this, there are oftentimes found in the mines round stones like flints, of several 
sizes, very like those globes of hair, which I have often seen in England, 
taken out of the bellies of oxen. There are also several marcasites and stones 
which seem to have specks of gold in them ; but upon trial, they say, they find 
none in them. These round stones are some of them very ponderous, and well 
impregnated with mercury ; others light, having little or none in them. The 
manner of getting the mercury is this : They take of the earth, brought up in 
buckets, and put into a sieve, whose bottom is made of wires at so great a 
distance that you may put your finger betwixt them : it is carried to a stream 
of running water, and washed as long as any thing will pass through the sieve. 
That earth which passeth not, is laid aside upon another heap : that which 
passeth, reser\^ed in the hole, and taken up again by the second man, and so 
on, to about ten or twelve sieves gradually less. It often happens in the 
first hole, where the second man takes up his earth, that there is mercury at 
the bottom ; but towards the farther end, where the inten^als of the wires are 
less, it is found in very great proportion. The earth laid aside is pomided, and 
the same operation repeated. The fine small earth, that remains after this^ 
and out of which they can wash no more mercur}', is put into iron retorts and 
stopped, because it should not fall into the receivers, to which they are luted. 
The fire forces the mercury into the receivers : the officer unluted several of 
them to show us ; I observed in all of them, that he first poured out perfect 
mercur}', and after that came a black dust, which being wetted with water, disr 
covered itself to be mercury, as the other was. They take the caput mortuum 
and pound it, and renew the operation as long as they can get any mercury out 
of it. 

We saw there a man, who had not been in the mines for above half a year be- 
fore, so full of mercury, that putting a piece of brass in his mouth, or rubbing 
it in his fingers, it immediately became white like silver; I mean he produced the 
same effect as if he had rubbed mercury upon it ; and was so paralytic, that he 

£ 2 



12 PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. [anNO 1665. 

could not, with both his hands, carry a glass half full of wine to his miouth 
without spilling it, though he loved it too well to throw it away. 

The Bloivlng of Fire by the Fall of Water. By the same. 

N" 2, p. 25. 

In the brass works of Tivoli near Rome, the water blows the fire, not by 
moving bellows, but by affording the wind. See fig. 1, pi. 1 ; where A 
is the stream ; B the fall of it ; C the trunk into which it falls ; L G a 
pipe ; G the orifice of the pipe, or nose of the bellows ; G K the hearth ; 
E a hole in the pipe ; F a stopper to the hole ; D a place under ground, by 
which the water runs away. Upon stopping the hole E, there is a per- 
petual strong wind issuing forth at G. But G being stopped, the wind rushes 
out so vehemently at E, that it will support a ball playing above the hole 
there. 

Aji Extract of a Letter, containing some Observations , made in the 
Ordering of Sillt- Worms, communicated hy Mr. Dudley Palmer, 
from Mr. Edward Dioge^. N° 2, p. 26. 

I herewith offer to your Society a small parcel of my Virginian silk. What 
I have observed in the ordering of silk-worms, contrary to the received 
opinion, is : 

1 . That I have kept leaves 24 hours after they are gathered, and flung water 
upon them to keep them from withering ; yet when (without wiping the leaves) 
I fed the worms, I observed, they did as well as those fresh gathered. 

2. I never observed that the smell of tobacco, or smells that are rank, did 
any ways annoy the worms. 

3. Our country of Virginia is very much subject to thunders: and it has 
thundered exceedingly when I have had worms of all sorts, some newly hatched^ 
some half way in their feeding ; others spinning their silk ; yet I found none 
of them concerned in the thunder, but kept to their business, as if there had 
been no such thing. 

4. I have made many bottoms of the brooms (in which hundreds of worms 
spun) of holly ; and the prickles were so far from hurting them, that even from 
those prickles they first began to make their bottoms. 

[See further on the ordering of Silk- worms in No, 5 hereafter,] 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 13 

An Account of Micrographia, or the Physiological Descriptions of 
Minute Bodies, made by magnifying Glasses. By Mr. Robert 
Hook. N" 2, p. 27- 

Hook's Micrographia, or Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies, still 
maintains a deserved reputation ; many of the figures are a kind of standard repre- 
sentations, from which most succeeding authors on similar subjects have copied. 
Among the most excellent, though not altogether free from minute faults, are 
those of the common mite, the flea, the louse, the gnat, and the ant. The 
figures were all drawn by his own hand. A new edition of this work, with 
abbreviated descriptions, was published in the year 1745. In this edition the 
part relative to the Baroscope the Hygroscope, the engine for grinding optic 
glasses, &c. is omitted. 

Some Observations and Experiments upon May-Dew.* By Mr. Thomas 

Henshajf. N" 3, p. 33. 

That ingenious gentleman, Mr. Thomas Henshaw, having had occasion to 
make use of a great quantity of May-dew, did, by several casual essays on that 
Subject, make the following observations and trials, and present them to the 
Royal Society. 

It appears from this paper that dew, far from being a pure or unadulterated 
water, is in reality of a more mixed nature than most others. 

Dew newly gathered and filtered through a clean linen cloth, though it be 
not very clear, is of a yellowish colour, somewhat approaching to that of 
urine. In moderate quantities, it does not easily putrify, though kept for a 
long time ; but in large quantities, as of four or five gallons, it putrifies, and 
deposits a black sediment. 

Mr. Henshaw having several tubs with a good quantity of dew in them set 
to putrify, and being about to pour out of one of them to make use of it, 
found in the water a great bunch, larger than his fist, of those insects com- 
monly called hog-lice or millepedes,-^ tangled together by their long tails, one 

* What is commonly called May-dew is a sweet but excrementitious liquor discharged from the 
bodies of small insects infesting the leaves of plants, and known to naturalists by the name of 
Aphides. They are called by the French pucerons. 

t The insects here improperly called millepedes appear rather to have been the larvae or mag- 
gots either of the musca pendula or tenax. The otlier insects which Mr. H. observed, were the lan-ae 
or maggots of the common gnat, &c. The most important part of the paper is the concluding para- 
graph, demonstrating that a great quantity of saline matter is contained in the dew. The precise na- 
ture of this saline matter remains yet to be ascertained, and is unquestionably a subject which well 
deserves to be investigated by modern chemists. 



14 .' PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

of which came out of every one of their bodies, about the thickness of a horse- 
hair : the insects all lived and moved after they were taken out. 

Evaporating away great quantities of his putrified dew in glass basons, and 
other earthen glazed vessels, he at last obtained, as he remembers, above two 
pound of grayish earth, which when he had washed with more of the same 
dew out of all his basons into one, and evaporated to dryness, lay in leaves one 
above another, not unlike to some kind of brown paper, but very friable. 

That taking this earth out, and after he had well ground it on a marble, and 
given it a smart fire, in a coated retort of glass, it soon melted, and became a 
cake in the bottom when it was cold, and looked as if it had been salt and 
brimstone in a certain proportion melted together ; but, as he remembers, was 
not at all inflammable. This ground again on a marble, he says^ turned 
spring water of a reddish purple colour. 

That by often calcining and filtering this earth, he at last extracted about 
two ounces of a fine small white salt, which, examined through a good micro- 
scope, seemed to have sides and angles in the same number and figure as 
rochpetre, (rock-salt.) 

The Motion of the second Comet predicted, hy the same Gentleman 
(M, AuzoutJ ivho predicted that of the former. N" 3, p. 36. 

M. Auzout here observes, first in general, that the circumstances of this se- 
cond comet are contrary to those of the former, in almost every particular : 
such as, that the former moved very swift, but this latter rather slow : that 
contrary to the order of the signs, from east to west ; but this following them, 
from west to east : that, from south to north ; this, from north to south, so 
far as observed : that, on the side opposite to the sun ; this, on the same side : 
that, in its perigee at the time of its opposition ; this, out of the time of its con- 
junction : that both the body and train of this latter were much more bright 
and vivid than the former. • 

After this he descends to particulars, stating that he began to observe this 
comet April 2, l665, which he continued but a few days following; from 
which he infers, that the line hitherto described by it resembles a great circle, 
as it is found in all other comets in the middle of their course. He finds the 
said circle inclined to the ecliptic about 36° 30'; and the nodes, where it cuts 
it, near the beginning of Gemini and Sagittary : that it declines from the equa- 
tor about 26°, and cuts it towards the 11°; and consequently that its greatest 
latitude must have been near Pisces, about March 24 ; and its greatest declin- 
ation, towards the 25° of the equator, which will fall about April 11. He 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHIC AI. TRANSACTIONS. 15 

places its perigee, March 27, in about 15° of Pisces, a little more westerly 
than Marchab, or the wing of Pegasus ; and that it would be in conjunction 
with the sun April 9. But he concludes by recommending farther observations, 
to settle these particulars more accurately. 

T/?c Advice given by Monsieur Petit* Intendant of the Fortijications 
of Normandy y touching the Conjunction of the Ocean and Mediter- 
ranean. iV" 3, />. 41. 

This intelligent gentleman. Monsieur Petit, having been consulted, touch- 
ing the conjunction of the Ocean and Mediterranean, delivers first the pro- 
position, and then gives his thoughts upon it. 

Having stated the proposition, or the business to be effected, the artist re- 
marks that the data, or circumstances given him, are not sufficient for deter- 
mining the question, which therefore he declines for the present. The paper 
then concludes as follows : — 

This artist having thus prudently waved this proposition, diverts himself with 
reflecting upon several others of the like nature ; among which he insists chiefly 
upon two, whereof one is that so much celebrated in Egypt ; the other, of 
Gennany. And he is of opinion, that the most important of all is that of 
conjoining the Red Sea by the Nile with the Mediterranean, which he looks 
upon as the most excellent conveniency to go into the East Indies, without 
doubling the Cape of Good Hope ; and yet it could not be executed by those 
great kings of Egypt, who raised so many stupendous pyramids ; although in 
his opinion the reasons alleged by historians to justify them, for having aban- 
doned that undertaking, are of no validity ; and that the Red Sea cannot 
be, as they feared, higher than the Nile, and therefore cannot endanger the in- 
undation of Egypt. 

The other proposition was made to Charlemagne, anno 793, for joining 
the Euxine Sea and the Ocean together, by a channel, which was begun for 
that end, and designed to be 2000 paces long, and 100 paces broad, between 
the river Altmull, falling into the Danube above Ratisbon, and the river Rott, 
passing at Nuremberg, and thence running into the Maine, and so into the 
Rhine. But yet this also proved abortive, though at first there was great ap- 
pearance of success. 

* Peter Petit, a French mathematician, was bom at Montlu9on, about 1598. By the favour of 
Cardinal Richelieu he was made engineer to tlie king, upon whose concerns he was sent into 
Italy. — He was the author of several works on physical and astronomical subjects, and died in 
1677. 



l6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

Of the JVay of hilling Rattlc-snahes. By Capt. Silas Taylor. N" 3, p, 43. 

There being not long since occasion given at a meeting of the Royal Society 
to discourse on rattle- snakes, that worthy and inquisitive gentleman. Captain 
Silas Taylor, related the manner how they were killed in Virginia, which he 
afterwards was pleased to give in writing, attested by two credible persons in 
whose presence it was done; which is as follows: — 

The wild penny-royal* or dittany of Virginia, grows straight up about one 
foot high, with the leaves like penny-royal, with little blue tufts at the joining 
of the branches to the plant, the colour of the leaves being a reddish green, 
but the water distilled, of the colour of brandy, of a fair yellow : the leaves of it 
bruised are very hot and biting upon the tongue : and of these, so bruised, they 
took some, and having tied them in the cleft of a long stick, they held them 
to the nose of the rattle-snake, who by turning and wriggling, laboured as much 
as she could to avoid it : but she was killed with it in less than half an hour, 
and, as was supposed, by the scent thereof; which was done in the year 1657, 
in the month of July, at which season they repute those creatures to be in the 
greatest vigour for their poison. 

The same gentleman afterwards affirmed, that in those places where the 
wild penny-royal or dittany grows, no rattle-snakes are observed to come. 

^ Relation of Persons killed by siihterraneoiis Damps.^ By Sir 

Robert Moray. N" S, p. M. 

This relation sets forth that seven or eight men and one woman were instan- 
taneously suffocated by going into the waste in an old coal-pit full of the damp. 

* The plant here mentioned is, perhaps, some species of tencrium or satureia, or, as some have 
supposed, of cunila. Many other plants have been extolled for their supposed powers, as antidotes to 
the poison of the xatde-snake. Tlie most celebrated "is the polygala senega, which, however, is only 
understood to act as an antidote when taken internally, as well as applied externally. The relation in 
the present paper certainly borders on tlie marvellous, and has accordingly been fixed upon as a proper 
subject of ridicule by Sir John Hill in Jiis '' Review of the Roj/al Society.'' 

+ What is called the damp, or choak damp, in tliese and other mines, is fixed air or carbonic acid 
gas. It is of the same nature witli the deleterious gas of the dogs grotto (grotta de' Cani) near Naples. 
Being heavier than common air, it occupies the lower part of tliese subterraneous places. If a lighted 
candle becomes quickly and wholly extinguished, when let down into these excavations, experienced 
miners will not venture to work in tliem. In the upper parts of coal pits, and other mines, there 
is often anotlier kind of gas, called the^'/e damp, which is inflammable air, or hydrogen gas j tlie 
sudden explosioii of which has sometimes destroyed tliose who were employed about these pits, as 
will be seen by the narratives that will be inserted in the subsequent volumes of tliis Abridge- 
nuent. 



TOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. gf 

Of the Mineral of Liege,* yielding both Brimstone and Vitriol, and 
the Method, of extracting them out of it, as used at Liege. By Sir 
Robert Moray. N" 3, p. Ab. 

The mineral, out of which both brimstone and vitriol are extracted, is not 
much unlike lead ore, and has often much lead mingled with it, which is sepa- 
rated by picking it from the rest. The mines resemble our English coal-mines, 
dug, according to the depth of the mineral, 15, 20, or more fathoms. To make 
brimstone, they break the ore into small pieces, and put it into earthen cruci- 
bles five feet long, square and pyramid-wise. The entry is near a foot square. 
These crucibles are laid sloping, eight undermost and seven above them, (as it 
were between them) that the fire may come at them all, each having its particu- 
lar furnace. The melted brimstone drops out at the small end of the crucible, 
and falls into a leaden trough (common to all the said crucibles), through which 
there runs a continual stream of cold water, conveyed thither by pipes, for the 
purpose of cooling the fused sulphur, which is usually four hours in melting. 
After this distillation of the sulphur, the' ashes (or residuum), being scraped out 
of the crucibles, are employed (mixed with other lixiviated ashes) to make 
copperas or vitriol ; for which purpose they are thrown into a square planked 
pit in the earth, about four feet deep and eight feet square, and are covered 
with water. In this they remain twenty-four hours, or until an egg will swim 
upon the liquor, which is a sign that it is strong enough. When this liquor is 
to be boiled, they let it run through pipes into the kettles, adding to it half as 
much mother-water, i. e. the water which was left in previous crystallizations 
of the vitriol. The kettles are made of lead, four feet and a half high, six feet 
long, and three feet broad, and are placed upon iron grates. In these the liquor 
is boiled with a strong coal fire twenty-four hours or more, till it acquires a 
proper consistence ; when the fire is taken away, and the liquor, after being 
suffered to cool a little, is let out through holes made in the sides of the kettles, 
and conveyed through wooden conduits into several reservoirs three feet deep. 

Account of Mr. Boyle s Experimental History of Cold. iV" 3, p. 46. 

He shews, 

1 . That not only all sorts of acid and alcalizate salts, and spirits, even spirit 
of wine, but also sugar, and sugar of lead mixed with snow, are capable of 
freezing other bodies, and upon what account they are so. 

• This mineral is a pyrites, and the process here described for extracting sulphur and vitriol (sul- 
phate of iron) from it, is used to this day. 

VOL. I. C 



18 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l665. 

1. Tliat among the substances capable of being frozen, there are not only all 
gross sorts of saline bodies, but such also as are freed from their grosser parts, 
not excepting spirit of urine, the lixivium of pot-ashes, nor oil of tartar, per 
deliquhiw, itself. 

3. That many very spirituous liquors, freed from their aqueous parts, cannot 
be brought to freeze, neither naturally, nor artificially : And here is occasionally 
mentioned a way of keeping moats unpassable in very cold countries, recorded 
by Olaus Magnus. 

4. What are the ways proper to estimate the greater or less coldness of 
bodies ; and by what means we can measure the intenseness of cold produced by 
art, beyond that which nature needs to employ for the freezing of water ; as 
also, in what proportion water of a moderate degree of coldness will be made to 
shrink by snow and salt, before it begin by congelation to expand itself; and 
then, how to measure, by the differing weight and density of the same portion of 
water, what change was produced in it, betwixt the hottest time of summer, 
and first glaciating degree of cold ; and then the highest which our author could 
produce by art : Where an inquiry is annexed, whether the making of these kinds 
of trials, with the waters of the particular rivers and seas men are to sari on, may 
afford any useful estimate whether or not, and how much, ships may on those 
waters be safely loaden more in winter than in summer ? To which is added 
the way of making exact discoveries of the different degrees of coldness in differ- 
ent regions, by such thermometers as are not subject to the alterations of the 
atmosphere's gravitation, nor to be frozen. 

5. Whether in cold, the diffusion from cold bodies be made more strongly 
downwards, contrary to that of hot bodies: Where is delivered a way of freezing 
liquors without danger of breaking the vessel, by making them begin to freeze 
at the bottom, not the top. 

6. Whether that tradition be true, that if frozen apples or eggs be thaw^ed 
near the fire, they will be thereby spoiled, but if immersed in cold water, the 
internal cold will be drawn out, as is supposed, by the external cold ; and the 
frozen bodies will be harmlessly thawed. Item, Whether iron, or other metals, 
glass, stone, cheese, &c. exposed to the freezing air, or kept in snow, or salt, 
upon the immersing them in water will produce any ice. Item, What use may 
be made of what happens in the different ways of thawing eggs and apples, by 
applying the observation to other bodies, and even to men, dangerously nipped 
by excessive cold. Where is added not only a memorable relation, how the 
whole body of a man was successfully thawed and cased all over with ice, by 
being treated as frozen eggs and apples are ; but also the luciferousness of such 
experiments, as these : and likewise, what the effects of cold may be, as to the 



rOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 1^ 

conservation or destruction of the textures of bodies : and in particular, how 
meat and drink may be kept good, in very cold countries, by keeping it under 
water, without glaciation. As also, how in extreme cold countries, the bodies 
of dead men and other animals may be preserved many years entire and unpu- 
trified : And yet, how such bodies, when unfrozen, will ap[)car quite vitiated 
by the excessive cold. Where it is further inquired into, whether some plants, 
and other medicinal things, that have specific virtues, will lose them by being 
thoroughly congealed and (several ways) thawed ? And also, whether frozen and 
thawed hartshorn will yield the same quantity and strength of salt and saline 
spirit, as when unfrozen ? Item, Whether the electrical faculty of amber, and 
the attractive or directive virtue of loadstones, will be either impaired, or any 
ways altered by intense cold ? This head is concluded by some considerable re- 
marks touching the operation of cold upon bones, steel, brass, wood, bricks. 

7. What bodies are expanded by being frozen, and how that expansion is 
evinced : And whether it is caused by the intrusion of air : As also, whether 
what is contained in icy bubbles is true and elastic air, or not. 

8. What bodies they are, that are contracted by cold; and how that con- 
traction is evinced. Where it is inquired, whether chymical oils will, by con- 
gelation be like expressed oils, contracted; or, like aqueous liquors, ex- 
panded ? 

9. What are the ways of measuring the quantity of the expansion and con- 
traction of liquors by cold. And how the author's account of this matter agrees 
with what navigators into cold climates mention from experience, touching 
pieces of ice as high as the masts of their ships, and yet the depth of these 
pieces seems not at all answerable to what it may be supposed. 

10. How strong the expansion of freezing water is. Where are enumerated 
the several sorts of vessels which, being filled with water and exposed to the 
cold air, do burst ; and where also the weight is expressed, that will be removed 
by the expansive force of freezing. Whereunto an inquiry is subjoined, whence 
the prodigious force observed in water, expanded by glaciation, should proceed ? 
And whether this phenomenon may be solved, either by the Cartesian, or Epi- 
curean hypothesis ? 

1 1 . What is the sphere of activity of cold, or the space to whose extremities 
every way the action of a cold body is able to reach : where the difficulty of 
determining these limits, together with the causes thereof, being with much 
circumspection mentioned, it is observed, that the sphere of activity of cold is 
exceeding narrow, not only in comparison of that of heat in fire, but in com- 
parison of, as it were, the atmosphere of many odorous bodies ; and even in 
comparison of the sphere of activity of the more vigorous loadstones, insomuch, 

c 2 



20 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

that the author has doubted, whether the sense could discern a cold body, other- 
wise then by immediate contact. Where several experiments are delivered for 
the examining of this matter, together with a curious relation of the way used 
in Persia, though a very hot climate, to furnish their conservatories with solid 
pieces of ice of a considerable thickness : To which is added an observation, 
how far in earth and water the frost will pierce downwards, and upon what 
accounts the depth of the frost may vary. After which, the care is inculcated 
that must be had in examining, whether cold may be diffused through all 
mediums indefinitely, not to make the trials with mediums of too great thick- 
ness : where it is made to appear, that cold is able to operate through metalline 
vessels, which is confirmed by a very pretty experiment of making icy cups to 
drink in ; the way of which is accurately set down. Then are related the trials, 
whether, or how, cold will be diffused through a medium that some would 
think a vacuum, and which to others would seem much less disposed to assist the 
diffusion of cold than common air itself. After which follows a curious experi- 
ment, shewing whether a cold body can operate through a medium actually hot, 
and having its heat continually renewed by a fountain of heat. 

12. How to estimate the solidity of the body of ice, or how strong is the 
mutual adhesion of its parts ; and whether differing degrees of cold may not vary 
the degree of the compactness of ice. And our author having proceeded as far 
as he was able towards the bringing tlie strength of ice to some estimate by 
several experiments, he communicates the information he could get about this 
matter, among the descriptions that are given us of cold regions : and then he 
relates, out of seamen's journals, their observations touching the insipidness of 
resolved ice made of sea-water ; and the prodigious magnitude of it, extending 
even to the height of two hundred and forty feet above water, and the length of 
above eight leagues. To which he adds some promiscuous, but very notable 
observations, concerning ice, not so readily reducible to the foregoing heads : 
viz. Of the blue colour of rocky pieces of ice ; and the horrid noise made by the 
breaking of ice, like that of thunder and earthquakes, " together with a con- 
sideration of the cause whence those loud ruptures may proceed. 

13. How ice and snow may be made to last long; and what liquor dissolves 
ice sooner than others, and in what proportion of quickness the solutions in the 
several liquors are made: where occasion is offered to the author to examine, 
whether motion will impart a heat to ice ? After which, he relates an experiment 
of heating a cold liquor with ice, made by himself in the presence of a great and 
learned nobleman, and his lady, who found the glass, wherein the liquor was, so 
hot that they could not endure to hold it in their hands. Next it is examined, 
whether the effects of cold do continually depend upon the actual presence and 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 21 

influence of the manifest eflficient causes, as the hght of the air depends upon 
the sun or fire, or other luminous bodies ? To this is annexed an account of the 
Italian way of making conservatories of ice and snow, as the author had received 
it from that ingenious and polite gentleman, Mr. J. Evelyn. 

It shall only be intimated for a conclusion, that the author has annexed to this 
treatise, an examen of M. Hobbs's doctrine touching cold ; wherein the grand 
cause of cold and its effects is assigned to wind, insomuch that it is affirmed, 
that almost any ventilation and stirring of the air doth refrigerate. 

Extraordinary Tides in the IFest-Isles of Scotland. By Sir Robert 

Moray, iV° 4, p. 53. 

In that tract of isles, on the west of Scotland, called by the inhabitants the 
Long Island, (from being about 100 miles long from north to south) there is a 
multitude of small islands, situated in a fretum, or frith, - amongst which there 
is one called Berneray, three miles long, and more than a mile broad, the length 
running from east to west, as the Frith lies. At the east end of this island I 
observed a very strange reciprocation of the flux and reflux of the sea ; and I 
was told of another no less remarkable. 

Upon the west side of the Long Island, the tides which came from the south- 
west run along the coast northward ; so that during the ordinary course of the 
tides, the flood runs east in the Frith where Berneray lies, and the ebb west. 
And thus the sea ebbs and flows orderly about four days before the full moon 
and change, and as long after. But for four days before the quarter moons, and 
as long after, there is constantly a great and singular variation. For then (a 
southerly moon making there the full sea) the course of the tide being eastward, 
when it begins to flow, which is about Qi of the clock, it not only continues so till 
about 3i in the afternoon, when it is high water, but after it begins to ebb, the 
current runs on still eastward, during the whole ebb ; so that it runs east- 
ward 12 hours together, that is, all day long, from about Q^ in the morning 
till about Q-^ at night. But then, when the night-tide begins to flow, the cur 
rent turns, and runs westward all night, during both flood and ebb, for about 
12 hours more, as it did eastward the day before. And thus the reciprocations 
continue, one flood and ebb running 1 2 hours eastward, and another 1 2 hours 
westward, tiM four days before the new and full moon ; and then they resume 
their ordinary regular course as before, running east during the six hours of 
flood, and west during the six of ebb. 

I was also informed that there is yet another irregularity in the tides, which 
never fails, and is no less extraordinary than what I have been mentioning ; 
which is. That whereas between th vemale and autumnal equinoxes^ that is^ 



22 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



[anno 1665. 

for six months together, the course of irregular tides about the quarter moons, is, 
to run all day, that is, twelve hours, as from about Q-l to 94^, or 10^ to 10-l, &c. 
eastward, and all night, that is, twelve hours more, westward ; but during the other 
six months, from the autumnal to the vernal equinox, the current runs all day 
westward, and all night eastward. 

This, though I had not the opportunity to be an eye-witness as of the other, 
I do not at all doubt, having received so credible information of it. 

M. Auzout's Opinion respecting the Apertures of Object Glasses, and 
their relative Proportions, tvith the several Lengths of Telescopes. 
N"" 4, p. 55. 

This author observing in a small French tract, lately written by him to one 
of his countrymen, that large optic glasses have hardly ever so great an aper- 
ture as small ones, in proportion to what they magnify, and that consequently 
they must be more dim ; takes occasion to inform the reader, that he has dis- 
covered that the apertures, which optic glasses can bear with distinctness, are 
in about the subduplicate proportion of their lengths ; of which he tells us he 
intends to give the reason and demonstration in his Dioptrics, which he is now 
writing. In the mean time, he presents the reader with a table of such aper- 
tures, as follows : 



A Table of the Apertm'es of Object-Glasses. 



Lengths 
of 


Apertures for 


Lengths 
of 


Apertures for 


Lengths 
of 


Apertures for 


" 






















glasses. 


Excel- 
lent. 


Good. 


Ordinary. 


glasses. 


Excel- 
lent. 


Good. 


Ordinary. 


glasses. 


Excel- 
lent. 


Good. 


Ordinary. 


ft. inch. 


inch. lin. 


inch. lin. 


inch 


.lin. 


feet. 


inch. lin. 


inch. lin. 


inch 


.lin. 


feet. 


inch. lin. 


inch. lin. 


inch. lin. 


4 


4 


4 





3 


9 


1 11 


1 9 




5 


60 


5 2 


4 6 


3 8 


6 


5 


5 





4 


10 


2 1 


1 10 




6 


65 


5 4 


4 8 


3 10 


9 


7 


6 





5 


12 


2 4 


2 




8 


70 


5 7 


4 10 


4 


1 


8 


7 





6- 


14 


2 


2 2 




9 


75 


5 9 ■ 


5 


4 2 


1 6 


9 


8 





7 


16 


2 8 


2 4 




11 


80 


5 11 


5 2 


4 5 


2 


11 


10 





8 


18 


2 10 


2 -6 


2 


I 


90 


6 4 


5 6 


4- 7 


2 6 


1 


11 





9 


20 


3 


2 7 





2 


100 


6 8 


5 9 


4 10 


3 


I 1 


1 





10 


25 


3 4 


2 10 


2 


4 


120 


7 5 


.6 5 


5 3 


3 6 


1 2 


1 1 





11 


30 


3 8 


3 2 


2 


7 


150 


8 X) 


7 


5 11 


4 


1 4 


1 2 


1 





35 


4 .0 


3 4 


2 


10 


200 


9 6- 


8 


6 9 


4 6" 


1 


1 3 


1 





40 


4 3 


3 7 


3 





250 


10 6 


9 2 


7 8 


5 


1 () 


1 4 


I 


1 


45 


4 6 


3 10 


3 


2 


300 


11 6" 


10 


8 5 


6 


I 7 


1 .5 


1 


2 


50 


4 9 


4 


3 


4 


350 


12 6' 


11 9 


9 


7 


1 9 


1 G 


1 


5 


55 


5 


• 4 3 


3 


6" 


400 


13 4 


u 6' 


9 8 


8 


1 10 


1 8 


1 


4 





















VOL, I.] * PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 23 

M. Auzout's Remarks on Mr. Hooks new Instrument for grinding 
Optic Glasses; tvith Mr. Hooks Reply, N" 4, pp. 56 and 63. 

These two long papers contain a liberal controversy between these gentlemen, 
concerning the powers and apertures of telescopes, with their methods of grind- 
ing the glasses ; now of very little importance, and especially as the papers only 
give account of two books, which are in the hands of tlie learned, viz. Hook's 
Micrographia, and Auzout's Reply to part of it. 

Mr. Hook having, in that book, described a new engine for grinding optic 
glasses of very great lengths, M. Auzout, in a small French tract, states several 
difficulties and objections to it. He also thinks it impracticable to make any 
glasses of above 300 or 400 feet at most, fearing that neither matter nor art 
will be able to go even so far, and which consequently will be very far from 
showing us either plants or animals in the moon, as some had pretended. He 
farther proposes remedies for some of the inconveniences of the turning-engine. 
To all which Mr. Hook here repHes, answering the objections, and rejecting 
the proposed expedients. 

To illuminate an Object in any Proportion desired : and of the Dis- 
tances requisite to bmm Bodies by the Sun. By M. AuzovT^ N" 4, 
p. 68. 

One of the means used by Mr. Auzout to enlighten an object in any propor- 
tion desired, is by some large object-glass, by him called a planetary one, be- 
cause by that he shows the difference of light which all the planets receive 
from the sun, by making use of several apertures proportionate to their distance 
from the sun, provided that for every nine feet draught, or thereabouts, one inch 
of aperture be given for the earth. Doing this, one sees (says he) that the light 
which Mercury receives is far enough from being able to burn bodies, and yet 
that the same light is strong enough in Saturn to see clear there, since it ap- 
pears greater in Saturn than it doth upon our earth when it is overcast with 
clouds; which, he adds, would scarcely be believed if by means of this glass it 
did not sensibly appear so. Of which he promises to speak more fully in his 
Treatise on the usefulness of great Optic Glasses; where also he intends to de- 
liver several experiments, touching the quantity of light which is necessary to 
burn bodies ; he having found, that not abating the light which is reflected by 
the surfaces of the glass, about fifty times as much light would be necessary as 
we have here for burning black bodies; and near nine times more for burning 
white bodies than for burning black ones ; and so observing the intermediate 



24 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

proportions between these two, for burning bodies of other colours. Whence he 
has drawn some consequences, touching the distance at which we may hope 
to burn bodies here by the means of great glasses and great looking glasses. 
So that we must yet be seven times nearer the sun than we are to be in danger 
of being burned by it. Where he mentions, that having given instructions to 
certain persons gone to travel in hot countries, he has, among other particu- 
lars, recommended to them to try, by means of large burning glasses, with how 
much less aperture they will burn there than here, to know from thence whe- 
ther there be more light there than here; and how much; since this perhaps 
may be the only means of trying it, supposing the same matters be used: 
although the difference of the air already heated, both in hot countries and in 
the planets that are nearer than we, may alter, if not the quantity of light, at 
least that of the heat found there. 

Afu7^ther Account, touching Signior Campani's Booh and Performances 
about Optic Glasses. By M. Auzout. N" 4., p. 69. 

In the above-mentioned French tract there is also contained M. Auzout's 
opinion of what he had found new in the Treatise of Signior Campani, which 
was spoken of in the first papers of these Transactions, concerning both the ef- 
fect of the telescopes, contrived after a peculiar way by the said Campani at 
Rome, and his new observations of Saturn and Jupiter, made with them. 

First, therefore, after M. Auzout had raised some scruple against the contri- 
.vance of Signior Campani for making great optic glasses without moulds, by the 
means of a turn-lath, he examines the observations made with such glasses : 
where, having commended Campani's sincerity in relating what he thought he 
saw in Saturn, without accommodating it to M. Huygens's hypothesis, he affirms, 
that supposing there be a ring about Saturn, Signior Campani could not see, in 
all those different times in which he observed it, the same appearances which 
he notes to have actually seen. For, having seen it sometimes in trine aspect 
with the sun, and oriental; sometimes in the same aspect, but occidental; some- 
times in sextile aspect, and occidental ; at another time again in trine, and ori- 
ental ; this author cannot conceive how Saturn could in all these different times 
have a difference in its phasis, or keep always the same shadow; seeing that, 
according to the hypothesis of the ring, when it was oriental, it must cast the 
shadow upon the left side of the ring beneath, without casting any on the right 
side ; and when it was occidental, it could not but cast it on the right side be- 
neath, and nothing of it on the other. 

M. Auzout believes, that he was one of the first that well observed this sha- 
dow of Saturn's body upon his ring ; which he affirms happened two years since. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Jfc5 

He confesses that he has not had the opportunity of observing Saturn in his 
oriental quadrat ; yet he doubts not, but that the shadow appears on the left 
side, considering that the existence of the ring can be no longer doubted of 
after so many observations of the shadow cast by Saturn's body upon it, accord- 
ing as it must happen, following that hypothesis; there being no reason why it 
should cast the said shadow on one side and not on the other. 

Concerning the observation of Jupiter and his satellites, the famous astrono- 
mer of Bononia, Cassini, having published, that on the 30th day of July l664, 
at 2-i- of the clock in the morning, he had observed, with Campani's glasses, that 
there passed through the broad obscure belt of Jupiter two obscurer spots, by 
him esteemed to be the shadows of the satellites, moving between Jupiter and 
the sun, and eclipsing him, and emerging from the western limb. This author 
first conceived that they were not shadows, but some sallies, or prominencies in 
that belt; but having been since informed of all the observations made by 
Cassini and Campani with the new glasses, and seen his figure, he candidly and 
publicly wishes that he had not spoken of that sally, or prominency ; avow- 
ing that he can no longer doubt, but that it was the shadow of the satellite 
between Jupiter and the sun. He hopes also, that in time the shadow of Sa- 
turn's moon will be seen upon Saturn, although we have yet some years to stay 
for it, and to prepare also for better glasses. 

From this curious observation, he infers the proportion of the diameter of the 
satellites to that of Jupiter : and judges, that no longer doubt can be made that 
these four satellites or moons turn about Jupiter, as our moon turns about the 
earth, and in the same way as the rest of the celestial bodies of our system move: 
whence also a strong conjecture may be made, that Saturn's moon turns like* 
wise about Saturn. 

Hence he also takes occasion to intimate, that we need not scruple to con- 
clude, that if these two planets have moons wheeling about them, as our earth 
has one that moves about it, the conformity of these moons with our moon 
proves the conformity of our earth with those planets, which carrying away their 
moons with themselves, turn about the sun, and very probably make their moons 
turn about them in turning themselves about their axis; and also, that there is 
no cause to invent perplexed and incredible hypotheses, for the receding from 
this analogy, since, says he, if this be truth, the reason for not publishing this 
doctrine, which was formerly considered an innovation, will be done away, as 
one of the most zealous doctors of the contrary opinion has given cause to hope. 

But to return to the matter in hand, this author, upon all these observations 
and relations of Cassini and Campani, finds no reason to doubt any longer of the 

VOL. I. D 



2(5 -PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665'. 

superior excellency of the glass used by them, to his own, except this difference 
may be imputed to that of the air, or of the eyes. 

Signior Campani's Answer: and M. Auzout' s Animadversions upon it. 

iV" 4, p, 74. 

The other part of this French tract, containing Campani's answer, and M. 
Auzout's reflections upon it, begins with the pretended shadows of the ring upon 
Saturn, and of Saturn upon the ring. Concerning which, the said Campani declares 
that he never believed them to be shadows made by the ring upon the disk of 
Saturn, or by the body of Saturn upon the ring, but the rims of these bodies, 
which being unequally luminous, did show these appearances. In which expli- 
cation, forasmuch as it represents that the said Campani meant to note only the 
inequality of the light, which, he says, his glasses discovered, M. Auzout 
does so far acquiesce, that he only wishes that his own glasses would show him 
those differences. 

Next, to the objection made by M. Auzout against Signior Campani, touch- 
ing the proportion of the length of the ring to its breadth, Campani replies, that 
the glasses of M. Auzout show not all the particulars that his do, and therefore 
are unfit for determining the true figure and breadth of the apparent ellipsis of 
the ring. To which M. Auzout rejoins, that he is displeased at his being 
destitute of better glasses, but that it will be very hard in future to convince 
Campani, touching the proportion of the ring, seeing that the breadth of the 
ellipsis is always diminishing ; although, if the declination of the ring remains 
always the same, one can at all times know which may have been its greatest 
breadth. 

Further, to M. Auzout's change of opinion, and believing that the advance 
or sally seen by him in Jupiter, was the shadow of one of his moons, Campani 
declares, that he would not have him guilty of that change. Upon which M. 
Auzout wonders, why Campani then has not marked it in his figure ; and would 
gladly know whether that sally be more easy to discover than the shadows of the 
satellites, which Campani believes Auzout has not seen ; and whether he be assured, 
that those obscure parts, which he there distinguishes, do not change : for if 
they should not change, then Jupiter would not turn about his axis, which yet, 
he says, it does according to the observation made by Mr. Hook, May 9, 1665, 
inserted in the first papers of these Transactions. The full discovery of which 
. particular also he makes to be a part of Cassini's and Campani's work, seeing that 
they so distinctly see the inequalities in the belts, and also sometimes other spots 
besides the shadows of the satellites: where he exhorts all the curious, that have an 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS.. 27 

opportunity of observing, to endeavour the discovery of a matter of that import- 
ance, which would prove one of the greatest analogies for the earth's motion. 

Adits and Mines ivrought at Liege ivithoiit Air-shafts. By Sir Robert 

Moray. N° 5, p. 79- 

Amongst the expedients that have been devised to remedy the inconvenience 
from the want of fresh air, there is one practised in the coal-mines near the 
town of Liege, or Luyck, that seems preferable to all others for efficacy, ease, 
and cheapness ; the description of which is as follows : — 

At the mouth or entry of the adit there is a structure raised of brick, like a 
chimney, about 28 or 30 feet high. At the bottom, two opposite sides are, or 
may be, 5-i- feet broad ; and the other two, five feet : the wall 1-l brick thick. 
At the lower part of it is an aperture nine or ten inches square, for taking out 
the ashes ; which when done, this ash-hole is immediately stopped so close, that 
no air can possibly get in. About three feet above ground, or more, there is on 
the side that is next to the adit or pit, a square hole of eight or nine inches 
every way, by which the air enters to make the fire burn : Into this hole there is 
fixed a square tube or pipe of wood, the joints and chinks of which are so stopped 
with parchment, pasted or glued on them, that the air can have no admittance but 
at the end: And this pipe is always lengthened as the adit or pit advances, by fit- 
ting on new pipes, so that-one end is always thrust into the other, and the joints and 
chinks still carefully cemented and stopped as before. So the pipe or tube being 
still carried on, as near as is necessary, to the wall or place where fresh air is re- 
quisite, the fire within the chimney always draws the air through the tube; 
tiiere is thus a constant supply of air, which by its motion carries away with it 
all noxious vapours ; so that men there breathe as safely as in the open air ; and 
not only candles but fire burns, when upon occasion there is need of it for 
breaking the rock. 

That there may be no want of such fresh air the fire must always be kept 
burning in the chimney : For which purpose there must be two iron grates or 
chimnies, that when any accident befals the one the other may be ready to sup- 
ply its place ; the coals being first well kindled in it: but when the fire is near 
spent, the chimney or grate, being haled up to the door, is to be supplied with 
fresh fuel. 

The higher the shaft of the chimney is, the fire draws the air the better. And 
this invention may be used in the pits or shafts that are perpendicular, or any 
how inclining, when fresh air is wanted at the bottom, or in case of noxious 
fumes or vapours. 

D 2 



18 FMILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

The whole contrivance is farther illustrated by the following references to 
fig. 2, pi. 1. Where, 

A, Is the hole for taking out the ashes. 

B, The square-hole, into which the tube or pipe for conveying the air is 
fixed. 

C, The border or ledge, of brick or iron, on which the iron-grate or cradle, 
that holds the burning coals, is to rest ; the one being exactly fitted for the 
other. 

D, The hole where the cradle is set. 

E, The wooden tube, through which the air is conveyed to the cradle. 

F, The door, by which the grate or cradle is let in ; which is to be set eight 
or ten feet higher than the hole D, the shutter being made of iron, or wood 
that will not shrink, that it may shut very close. 

G, The grate or cradle, which is narrower below than above, that the ashes 
may the more easily fall, and the air excite the fire ; the bottom being barred as* 
the sides. 

H, The border or ledge of the cradle, that rests on the ledge C. 

I, Four chains of iron fastened to the four corners of the cradle, for taking 
of it up, and letting it down. 

K, The chain of iron, to which the other chains are fastened. 

L, The pulley, of iron or brass, through which the chain passes. 

M, A hook, on which the end of the chain is fastened by a ring, the hook 
being fixed in the side of the door. 

N, A bar of iron in the walls, to which the pulley is fastened. 

M. Du Son's Method of breahing RocJts. Communicated by Sir Robert 

Moray. N" 5, p. S2. 

The invention for breaking, with ease and dispatch, hard rocks is useful on 
several occasions ; as in cutting adits, or passages through them, for draining 
v^rater out of mines of lead, tin, or any other kind of minerals whatever. 

The mine or adit is to be made seven or eight feet high ; which though it seem 
to make more work downwards, yet will be found necessary for making the 
better dispatch, by rendering the invention more effectual. 

The tool employed in this operation is of iron, well steeled at the end, which 
cuts the rock, of the shape in fig. 3, pi. 1, about 20 or 21 inches long, and 
2^ inches diameter at the steeled end ; the rest being somewhat more slender. 
The steeled end is so shaped, as makes it most apt to pierce the rock, the 
angles at that end being always the more obtuse, as the rock is harder. This 
tool being held by the hand, in the place where the hole is to be made, which 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 2g» 

is usually in the middle between the sides of the rock, but as near the bottom as 
may be, it is to be struck upon with a hammer, the heavier the better, either 
suspended by a shaft turning upon a pin, or otherwise, so as one man may 
manage the hammer, while another holds the tool or piercer. After the stroke 
of the hammer, the point is to be turned a little, so that the edges or angles at 
the point may all strike upon a new place ; by which means small chips will at 
every stroke be broken off, which must from time to time be taken out, as need 
requires. And thus the work is continued, till the hole be 18 or 20 inches deep; 
the deeper the better. To this hole a kind of double wedge is to be exactly fitted, 
as appears in fig. 4, each piece being 12 or 13 inches long, and so made, as 
being placed in their due position, they may make up a cylinder, cut diagonal- 
wise. The two flat sides that are contiguous, are to be greased or oiled, that 
the one may slip the more easily upon the other ; and one of them, which is to 
be uppermost, having at the larger end a hollow crease or groove cut into, it 
round about, for fastening to it, with a thread, a cartridge full of gunpowder, 
about half a pound or more as occasion may require. This wedge must have a 
hole drilled through the length of it, to be filled with priming powder, for firing 
the charge in the cartridge. 

The wedge being first thrust into the hole with the cartridge, the round side 
where the priming-hole is being uppermost, the other wedge is to be thrust in, 
home to the due position, observing, that they both fit the hole in the rock 
exactly. Then, on the end of the lower wedge, which is to be about an inch 
longer than that of the upper, and flattened, priming powder is to be laid, and a 
piece of burning match, or thread dipt in brimstone, or other such prepared 
combustible matter, fastened to it, that may. burn so long before it fire the 
powder that the workman may have time enough to retire, having first placed 
a piece of wood or iron so, that one end thereof being set against the end of the 
lower wedge, and the other against the side wall, that it cannot slip. When 
the powder takes fire it first drives out the uppermost wedge, as far as it will 
go, but by the slanting figure of it, the farther it goes backward the thicker it 
grows, till at last it can go no farther ; then the inflamed powder tears the 
rock to get forth, and so cracks and breaks it all about, that at one "time a vast 
deal of it will either be quite blown out, or so cracked and broken, as will make 
it easy to be removed. 

Observables upon a monstrous Head. By Mr. Boyle. N" 5, p. 85. 

In this monstrous head of a colt, the two eyes were united into one double 
eye, which was placed in the middle of the brow, the nose being wanting, 
which should have separated them. Hence the two orbits were united into one 



30 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

very large round hole, into which there entered from the brain one pretty large 
optic nerve. The tunica sclerotica which contained the united eyes was one 
and the same, but appeared to have a seam (by which the junction was formed) 
going quite round the ball, the anterior pellucid part of which was distinctly 
separated into two corneae by a white seam. Each cornea had a distinct iris 
and pupil ; and on opening the eye there were found two crystalline humours. 
The other parts could not be well distinguished, as the eye had been much 
bruised by handling. 

Ohservablcs in the Body of the Earl of Balcarras. Anonymous, 

N' 5, p. 86. . 

The appearances in the heart of this nobleman were very remarkable. On 
opening the pericardium, none of that liquor was found which (in a healthy 
state) lubricates the heart. The external surface of the heart from its base 
to its apex was very rough. Being cut asunder, a quantity of white and in- 
spissated fluid ran out ; and beneath the base, between the right and left ven- 
tricle, two stones were found, one as big as an almond, the other two inches 
long and one broad, having three auricles or crisped angles. In the orifice of 
the right ventricle there was a fleshy fattish matter. The whole body was 
bloodless, emaciated, and of a black and bluish colour.* 

Of the designed Progress to he made in the Breeding of SilhwormSy 
and the Making of Silk, in France. N" 5, p, 87. 

The French King Henry the Fourth having made a general establishment 
all over France for planting and propagating of mulberry- trees, and for breeding 
silkworms, in order to set up and entertain a silk trade there ; and having 
prospered so well in that design, that in many parts of his dominions great 
stores of such trees were raised, and multitudes of silkworks propagated, to the 
great benefit of the French people, forasmuch as it was a considerable begin- 
ning to avoid the transport of several millions abroad for buying of silks, and 
withal an excellent means of well- employing abundance of poor orphans and 
widows, and many old, lame, and other indigent and helpless people ; the 
present French king has lately revived and seconded that undertaking, by 
giving express order that it .should be promoted by all possible means, and 

* It is to he regretted that this account of the appearances on dissection was not accompanied with a 
history of the symptoms. The disease appears to have been an inflammation (followed by suppuration) 
of the heart, excited by the irritation arising from the large calculi formed within it. The " white 
ifl.spissated fluid/' seems to have been pus ; and the " fleshy fattish matter," a polypus. 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 31 

particularly in the metropolis of that kingdom, and round about it ; and that 
for that end the whole way concerning that work and trade should be fully and 
punctually communicated in print ; which has also been executed by one Mon- 
sieur Isnard, in a treatise published at Paris, in French, entitled. Instructions 
for the Planting of White Mulberries, the Breeding of Silkworms, and the Or- 
dering of Silk in Paris, and the circumjacent Places ; in which book, the me* 
thod being represented, which that great prince Henry IV. used in establishing 
the said work and trade, together with the success thereof, and the advantages 
thence derived to his subjects, the author, from his own experience and long 
practice, delivers (and seems to do it candidly) all what belongs in this business 
in four main heads. First, he teaches the means of sowing, planting, and 
raising white mulberries (as the foundation of silkworks) showing how many 
several ways that may be done. Secondly, The breeding of silkworms, the 
choosing of good eggs, and their hatching, as also the feeding of the worms, 
and preserving them from sickness, and curing them of it, together with the 
way of making them spin to best advantage. Thirdly, The manner of wind- 
ing their silk from their bottoms, adding the scheme of the instrument serv- 
ing for that purpose. Fourthly, The way of keeping silkworms' eggs for the 
ensuing year. 

Through the whole book are scattered many not inconsiderable particulars, 
though perhaps known to most. The white mulberry-tree, as it is in other 
qualities preferable to the black, so this author esteems it the best, not only for 
the durableness of the wood, and its large extent of usefulness in carpenters' and 
joiners* work ; but also for the fitness of its leaves (besides their principal use 
for the food of silkworms) to fatten sheep, goats, cows, and hogs, only by 
boiling and mingling them with bran. The berries themselves he commends 
as very excellent to fatten poultry, and to make them lay eggs plentifully. 

Silkworms, before they begin to spin, and about the latter end of their feed- 
ing, Vnust, says the author, be often changed, and have air enough, by open- 
ing the windows of the room they are in, if it be not too severe weather ; else, 
says he, the silk that is in their belly will cause so extraordinary a heat in 
them, that it will burn their guts, and sometimes burst them ; and the same 
(being a substance that resembles gum or Burgundy pitch) will putrefy and 
turn into a yellowish matter. 

As for their working, he gives this account of it : that the first day they 
make only a web ; the second, they form in this web their cases, and cover 
themselves all over with silk ; the third day, they are no longer seen ; and the 
days following they thicken their cases, always by one end or thread, which 
they never break off themselves. This, he affirms, they put out with so 



32 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1605. 

much quickness, and draw it so subtle and so long, that, without an hyperbole, 
the end or thread of every case may have two leagues in length.* He adver- 
tises, that they must by no means be interrupted in their work, to the end, 
that all the silk they have in their bellies may come out. 

Some eight days after they have finished their work, as many of the best 
cases as are to serve for seed, viz. the first done, the hardest, the reddest and 
best coloured, must be chosen, and put apart ; and all diligence is to be used 
to wind off the silk with as much speed as may be, especially if the worms 
have nimbly dispatched their work. 

Here he spends a good part of his book in giving very particular instruc- 
tions concerning the way of winding off the silk, setting also down the form 
of the oven and instruments necessary for that work, which is the painfulest 
and nicest of all the rest. 

Touching their generation, he prescribes that there be chosen as many male 
as female cases (which are discerned by this, that the males are more pointed at 
both ends of the cases, and the females more obtuse on the ends, and bigger- 
bellied), and that care be had, that no cases be taken, but such wherein the 
worms are heard rolling ; which done, and they being come forth in the form 
of butterflies, having four wings, six feet, two horns, and two very black eyes, 
and put in a convenient place, the males fluttering with their wings, will join 
and couple with the females, after that these have first purged themselves of a 
kind of reddish humour: they are to be left from morning (which is the or- 
dinary time of their coming forth) till evening, and then the females are to be 
gently pulled away, whereupon they will lay their eggs ; but the males are then 
thro\vn away as useless. 

Enquiries concerning Agriculture. N° 5, p. 91- 

The Royal Society, in prosecuting the improvements in natural knowledge, 
have it in design to collect histories of nature and arts ; and for that purpose 
have already, according to the several inclinations and studies of their members, 
divided themselves into divers committees, to execute the said design. Those 
gentlemen who constitute the committee for agriculture, and the history and 

* Monsieur Isnard's computation seems rather to border on the extravagant. The length indeed 
may be supposed, to differ considerably in tlie different silk-balls, but, in general, will be found far 
short of that stated by Isnard. According to Boyle, as quoted by Derham, a lady, on making the 
experiment, found the length of a ball to be considerably more than tliree hundred yards, though 
the weight was only two grains and a half. The Abbe Le Pluche informs us, tliat of two balls one 
measured 9Q4 feet, and the other 930. It may be proper to add, that the silk throughout its whole 
kngth is double, or composed of two conjoined or agglutinated filaments. 



roL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 33 

improvement of it, began their work with drawing up certain heads of inquiries, 
to be distributed to persons experienced in husbandry all over England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, for procuring faithful and solid information of the know- 
ledge and practice now employed in these kingdoms ; and to consider what im- 
provements may be further made in this whole matter. They have accordingly 
proposed the inquiries following : 

1. For Arable Grounds. 

1 . The several kinds of soils in England, being supposed to be either sandy, 
gravelly, stony, clayey, chalky, light-mould, heathy, marish, boggy, fenny, or 
cold weeping ground : what is the soil of each country, and how prepared for 
arable ? 

2. What peculiar preparation each soil undergoes for each kind of grain; 
with what kind of manure they are prepared ; when, how, and in what quantity 
it is laid on ? 

3. At what seasons and how often they are ploughed; and what kind of 
ploughs are used for several sorts of ground ? 

4. How long the several grounds are let lie fallow? 

5. How, and for what productions, heathy grounds may be improved? 

6. What ground has marl ? how deep commonly it lies from the surface ? 
what is the depth of the marl itself? what the colour of it? upon what grounds 
it is used? what time of the year it is to be laid on? how many loads to an acre? 
what grains marled land will bear ; and how many years together? how such 
marled land is to be used afterwards, &c. ? 

7. The kinds of grain or seed, usual in England, being either wheat, misce- 
lane, rye, barley, oats, peas, beans, fitches, buck-wheat, hemp, flax, rape ; what 
sorts of these are sown in each county, and how prepared for sowing? whether 
by steeping, and in what kind of liquor ; or by mixing it, and with what ? 

8. There being many sorts of wheat, as the white or red lammas, the bearded 
Kentish wheat, the gray wheat, the red or gray pollard, the ducks-bill wheat, 
the red-eared bearded wheat, &c. And so of oats, as the common black, blue, 
naked, bearded in North-Wales, and the like of barley, peas, beans, &c. The 
inquiry is, which of these grow in each country, and in what soil ; which of 
them thrive best there, and whether each of them require a peculiar tillage, and 
how they differ in goodness? 

p. What are the chief particulars obser\^able in the choice of seed-corn, and 
all kinds of grain ; and what kinds of grain are most proper to succeed each 
other ? 

10. What quantity of each kind is sown on the statute acre ? And in what 
season of the moon and year ? 

VOL. I, E 



34 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aKNO 1665. 

, 11, With what instruments they harrow, clod and rowl, and at what seasons? 

12. How much an acre of good corn generally yields in very good, in less 
good, and in the worst years ? 

13. What are the causes and remedies of mildew, blasting, and smut; being 
some of the common diseases of corn in this country ? 

14. How weeds, worms, flies, birds, mice, moles, &c. are prevented. 

15. Upon what occasions young corn is cut or fed in the blade; and what are 
the benefits thereof ? 

1 6. What are the seasons and ways of reaping and ordering each sort of grain, 
before it be carried off the ground ? 

17. What are the several ways of preserving grain in the straw, within and 
without doors, from all annoyance, as mice, heating, rain, &c. 

18. What are the several ways of separating the different sorts of grain from 
the straw, and of dressing them ? 

19. What are the ways of preserving any stores of grain from the annoyances 
they are liable to ? 

2. For Meadoius, 

1 . How the above-mentioned sorts of soil are prepared, when they are used 
for pasture or meadow ? 

2. How are prevented the common annoyances of these pasture or meadow 
grounds, as weeds, moss, sourgrass, heath, fern, bushes, briars, brambles, 
broom, rushes, sedges, gorse or furzes ? 

3. What are the best ways of draining marshes, bogs, fens, &c. ? 

4. What are the several kinds of grass, and which are accounted the best ? 

5. What are the chief circumstances observable in the cutting of grass ; and 
what in the making and preserving of hay ? 

6. What kind of grass is fittest to be preserved for winter feeding ? And what 
grass is best for sheep, for cows, oxen, horses, goats, &c. 

Account of the Burning Concave Glass, made at Lyons hy M. Villette, 
and compared ?vith several others made formerly. iV" 6', p. 9o. 
Thf; following is the account of this glass, communicated in some letters from 
Paris. 

Concerning the efficacy of M. de Villette's burning glass, all that P. Bertot has 
written of it, is true. We have seen its effects frequently repeated in the morn- 
ing, noon, and afternoon, always performing very powerfully; burning or melt- 
ing any matters, very few excepted. Its figure is round, being rather above 
thirty inches in diameter. On one side it has a circular frame of steel, that it 
may keep its just measure. It is easy to remove it from place to place, though it 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPIUCAL TRANSACTIONS.' 35 

weigh above a hundred weight, and is easily put in all sorts of positions. The 
focus is distant from the centre of the glass about three feet, and is about the 
size of half a louis d'or. One may pass one's hand through it, if it be done 
nimbly; but if it remain there for one second only, there is danger of receiving 
much hurt. 

Green wood takes fire in it in an instant, as do also many other bodies. 

Seconds. 
A small piece of pot-iron was melted, and ready to drop do\vn, in ... . 40 

A silver piece of 1 5 pence was pierced in 24 

A thick nail (called le clou de paisan) was melted in 30 

The end of a sword-blade of olinde was burnt in 43 

A brass counter was pierced in Q 

A piece of red copper was melted, ready to drop down in 42 

A piece of a chamber quarry-stone was vitrified in 45 

Watch spring steel melted in '. 9 

A mineral stone, such as is used in harquebusses d. rouet, was calcined 

and vitrified in 1 just, 

A piece of mortar was vitrified in 52 

In short, there is hardly any body which is not destroyed by this fire. To 
melt by it any great quantity of metal much time would be required, the action 
of burning not being performed but within the size of the focus ; so that usually 
only small pieces are exposed to it. M. d'Alibert bought it for 1500 livres. 

This information has caused the following further particulars to be com- 
municated from Paris: — 

I see by some letters that you incline to believe that the glasses of Maginus 
and Septalius approach to that of Lyons. But I can assure you they come very 
far short of it. You may consult Maginus's book, where he describes his ; and 
there are some persons here who have seen one of his best, which had but 
about twenty inches diameter : so that this of Lyons must perform at least twice 
as much. As to Septalius, we expect the account of it from intelligent and im- 
partial men. It cannot well be compared to that of Lyons, unless in bigness ; 
and in this case, if it have five palms, as you say, that would be about 3^- feet 
French ; so that would be again a foot larger in diameter, which would make it 
as much again greater in surface. But its effects, as it bums so far ofF, cannot 
be very violent. And I have heard one say, who had seen it, that it did not set 
wood on fire but after the time of saying a miserere. You may judge of the 
difference of the effects, since that of Lyons gathers its beams together within 
the space of seven or eight lines ; and that of Septalius must scatter them in the 
compass of three inches. 

E 2 



36 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665* 

Of the Optic Glasses of M. Hevelius and M. Huygens; and other 
Improvements in Telescopes. N" 6, p. 98. 

That eminent astronomer of Dantzic, M. Hevelius,* writes to his corre- 
spondent in London as follows : — 

What has been done in the grinding of optic glasses in your parts, and how 
those beginnings, mentioned by you formerly, do continue and succeed, I am 
very desirous of hearing. It is now ahove ten years since I myself invented a 
peculiar way of grinding such glasses, and reduced it to practice ; by which it 
is easy, without any considerable danger of failing, to make and polish optic 
glasses of any conic section, and, what is of most consequence, in any dish 
of any section of a sphere. This invention I have as yet discovered to none, 
my purpose being, for the improvement of natural knowledge, to describe the 
whole method in my celestial machine, and to propose it to the examination and 
judgment of the Royal Society ; not doubting at all but they will find the way 
true and practicable, myself having already made several glasses by it, which 
many learned men have seen and tried. 

Monsieur Huygens inquiring also in a letter, newly written by him to a 
friend of his in England, of the success of the attempts made by an ingenious 
Englishman for perfecting such glasses, and urging the prosecution of the same, 
so as to show, by the effects, the practicability of the invention, says, that he 
intends very shortly to try something of that kind, of the success of which he 
has good hopes. 

M. du Son, that excellent mechanician, is also now employing himself in 
London, to bring telescopes to perfection, by grinding glasses of a parabolical 
figure ; by means of which he hopes to enable the curious to discover more by a 
tube of about one foot long, furnished with glasses thus figured, than can be 
done by any other tubes of many times that length. . 

* John Hevelius was born at Dantzic in 161I, and died there in 1687. His education was liberal 
and his studies extensive, but mathematics were his chief pursuit. He built an observatory for the 
purpose of astronomical observations, the result of which he published in l6i7, under the title of 
Selenographia, sive Lnnoe descriptio, SfC. His Cometographia , which appeared in 1668, occasioned 
a controversy between himself and Dr. Hook, on this question, " Whether distances and altitudes 
could betaken with plain sights nearer than to a minute ?" This dispute was carried on with great 
warmth and considerable enmity. The principal of his numerous works is that entitled Machina 
Calestis. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS; 37 

Of a Method of mahing more lively Representations of Nature in Wax 
than are extant in Painting : Ajid of a new hind of Maps in Bas 
Relief Both practised in France. By Mr. John Evelyn. N" 6, 
P^ 99. 

This was communicated by the ingenious Mr. John Evelyn, to whom it was 
sent from Paris in a letter, as follows : — 

Here is a Frenchman who makes more lively exhibitions of nature in wax 
than ever I yet saw in painting ; having an extraordinary address in modelling the 
figures, and in mixing the colours and shadows ; also making the eyes like 
nature. 

I have also seen a new kind of maps in bas relief, or sculpture : For example, 
the isle of Antibe, on a square of about eight feet, made of boards, with a frame 
like a picture. There is represented the sea, with ships and their cannons and 
tackle of wood fixed upon the surface, after a new and most admirable manner. 
The rocks about the island exactly formed, as they are in nature ; and the island 
itself, with all its inequalities, hills and dales ; the town, the fort, the small 
houses, platform, and cannons mounted ; and even the gardens and platforms of 
trees, with their green leaves standing upright, as if they were growing in their 
natural colours. In short, men, beasts, and whatever you may imagine to have" 
any protuberancy above the level of the sea. This new, delightful, and most 
instructive form of map, or wooden country, affords equally a very pleasant ob- 
ject, whether it be viewed horizontally or sidelong. 

Some Observations on a White Fluid resembling Milk, found in the 
Feins, instead of Blood: fAnonymousJ . And on Grass found in the 
Wind Pipes of some Animals. By Mr. Boyle. iV" 6, p. 100. 

This observation of a fluid resembling milk being found in tlie veins instead 
of blood, is explained by a further communication at the end of this same 
number, p. 117, where it is related, on the authority of Dr. Lower, that a 
maid after eating a good breakfast about seven in the morning, was let blood 
about eleven the same day in her foot. The blood first drawn, which was re- 
ceived in a porringer, soon turned very white : that which was last drawn was re- 
ceived in a saucer, and turned white immediately, like the white of a custard. 
Within five or six hours after the physician saw both, and found that con- 
tained in the porringer to be half blood and half chyle, swimming upon it like a 
serum as white as milk ; and that in the saucer all chyle, without the least ap- 
pearance of blood. When heated over a gentle fire they both hardened, as 



3^ i»HILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

the white of an egg or the serum of the blood do under shuilar circumstances, 
but they were far whiter.* 

The second part of this communication states, that a considerable quantity 
of grass has often been found in the trachea and bronchia of sheep ; and that 
the wind-pipe of an ox, which had died of a disease, was stuffed with the same 
vegetable matter as if it had been thrust there by main force. 

Of a Place in England where, tvithout petrifying Water, Wood is 
turned into Stone. N° 6, p. 101. 

According to Dr. Plott, the place where the petrified wood commemorated 
in this paper is found, is a gravelly ground in the parish of Wendlebury in 
Oxfordshire, not far from the church. The kind of osteocolla mentioned in 
this paper is found in the rubble-quarries at Heddington in the same county ; 
when scraped it has the smell of burnt bone. 

Of the [medidnaT] Nature of a certain Stone found in the Indies in the 
Head of a Serpent. By Philibert Fernati. N" 6, p. 102. 

This communication relates to a superstitious story of a stone found in the 
head of certain serpents, having the property of healing their venomous bite 
when applied to the wound. We shall not detain the reader with more parti- 
culars on this subject. 

Of the Way used in the Mogul's Dominions to maize Saltpetre. From 
Thefenot's Travels. N" 6, p. 103. 

Saltpetre is found in many places of the East Indies, but chiefly about Agra, 
and in the villages that heretofore have been numerously inhabited, but are 
now deserted. They extract it from three sorts of earth, black, yellow, and 
white. The best is that which is drawn out of the black, for it is free from 
common salt. They work it in this manner : They make two pits, flat at the 
bottom, like those wherein common salt is made, one of them having much 
more compass than the other, they fill that with (the aforesaid) earth, upon 
which they let water run, and by the feet of people they tread it to the con- 

* In the blood of this patient there appears to have been an over-proportion of serum, rendered 
whiter than usual by a considerable quantity of new chyle. The manner in which the original title 
is worded might lead to an erroneous conception; since it was not " milk tliat was found in veins 
INSTEAD of blood," (p. 100), butblood itself, containing such an excess of the fluids just mentioned 
as to have a milkr/ appearance. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 3^ 

sistency of a pap, letting it stand for two days, that the water may extract all 
the salt that is in the earth : then they pass this water into another pit, in 
which it crystallizes into saltpetre. When they would have it whiter and purer, 
they boil it in a cauldron once or twice, scumming it continually, and emptying 
it out, whilst it is hot, into earthen pots which hold each 25 or 30 lbs. These 
they expose to clear nights, and if there be any impurity remaining it falls to 
the bottom. Afterwards they break the pots, and dry the salt in the sun. 

An Account of Hefelius's Prodromus Cometictis, ivith some Animad- 
versions made upon it, hy a Frejich Philosopher. N° 6, p. 104. 

Hevelius, in his Prodromus, so called, because it is as an introduction to his 
Cometography, gives an account of the observations he has made on the first 
of the two late comets ; reserving those on the second for that great treatise, 
in which he also intends to enter more into detail on the first. 

In this account he represents the rise, place, course, swiftness, phases and 
train of this comet, and the causes of the generation of comets in general. 

He finds its apparent motion was not made in an exact great circle, but 
deviating considerably from it. 

He is positive, that without the annual motion of the earth no rational ac- 
count can be given of any comet, but that all is involved in perplexities, and 
deformed by absurdities. 

He inquires what kind of line they describe by their motion, whether circu- 
lar, or straight, or curved, or partly straight and partly curved ? And if curved, 
whether regular or irregular? if regular, whether elliptic, parabolical, or hyper- 
bolical ? He answers, that this motion is conical ; and is of opinion that by the 
conic path all the phaenomena of comets can, without any incoveniency, be 
readily solved. 

He puts it out of doubt that they are in the sky itself, producing reasons for 
it that are very considerable, and alleging among others, that it is clearly 
evinced by the parallaxes, which he finds far less in comets than in the moon, 
and sometimes than in the sun itself. Where he also represents that he has 
deduced the horizontal parallax of this very comet from one observation only, 
by which he found that then it was distant from the earth 5000 semidiameters 
of the same. From this distance from the earth, he deduces, that on that day 
when it was so remote from the earth, its true diameter was 2d6o German 
miles, which is three times larger then the diameter of the earth, and almost 
six times larger than that of the moon, whose diameter, according to his 
theory, is 442 German miles. 



40 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1665. 

He finds the matter of comets to be in the asther itself ; and that the planets 
emit their exhalations, and have their atmospheres like our earth. He affirms 
that the sun alone may cast out so much matter at any time in one year, as that 
thence shall be produced not one or two comets, equalling the moon in diame- 
ter, but very many ; which if so, what contribution may not be expected from 
the other planets.* 

He conceives that all comets respect the sun as their centre as planets do, 
making them a kind of spurious planets that emulate the true ones in their 
motion almost in all things. 

The train, according to him, is only the beams of the sun falling on the 
head of the comet, and passing through the same, refracted and reflected. 

Whether the same comets return again, as the spots in the sun ? and. Whe- 
ther in the time of great conjunctions they are more easily generated ? and. 
Whether they can be certainly foretold ? with several other inquiries, he refers 
for to his great work. 

As to prognostications, he complains, that men inquire more what comets 
signify than what they are, or how they are generated and moved ; professing 
himself to be of the opinion of those who would have comets rather admired 
than feared ; there appearing indeed no cogent reason, why the Author of Na- 
ture may not intend them rather as monitors of his glory and greatness than 
of his anger or displeasure; especially seeing that some very diligent men 
(among whom is Gemma Frisius) take notice of as great a number of good as 
bad events consequent to comets. 

Some animadversions have been made on this work by M. Auzout, in a let- 
ter to M. Petit ; in which he conceives that this prodromus contains some 
mistakes, which he particularises. 

Of the Mundus Suhterraneus of Athanasius Kircher.'\ N" 6, p. I09. 

This paper contains a long and tedious account of this work, after the man- 
ner of a modern review of it, enumerating all the particulars of the contents : 
an account now no longer either curious or useful. 

* It is curious, and not unprofitable, sometimes to observe the strange whims and puerile notions 
which some of tlie greatest men have formed in the early periods of certain natural and scientific dis- 
coveries. 

t Athanasius Kircher, or Kirker, a noted philosopher, W3s born at Fulda in 1601. He entered 
into the society of Jesuits in 10 18, and taught philosophy, mathematics, and the oriental languages in 
tlie university of Wirtsburg, till tlie year 1^3 J. He was afterwards called to Rome, where he 
taught mathematics in the Roman college, &nd died in 168O, being the 80th year of his age. — Kirker 
collected a rich cabinet of machines and antiquities j and the quantity of his works is immense. 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 41 

A farther Account of an Observation on white Blood, 
The substance of this paper is incorporated with a former account at p. 37. 

Of M. de Sons' Progress in working Parabolic Glasses. N" 7> p- 119. 

Since what was mentioned in a former paper respecting M. de Sons' noble 
attempt to grind glasses of a parabolic figure, the publisher of these papers has 
himself seen two eye-glasses of that shape, about one inch and a half deep, and 
one inch and a quarter broad, wrought by this eminent artist with a rare steel 
instrument of his own contrivance and workmanship, and by himself also 
polished to admiration. And certainly it will be wondered at by those who 
shall see these glasses, how they could be truly wrought to such a figure with 
such a cavity ; and yet more, when they shall hear that the author undertakes 
to excavate other such eye-glasses to above two inches, and object-glasses of 
five inches diameter. He has likewise already begun his object-glasses for the 
abovd-mentioned two ocular ones, of the same figure, of about two inches 
diameter, which are to be left all open, yet without causing any colours. 

M. Auzout's Speculations on the Changes lihely to be discovered in the 
Earth and Moon, by their respective Inhabitants, N° 7i p- 120. 

I have, says he, sometimes thought on the changes which it is likely the 
supposed inhabitants of the moon might discover in our earth, to see whether 
reciprocally I could observe any such in the moon. For example, that the earth 
would appear to the people of the moon to have a different face in the several 
seasons of the year ; and to have another appearance in winter, when there is 
scarcely any thing green on a very great part of the earth ; when there are 
countries all covered with snow, others all covered with water, others all ob- 
scured with clouds, and that for many weeks together. Another face in spring, 
when the forests and fields are green. Another in summer, when all are yel- 
low, &c. Methinks such changes are considerable enough, by the force of the 
reflections of light, to be observed, since so many differences of lights are seen 
in the moon. We have rivers considerable enough to be seen, and they enter 
far enough into the land, and have a breadth suflicient to be observed. There 
are fluxes in certain places, that reach into large countries, capable of making 
there some apparent change ; and in some of our seas there float sometimes 

amounting to 22 volumes in folio, 1 1 in quarto, and 3 in octavo. Most of them indeed are rather 
curious than useful; many of tliem visionary and fanciful j and it is not to be wondered at, if they 
are not always accompanied with much exactness or precision. 
VOL. I. F 



4% PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS,. [aNNO 1665. 

such bulky masses of ice, that are far larger than the objects which we are 
assured we can see in the moon. Again, we cut down whole forests, and drain 
marshes, of an extent large enough to cause a considerable alteration : And 
men have made such work, as have produced changes large enough to be per- 
ceived. In many places also are volcanoes sufficiently large to be distinguished, 
especially in the shadow : And when forests or great towns are on fire, it can 
hardly be doubted, but these luminous objects would appear, either in an eclipse 
of the earth, or when such parts of the earth are not illuminated by the sun. 
But I know no man who has yet observed such things in the moon ;* and one 
may be rationally assured that no volcanoes exist there, or that none of them burn 
at this time. And to this all curious men, that have good telescopes, ought well 
to attend. And I doubt not, that if we had a very particular map of the moon, 
we or our posterity should find some changes in her. And if the maps of the 
moon of Hevelius, Divini, and Riccioli, be exact, I can affirm, that I have 
seen there some places considerable enough, where they put parts that are clear, 
whereas I there see dark ones. It is true that if there be seas in the moon, it 
can hardly happen otherwise than on our earth, where alluviums or new acces- 
sions of land are made in some places, and the sea gains on the land in others. 
I say, if those spots we see in the moon are seas, as it is commonly believed ; 
whereas I have many reasons for being of a contrary opinion. And I have 
sometimes thought whether it might not be, that all the seas of the moon, if 
there must be seas, were not on the side of the other hemisphere, and that for 
this cause it might be that the moon turns not her axis, as our earth, in which 
the lands and seas are, as it were, balanced. This also may be the cause why 
there appear not any clouds there, nor any vapours considerable enough to be 
5seen, that are raised from the earth; and that this absence of vapours may also be 
the reason that there is no twilight there, as it seems there is none, I myself 
at least not being able to discern any : For I think the reputed inhabitants of 
the moon might see our twilight, since it is much stronger than the light 
afforded us by the moon, even when full ; for a little after sun-set, when we re- 
ceive no more the first light of the sun, the sky is far clearer than it is in the 
fairest night of the full moon. And since we observe in the moon, when she is 
increasing or decreasing, the light she receives from the earth, we cannot doubt 
but that the people of the moon should likewise see in the earth the light with 
which the moon illuminates it, with perhaps the difference there is between their 
magnitude. Much more then should they see the crepuscular light, being, as 

* Such things have of late been observed, in consequence of the great improvements in telescopes 
by Dr. Herschel : thus verifying the speculations of the ingenious French astronomer. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 43 

was said, incomparably greater. But yet we see not any faint light beyond the 
section of the light, which is almost every where equally strong, and we there 
distinguish nothing at all, not so much as that clearest part called aristarchus, 
or porphyrites, as I have often tried ; although one may there see the light 
which the earth sends thither, which is sometimes so strong, that in the moon*s 
decrease I have often distinctly seen all the parts of the moon that were not 
enlightened by the sun, together with the difference of the clear parts and the 
spots, so far as to be able to discern them all. The shadows also of all the 
cavities of the moon seem to be stronger than they would be if there were a 
second light. For although afar off the shadows of our bodies, environed with 
light, seem to us almost dark ; yet they do not appear so in the same degree as the 
shadows of the moon ; and those on the edge of the section should not ap- 
pear in the like manner. But I will determine nothing of any of these things. 

To measure Distances at one Station. By M. Auzout. N" 7, p, 124. 

It is long since I found out a method of measuring, with a large telescope, 
from one station, the distance of objects on the earth. The practice indeed 
<loes not altogether answer the theory, because the length of the telescopes 
admits of some latitude ; yet it comes near enough, and is perhaps as just as 
most of the ways commonly used with instruments. If we consider the sole 
theory only, an ordinary telescope may be used, having its eye-glass convex : 
for, by putting the glasses at a little greater distance than they are, propor- 
tionably to the distance for which it is to serve, and by adding to it a new eye- 
glass, the object will be seen distinct, though obscure ; and if the eye-glass be 
convex, the object will appear erect. It may be done two ways ; either by 
leaving the telescope in its ordinary situation, the object-glass before the eye- 
glass ; or by inverting it, and putting this before that. But if two object- 
glasses be used, of which the foci are known, the distance of them will be also 
known. If we suppose the focus of the first to be B, that of the second C, 
and the given distance B-J-2D, and that D minus C is equal to F, for this 
distance will be equal to B-f-C+F— r F^— C^ And if you have the focus of the 
first object-glass equal to B, the distance at which the second glass is to be put, 

equal to B+C-f D, the focus of the second glass will be found equal to 
CD . . 

nxr\ ' -^^ if yo^ would have the object magnified as much with these two 

glasses, as it would be with a single one, of which the focus should be of the 
given distance, having the focus of the object-glass given equal to B, and the 
distance given equal to B+D ; then the distance between the first and second 

F 2 



44 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1 665^. 



glass mil be equal to „ ~ - from which subducting B (the given focus of 

the object-glass) there remains - ; and if this sum be supposed equal to 

C, we shall easily know, by the preceding rule, the focus of the second 
glass. 

j4 Way of preparing a Liquor that shall sink into and colour the ivhole 
Body of Marble ; causing a Picture, drawn on a Surface, to appear 
also in the inmost Parts of the Stone. By A. Kircher. N" 7, pl^5. 

The colours are thus prepared : Take of aqua fortis and aqua regia, two 
ounces each; of sal ammoniac one ounce; of the best spirit of wine, two drams; 
as much gold as can be had for four shillings and six pence ; and of pure silver, 
two drams. These materials being provided, let the silver, when calcined, be 
put into a vial ; and having poured upon it the two ounces of aqua fortis, let it 
evaporate, and you will have a water yielding first a blue colour, and afterwards 
a black. Likewise put the gold, when calcined, into a vial, and having poured 
the aqua regia upon it, set it by to evaporate : then pour the spirit of wine 
upon the sal ammoniac, leaving it also till it be evaporated ; and you will have a 
golden coloured water^ which will afford divers colours. After this manner 
you may extract many tinctures of colours out of other metals. This done, 
you may, by means of these two waters, paint what picture you please on white 
marble of the softer kind, renewing the figure every day for several days with 
some fresh superadded liquor ; and you will find in time, that the picture has 
penetrated the whole solidity of the stone, so that cutting it into as many parts 
as you will, it will always represent to you the same figure on both sides. 

But whether this experiment will succeed, or not, it is certain that Mr. Bird, 
a stone-cutter in Oxford, has many years ago found out a way of doing the 
same thing, and has practised it for many years. That is, he can apply a co- 
lour to the outside of polished marble, that shall sink a considerable depth into 
the body of the stone, and there represent the same figures as those on the out- 
side, deeper or shallower as he continues the application a longer or shorter 
time. Several pieces of which are to be seen in Oxford, London, and else- 
where. And some of them being shown to his majesty, they were broken in 
his presence, and found to answer expectation. 

China JVares made in Europe. N° 7j p- 127- 

Notice was lately given by a Parisian to a friend in London, that he had been 
informed that Signior Septalio, a canon in Milan, had the secret of making as 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 45 

good porcelain as is made in China itself, and transparent : adding that he had 
seen him make some. 

Account of an odd Spring in Westphalia; also of Salt Springs, and 

the straining of Salt Water. N° 7, p- 127. 
' In the diocese of Paderborn, in Westphalia, there is a spring which disappears 
twice in 24 hours, returning always after six hours with a great noise, and so 
forcibly as to drive three mills not far from its source. The inhabitants call it 
the bolderborn, that is, the boisterous spring. 

It is remarked that no salt water which contains any metal in it, can well 
be boiled to salt in a vessel of the same metal which itself contains, except 
vitriol in copper vessels. 

It is added, that to separate salt from salt water without fire, if you take a 
vessel of wax, hollow within, and every where tight, and plunge it into the sea, 
or into other salt water, there will be such a separation made, that the vessel 
will be full of sweet water, the salt remaining behind : but though this water 
have no saltish taste, yet there will be found a salt in the essay, which is the 
spirit of salt, subtle enough with the water to penetrate the wax. 

An Account of the Method of conveying Liquors immediately into the 
Mass of the Blood. By Mr. Oldenburg. iV" 7, p- 128. 
In this account it is asserted, that the discovery of a method of conveying 
liquors immediately into the mass of blood is due to Dr. Christopher Wren, at 
that time Savillian professor in the university of Oxford. The method which he 
followed was to make a ligature on the veins, and having made an opening in 
them on the side of the ligature towards the heart, to introduce into them 
slender syringes or quills fastened to bladders (in the manner of clyster pipes) 
containing the matter to be injected ; performing the operation upon pretty big 
and lean dogs, that the vessels might be large enough and easily accessible. 
These experiments were made at different times upon several dogs. Opium and 
the infusion of crocus metallorum were injected into the veins of the hind legs 
of these animals. The opium soon stupified, but did not kill the dog ; but a 
large dose of the crocus metallorum induced vomiting and death in another 
dog. These experiments are more circumstantially related by Mr. Boyle, in his 
excellent book on the Usefulness of Experimental Philosophy j Part II. Essay II. 
pp. 53-55. See also an account of other experiments of this sort in No. 27 
of these Transactions. 

Trialsy made in Italy, of Campani's new Optic-Glasses. N° 8, p. ISl, 
Intelligence was lately received from Rom^, importing that Campani has had 



46 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

the advantage of Divini.* The great Duke of Tuscany, and Prince Leopold, 
his brother, upon trial made of both their glasses, have found that those of 
Campani excel the other ; and that, with them, they have been able easily to 
distinguish people at four leagues distance. 

A further Relation of the Whale-Fishijig about the Bei^mudas, and on 
the Coast of New-England and New-Netherland. N^S, p.} 32. 

The person who communicated the particulars respecting the new Whale- 
fishing near the Bermudas, mentioned in the first of these tracts, gives this 
further information : That about two years since, there stranded on the coast 
of New-England a dead whale, of the species which is called Trumpo, having 
teeth resembling those of a mill, and -its mouth at a good distance from, 
and under the nose or trunk, having several boxes or partitions in the nose, 
like those in the tails of lobsters. And that being opened, there run out of it a 
thin oily substance, which congealed ; after which, the remainder, being a 
thick fatty substance, was taken out of the same part with a scoop : And this 
substance, he affirmed, is the spermaceti ; adding further, that the blubber 
of the same sort of whales, when stewed, yields on the top a. creamy substance, 
which when thrown upon white wine lets fall a dirty heterogeneous sediment ; 
but what remains above affords a spermaceti-like matter. 

He concluded by observing, that these whales were to be met with between 
the coast of New-England and New-Netherland, where they might be caught 
eight or nine months in the year, whereas those about the Bermudas are to be 
found only in the months of February, March, and April.-|- 

Of a remarhable Spring near Paderhorn in Germany. N" 8, p. 133. 

In the diocese of Paderborn, about two leagues from that town, is a spring, 
called metborn, with three streams, two of which are not above one foot and a 
half distant from each other, and yet of such different qualities, that one of 

* Eustachio Divini was an ingenious Italian artist of those times, very eminent for his telescopes, 
though, as it seems, inferior to Campani. He wrote against the discovery of Saturn's ring, made by 
Huygens, contesting the truth of it. Divini was living in l663 3 but the time of his birtli or death 
is not ascertained. 

f The species of whale here meant is the Physeter macrocephalus, Lin. The large fish mentioned 
in the latter part of the paper (and which is here omitted) seems to be the Xiphias platypterus or 
broad-finned sword-fish, which Dr. Bloch ratlier chuses to consider as a species of Scomber. It is 
a great enemy to whales, which it wounds, and probably sometimes kills by striking them witli its 
horn or snout. It sometimes attacks ships in the same manner, and is supposed to mistake them for 
wliales ; breaking the horn or snout with die violence of the effort, and leaving a part imbedded in 
the timber. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. gf 

them is limpid, bluish, lukewarm, and bubbling, containing sal-ammoniac, oker, 
iron, vitriol, alum, sulphur, nitre, and orpiment,* used against epilepsies, dis- 
eased spleens, and the worms ; the other is ice-cold, turbid, and whitish, much 
stronger in taste, and heavier than the former, containing much orpiment, 
salt, iron, nitre, and some sal-ammoniac, alum, and vitriol. All birds that drink 
of the latter are observed to die ; which I have also made experiment of, by 
taking some of it home, and giving it to poultry, after having eaten oats, barley 
and bread-crums : For soon after drinking it, they became giddy, reeled and 
tumbled upon their backs, with convulsions, and so died with their legs much 
extended. Giving them common salt immediately after they had drunken, they 
lived longer ; giving them vinegar, they died not at all, but seven or eight days 
after were troubled with the pip. Those that died being opened, their lungs 
were found quite shrivelled. Yet some persons who are troubled with worms, 
taking a little quantity of it diluted with common water, have been observed by 
this means to kill the worms in their bodies, and discharged great numbers oi 
them : and though it makes them sick, yet not so as to endanger their lives. 

The third stream, lying lower than the other two, and about 20 paces distant 
from them, is of a greenish colour, very clear^ and of a sourish sweet taste, 
agreeable enough. Its weight is a medium between that of the other two; 
whence it is probable that it is a mixture of both, meeting there together : To 
confirm which, we mixed equal quantities of those two with a little common 
well water, and found, on stirring them together, and permitting them to settle, 
that they produced water of the same colour and taste as this third stream. 

» 

Of other uncommon Springs at Basil and in Alsace. N° 8, p. 134. 

At Basil there is a spring of a bluish colour, and somewhat troubled, hold- 
ing copper, bitumen, and antimony ; about three parts of the first, one of the 
second, and two of the last. The tanners water their skins in it ; and, being 
a well-tasted and wholesome water, it is both much drunken, and used to 
bathe in.-f- 

In the same town, which abounds with spring waters, there are two, among 
the rest, called Bandulph's Well, and Brun Zum Brunnen, that are more 
observable than the others, the former of them having a camphory and drying 

•* The chemical analysis of mineral waters was so imperfectly understood in the 17tii century, 
Ihat little reliance can be placed on the number and proportion of ingredients assigned in this and 
other instances. 

f If this water had really held copper and antimony in solution, it could not have been well-tasted j 
much less could it have been a wholesome water. Antimony (we believe) has never yet been found 
in any mineral water, and copper only in tlie streams which run from copper mines. 



48 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

quality, and used against dropsical distempers ; the latter containing some sul- 
phur, saltpetre and gold,* and being an excellent water to drink, is much used in 
the principal tavern of the city. 

In Alsace, in the valley called Leberthal, near Geesbach, an ancient mine 
work, there runs out of a cavern a foul, fattish, oily liquor, which, though the 
countrymen of that place employ in greasing their wheels instead of ordinary 
wheel-grease, yet it affords an excellent balsam, by putting a quantity of it into 
an earthen pot well luted, that no steam may exhale ; and then, with a gentle 
fire at first, but stronger afterwards, boiling it for three hours together ; when 
it will have decreased a fourth part, and an earthen matter, like pitch, will 
settle itself at the bottom : but on the top, when cold, there will swim a fatty 
substance, like lyne-oil, limpid and somewhat yellowish, which is to be de- 
canted from the thick sediment, and then gently distilled in an alembic in 
arena ; by which means there will come over two different liquors, one phleg- 
matic, the other oily, which latter, swimming on the phlegm, is to be severed 
from it. The phlegm is used as an excellent resister and curer of putrefactions 
of the lungs and liver ; and it heals all foul wounds and ulcers. The oily part, 
being diluted with double its quantity of distilled vinegar, and three times dis- 
tilled over, yields a rare balsam, used against all inward and outward corruptions, 
stinking ulcers, hereditary scurfs and scabs. It is also much used against apo- 
plexies, palsies, consumptions, giddinesses, and head-aches. Inwardly they 
take it with succory water against all corruptions of the lungs. It is a kind of 
petroleum, and contains no other mineral juice, but that of sulphur, which 
seems to be thus distilled by nature under ground ; the distillation of an oil out 
of sulphur by art, being not so easy to perform. 

Of the richest Salt Springs in Germany. N" 8, p. 136. 

The salt springs at Hall in Saxony are four, called Gutighr, the Dutch spring, 
the Mettritz, and the Hackel-dorn. The first three contain each about seven 
parts of salt, three of marcasite, and 14 of water. The last contains less, but 
yields the purest salt. They are, besides their ordinary use, employed, medi- 
cinally to bathe in ; and a spirit is extracted from them, used with good success 
against venom, and the putrefaction of the lungs, liver, reins, and spleen. 

The salt water at Lunenburg, being more greenish than white, and not very 
transparent, is nearly of the same nature and contents with that of Hall. It has 
a mixture of lead in it, which hinders it from being boiled in pans of that metal ;'|- 
and if it contained no lead at all it would not be so good, that metal being 

* The existence of gold in this mineral water is wholly imaginary, 

•J- This mixture of lead is supposititious, but were it true, it could be no impediment to tlie boiling 
of the water in pans of that metal. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 4^ 

judged to purify the water : whence also Lunenburg salt Is preferred before any 
from salt springs. 

Stvarms of strange and mischievous Insects, in New Englatid. 

N'' 8, p. 137. 

Some few years since in New England, there was such a swarm of a certain 
kind of insects,* that for the space of 200 miles they destroyed all the trees of 
the country. There appeared innumerable little holes in the ground, out of 
which they broke forth in the form of maggots, which turned into flies, with 
a kind of tail or sting, which they struck into the tree, and thereby envenomed 
and killed it. 

The like plague is said to happen frequently in the country of the Cosaks or 
the Ukrane, where in dry summers they are infested with such swarms of lo- 
custs, driven thither by an east or south-east wind, that they darken the air 
in the fairest weather, and devour all the corn of that country ; laying their 
eggs in autumn, and then dying ; but the e^gs, of which every one lays two 
or three hundred, hatching the next spring, produce again such a number of 
locusts, as to be far more destructive than before, unless rains fall, which kill 
both eggs and the insects themselves, or unless a strong north or north-west 
wind arise, which drives them into the Euxine sea. 

The Brooding of Snakes and Vipers. iV** 8, j&. 138. 

There is this difference between the brooding of snakes and vipers, that the 
former lay their eggs in dung-hills, by the warmth of which they are hatched ; 
but the latter brood their eggs within their bellies, and bring forth live 
vipers. 

Some Observations of odd Constitutions of Bodies. By Mr. Oldenburg. 

N'' 8, p. 138. 

The first of these observations gives an account of a person becoming dropsical, 
from taking cold by spending many nights in the open air, in making astronomical 
observations — ^The second contains a relation of a young girl of 13, who from 
the time she was six years old and began to be about her mother in the kitchen, 
would, as often as she was bid to bring her salt, fill her pockets with it and eat 
it as other children do sugar ; whence she was so dried up and grown so stiff^ 
that she could not stir her limbs, and was thereby starved to death — The third 

* What these insects were it is not very easy to determine. 
VOL. I. G 



50 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666. 

and last part of these observations contains another instance (in addition to those 
mentioned in a former communication) of a white fluid, resembling milk, being 
drawn from the vein of a patient who was ordered to be blooded. 

To preserve Ice and Sjiozv hy Chaff. By Mr. Wm. Ball. 

N' 8, p. 139. 

The snow and ice-houses at Leghorn in Italy are commonly built on the 
side of a steep hill, being only a deep hole in the ground, by which means they 
easily make a passage out from the bottom of it, to carry away all the water, 
which, if it should remain stagnating there, would melt the ice and snow. 
They are thatched with straw in the shape of a saucepan-cover, that the rain 
may not enter them. This pit is filled full of snow or ice, which must be of 
the purest water, to be used in their wine, after first spreading the bottom 
very well with chafF; I think they use barley chafF. Then, as they put in the 
ice or the snow, (which latter they ram down,) they line the sides very thick 
with such chaiF, and afterwards cover it well over with the same. In half a 
year's time it is found not to have lost above an eighth part of its first weight. 
Whenever they take it out into the air, they wrap it in this chafF, and it thus 
keeps exceeding well. 

The other usual way, both in Italy and other countries, to preserve snow and 
ice, is with straw or reed ; as is particularly related by Mr. Boyle, in his Ex- 
perimental History of Cold. 

Directions for Seamen bound for long Voyages. By Mr. Rooke. 

N' 8, p. 140. 

It being the design of the Royal Society, for the better attaining the end of 
their institution, to study nature rather than books, and, from the observations 
made of the phaenomena and efFects she presents, to compose such a history 
as may lay a foundation for solid and useful philosophy : For this purpose they 
gave orders to several of their members, and among others to Mr. Rooke,* 

* Mr. Lawrence Rooke, a distinguished astronomer and mathematician, was bom at Dept- 
ford near Greenwich, in l623. He was educated at Eton school, whence he removed to King's 
College, Cambridge, in 1639. But in the year 1650 he settled at Oxford to enjoy the company of 
several eminently learned men residing there, where he associated witla those philosophers who after- 
wards formed tlie Royal Society. In l652 Mr. Rooke was chosen professor of astronomy in Gres- 
ham College, London, which appointment in 1 657 he exchanged for tlie geometry professorship. 
Having enjoyed these situations some years before the restoration in l658, most of those gentlemen 
who had been accustomed to assemble with him at Oxford, coming to London, joined with other 
philosophical persons, and usually met at Gresham College to hear Mr. Rooke's lectures, and after the 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 51 

professor of geometry in Gresham College, to draw up heads of enquiries for 
the use of seamen in making obser\'ations. in their voyages, which he accord* 
ingly executed, as below : — 

1 . To observe the declination of the compass, or its variation from the me- 
ridian ; noting also the latitude and longitude of the place where such obser- 
vation is made, and stating the method of taking them. 

2. To carry dipping needles with them, and observe their inclination. 

3. To observe carefully the tides in as many places as they can, with all the 
circumstances ; such as the precise time of ebbing and flowing in rivers, and at 
capes ; the set of their currents, the perpendicular distance between the highest 
tide and lowest ebb, in spring and neap tides ; what day of the moon's age, and 
what times of the year, the highest and lowest tides happen. 

4. To make plots and draughts of coasts, promontories, islands and ports, 
marking the bearings and distances as near as may be. 

5. To sound and mark the depths of coasts, ports, and other places near the 
shore*. 

6. To observe, in all soundings, the nature of the ground at the bottom of 
the sea, whether it be clay, sand, rock, &c. 

7. To keep a register of all changes of the wind and weather at all hours, 
both day and night, the point the wind blows from, and whether strong or 
weak ; the rains, hail, snow, &c., the precise times of their beginnings and 
continuance, especially hurricanes and spouts ; and above all, carefully to ob- 
serve the trade-winds, about what degrees of latitude and longitude they first 
begin, where and when they cease, or change, or grow stronger or weaker, and 
how much. 

8. To observe all extraordinary meteors, lightnings, thunders, ignes fatui, 
comets, &c., marking the places and times of their appearing, continuance, &c. 

g. To carry with them good scales, and glass-vials of about a pint, with nar- 
row mouths, to be filled with sea-water in different latitudes, in order to know 
its weight, both of the water near the surface and at greater depths. 

Of the Shadow of one of Jupiter s Satellites, seen by a Telescope, 
passing over the Body of Jupiter. N" 8, p. 143. 

On the 26th of September last, at half an hour after seven o'clock, was seen, 
both in Holland and in France, the shadow of one of the satellites of Jupiter, 

lectures withdrew into his apartments to converse together : These meetings at length gave rise to the 
Royal Society itself; of which great and usefiil institution Mr. Rooke was a zealous promoter ; 
though he did not live till it received its establishment by the royal charter, as he died the 2J th of 
June, 1662, in the 40th year of his age, universally respected and regretted. 

G 2 



5^ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

passing over his body. One of those small stars moving round his body, which 
are therefore called his satellites, coming between the sun and it, made a small 
eclipse, appearing on the face of Jupiter as a little round black spot. 

Of a permanent Spot in Jupiter : by ivhich is manifested the Rotation 
of Jupiter about his own Axis. N" 8, p. 143. 

Besides that transient shadow last mentioned, there has been observed, by 
Mr. Hook first, (as is mentioned in Number I of these Transactions) and 
since by M. Cassini, a permanent spot in the disk of Jupiter ; by means of 
which they have been able to observe, not only that Jupiter turns about his own 
axis, but also the time of such rotation ; which he estimates to be nine hours 
and 56 minutes. 

For, as Kepler before conjectured, from the motion of the primitive planets 
about the sun as their centre, that the sun moved about his own axis, but could 
not prove it, till by Galileo and Schiner the spots in the sun were discovered ; 
so it has been thought probable, from the secondary planets moving about 
Jupiter, that Jupiter is also moved about his axis ; yet till now it has not been 
evinced by observation that he does so move, much less in what period of time. 
And the like reason there is to judge so of Saturn, because of the secondary 
planet discovered by M. Huygens to move about him, though such motion be 
not yet evinced from observation^ as well as that of the earth, from its atten- 
dant the moon. 

Of some Philosophical and curious New Books. N" 8, p. 145. 
Of these it may be sufficient to mention two, viz. 

1 . A narration of the establishment of the Lyncei, an Italian academy, and 
of their design and statutes : the Prince Cesi being the head of them, who also 
intended to establish such philosophical societies in all parts of the world, and 
particularly in Africa and America, to be by that means well informed of what 
considerable productions of Nature were to be found in those parts. 

2. A book just printed at Oxford, being a catalogue of fixed stars, with their 
longitudes, latitudes, and magnitudes, according to the observations of Uleg- 
Beig, a king and noted astronomer, who was great grandson to the famous 
Tamerlane, and one of his successors in some of his kingdoms. These observa- 
tions were made at Samarcand, in the year of Christ 1437 : for, not finding the 
tables of Ptolemy to agree sufficiently with the heavens, he, with great diligence 
and expense, made observations anew; as Tycho Brahe has done since. It is 
only a small part of a larger astronomical treatise of his, of which there are 
several Persian manuscript copies in Oxford. Out of which this is translated 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 53 

and published, both in Persian and Latin, by Mr. Thomas Hyde, now library 
keeper to the Bodleyan Library in Oxford, with commentaries of his annexed ; 
like as another part of it has formerly been by Mr. John Graves. And it would 
be a commendable thing to translate the whole, that we might be the better 
acquainted with what the eastern astronomy at that time really was. 

Appendix to the Directions for Seamen bound for long Voyages. 
By Mr. Hook. N*" 9, p- 147- 

This paper is repeated, and much enlarged, in N° 24, where it is given in a 
more perfect state. 

0)1 the Differeiice between two learned Men, about an Observation 
made of the first of the tivo late Comets. N° 9, p- 150. 

As it has been noticed in Number 6, that there was some difference between 
those two deservedly celebrated philosophers, M. Hevelius and M. Auzout, con- 
cerning an observation made by the former on the ^ \ of February 1 665 ; and 
that thereupon some eminent English astronomers, considering the importance 
of the dispute, had undertaken to examine it ; it is conceived that it will not be 
unacceptable to present the result to the reader of these papers. Having 
therefore compared the printed writings of the two disputants, and consulted 
the observations made with telescopes at home, by some of the most intelligent 
astronomers amongst them, who have attentively observed the relative position 
of that comet to the telescopic stars that lay in its way, they conclude that what- 
ever that appearance was which was seen near the first star of Aries, by M. 
Hevelius, (the truth of whose relation concerning the same they by no means 
question) the said comet did not come near that star in the left ear of Aries, 
where the said M. Hevelius supposes it to have passed, but took its course near 
the bright star in its left horn, according to Bayer's tables. And the same is 
also confirmed by the observations of other astronomers in France, Italy, and 
Holland. 

Of finding the true Distance of the Sun and Moon from the Earth, by 
the observed Parallax. iV° 9> p- 151. 

The discovery of this distance may prove of important use for the perfecting 
of astronomy, and for better establishing the doctrine of refractions. 

To perform which the following method is proposed, viz. That, at certain 
times agreed on by two observers, using large and proper telescopes, with a 
measuring rod, placed within the eye-glass at a convenient distance, that it may 



54 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66d, 

be distinctly seen, and serve for measuring small distances to minutes and 
seconds ; let each of them, thus furnished, observe the visible way of the moon 
among the fixed stars, by taking her exact distance from any fixed star that lies 
in or very near her way, with the exact time of such appearing, and also the 
apparent diameter of her disk : continuing these observations every time for two 
or three hours, so that two exact observations of her apparent place among 
the fixed stars being made, at two places distant in latitude, and nearly under 
the same meridian, hence her true and exact distance may be collected, not 
only for that time, but at all other times, by any single observer viewing her 
with a telescope, and measuring exactly her apparent diameter. 

It is also desirable, when there happens any considerable eclipse of the sun, 
that they would observe exactly the measure of the greatest obscuration, com- 
pared with the apparent diameter of his disk. For by this means, after the 
distance of the moon has been exactly found, the distance of the sun will easily 
be deduced. 

The fittest time for making observations on the moon will be when she is 
about a quarter or somewhat less illuminated, which is about four or five days 
before or after her change ; because then her light is not so bright but that 
with a good telescope she may be observed to pass close by, and sometimes over 
several fixed stars. Or else, at any other time when the moon passes near or 
over some of the larger fixed stars, which may be easily calculated and foreseen. 
Or, best of all, when there is any total eclipse of the moon ; for then the smallest 
telescopic stars may be seen close to her body. 

j4n Observation on Saturn. iV"" 9> i^. 152. 

This observation was made by Mr. William Ball, accompanied by his brother. 
Dr. Ball, October 13, l665, at six o'clock, at Mainhead near Exeter in Devon- 
shire, with a very good telescope near 38 feet long, and a double eye-glass, as 
the observer himself takes notice, adding, that he never saw that planet more 
distinct. This observation has induced the supposition that Saturn is surround- 
ed, not by one circular body or ring only, but by two. And the further observa- 
tion of this appearance is earnestly recommended to the author (Huygens) of the 
System of Saturn. 

Of Barometers, and some Observations made with them. By Dr, Beal. 

N" 9, p' 153. 

The barometer is an instrument for measuring the weight of the atmo- 
sphere, in order to determine the changes of the weather. It is founded on 
the Torricellian experiment, so called from its inventor Torricelli ; and is only 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 55 

a glass tube filled with mercury, hermetically sealed at one end, with the 
other end open, and immerged in stagnant mercury. The barometer was first 
made public by Mr. Boyle, and employed by him and others to discover all the 
minute variations in the pressure and weight of the air. With this instrument 
he made many observations in 1659 and 1660, before any others were public 
or heard of by him. 

Dr. Beal is so well pleased with the discoveries already made with this in- 
strument, that he looks upon it as one of the most extraordinary inventions in 
the world. " Who could have thought (says he) that men should find an art 
*' to weigh the air that hangs over their heads in all its changes ; and even 
'^ distinguish by weight the winds and clouds? Or, who could have imagined 
*' that the clearest air is the heaviest, and the thickest air, when loaded with 
" clouds, ready to dissolve and fall, should then be the lightest?" Hence the 
doctor descends to particular observations. 

And first, he says, he could never fill his wheel-barometer so exactly with 
mercury as to exclude all air; and therefore he depended more on the mer- 
curial cylinder, from which he took all his notes. Its length is but 35 inches, 
of a narrow bore, and a thick glass. 

1. In all his observations from May 28, 1664, to December 9, l665, the 
quicksilver ascended but very little above 30^ inches. 

3. It ascended seldom so high as that, especially on December 13, 1664, 
the weather being changeable, and the evening fair. 

4. By his calendar of June 22, 1664, at five in the morning, in a long 
tract of fair settled weather, the mercury ascended about half an inch higher 
than 30. So that the mercury may rise as high in the hottest summer as in 
the coldest winter. 

5. He had observed it ascend higher in cold weather ; and very often both 
in winter and summer to be higher in the cold mornings and evenings than in 
the wanner mid-day. 

6. Generally, in settled and fair weather, both winter and summer, the mer- 
cury is higher than a little before, or after, or in rainy weather. 

7. Again, it descended generally lower after rain than it stood before rain. 

8. It falls also generally in great winds, and it seemed to sink a little upon 
opening a wide door to let in stormy wind* : Yet he found it to continue very 
high in a long stormy wind of three or four days. 

9. Again, it is generally higher in an east and north wind than in a south 
and west wind. 

10. He tried several times to alter the air in his closet by fumes and thick 
smoaks ; but the mercury seemed not to be affected more than what might 



56 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666, 

be expected from some increase of heat : Such as have exact wheel-barometers 
may try whether odours or fumes make the air Hghter. 

1 1 . He did not find in all this time the greatest changes of the quicksilver 
to amount to more than 2^ or 2^- inches at most. 

12. He very often found great changes in the air without any perceptible 
change in the barometer; as in dewy nights, when the moisture descends plen- 
tifully. On the preceding and following days the vapours have been raised so 
invisibly, that the air seemed very clear. Which rising and falling of vapours 
import gravity and levity of air, and yet the barometer was not affected 
by it. 

13. The barometer is sometimes not moved by very great changes in the 
air; as December 18th, an extraordinary bright and clear day, and the next 
following quite dark, some snow and rain falling, but the mercury kept at the 
same height. So in high winds and calms, the same. 

14. December l6, l665, was a clear cold day, with a very sharp and strong 
east wind ; the mercury very near 30 inches high ; about three in the after- 
noon he saw a large black cloud approaching from the east and south-east, 
with the wind at east. The mercury changed not that day nor the following; 
the stars and most of the sky were very bright and clear till nine o'clock ; and 
then the sky was suddenly overcast, yet no change of weather happened. De- 
cember 17 th, the frost held, and it was a clear day till about two o'clock in 
the afternoon ; and then many thick clouds appeared low in the west ; yet no 
change of weather ; the wind, fnist, and quicksilver the sanrie. December 
18th, the mercury fell almost i of an inch, and yet the sky and air were clear, 
bright, and cold, with an east wind ; but accidentally sending his servant 
abroad, he discovered the remote hills, about 20 miles off, covered with 
snow. 

1 5 . He seldom observed the change to be very great at any one time ; so 
that he once wondered to see that in one day it subsided about |- of an inch. 

16. January 13, 1 665-6, the mercury stood a quarter above 30 inches, as it 
did also the day before ; yet both very dark and cloudy, and sometimes very 
thick and misty air ; which is an uncommon case, for generally it stands higher 
in the clearest settled weather than in such cloudy and misty fogs. This 
thick air and darkness lasted above a week; lately more cold, and east and north- 
east wind. 

17. In January \665-6, for many days it continued very dark, so that great 
rains were apprehended, and though sometimes thick mists arose and some 
small rain fell, yet the mercury stood at a great height ; which indicated no great 
change of weather, and he was not disappointed. 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 57 

The folhming by the same, from other Numbers of the Transactions, viz. 

N*" 10 and 55. 

18. If the mercury rises a good height after the fall of rain, as sometimes 
it does, he then looks for a settled serenity ; but if it falls, then he expects a 
series of broken and showery weather. 

1 9. The weather and our bodies are more chill, cold, and drooping, when 
the mercury is lowest and the air lightest. Air being to us,' what water is to 
fishes. 

20. The lowest descent of the mercury, in all his observations, was October 
26, 1665, in the evening; when it was very near at 27-i- inches, as he found 
by his following notes: October 25, morning, mercury at 28-i- inches, great 
storms and much rain. October 26, morning, mercury at 28, winds quiet, 
thick dark clouds. October 26, evening, mercury at 274- ; that day and the 
following days the weather was variable, and there were frequent rains. 

21. He set a wind- vane of a large brass streamer over the place where the 
mercurial tube stood, pointing to a board indented in the margin, that he could 
take at a good distance the 32 points of the wind, with the half and quarter 
points. It would be proper to have an index of wind*. 

22. By change of w^eather and wind, the mercury sunk, since March 12th, 
above an inch ; and March 18 th at night, by rain and south wind, half an 
inch. 

23. He found the quicksilver, December 13, 1669, higher than ever he 
observed it, it being half an inch above 30. It continued the 14th, and a part 
of the 15th at about that height, and sometimes higher by an eighth or tenth 
part of an inch. For this barometer he had two glass tubes in one vessel of 
stagnant mercury ; and both of them agreed in this indication. The weather 
was at first very bright and clear, and there w^as a mild frost : The air was very 
still, and no wind stirring, and by the wind- vane, the wind stood east, all the 
first day, viz. December 13th ; on the 14th it blew a little from north-west, 
and returned again to the east or north-east. During this shifting of the 
winds the mercury descended a little ; and again after the settling of the 
wind, the mercury ascended a little higher than it had done the preceding 
day. 

The house and study where the barometer was kept stood on the side of a 
hill, on the higher side of the country, and nearly on a level with the head of 
a river that falls into the Severn sea, about 20 or 30 miles westward of Bristol, 
so that they cannot be much above the level of the sea. 

VOL. I. H 



^§ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

Some Ohservations on Vipers. By Sig. Redi. N° 9, p- 160. 

These observations are taken from the account given in the Journal des 
Sqavans for January 1665-6, of Francis Redi's treatise, v^herein it is stated — 

1. That the poison of vipers is neither in their teeth, nor in their tail, nor 
in their gall ; but in two vesicles or bladders which cover their teeth, and which 
being compressed; when the vipers bite, emit a certain yellowish liquor, that 
runs along the teeth and poisons the wound.* Whereof he gives this proof, 
that he hath rubbed the wounds of many animals with the gall of vipers, and 
pricked them with their teeth,-|- and yet no considerable ill accident followed 
upon it ; but that as often as he rubbed the wounds with the said yellow liquor 
not one of them escaped. 

2. Whereas commonly it hath hitherto been believed that the poison of 
vipers being swallowed, was present death : this author after many reiterated 
experiments is said to have observed, that in vipers there is neither humour nor 
excrement, nor any part that being taken into the body kills : And he asserts 
that he hath seen men eat, and has often made brute animals swallow, all that is 
esteemed most poisonous in a viper, yet without the least mischief to them ; 
agreeably to the doctrine of the ancients. Venenum serpentis, ut qucedam etiam 
venatoria venena, non giLstu, sed in vulnere nocent. Celsus. ;|: 

* We owe to Redi the discovery of the fluid which constitutes the viper s poison , tut he mistook 
its exact situation when he placed it in the membrane which covers the upper fangs (tlie canine 
teeth) J whereas it is lodged (as our countryman Mead has shown) in a peculiar bag or secretory- 
vesicle seated at the basis of those teeth. Moreover, it escaped Redi that the venomous fangs were 
perforated, 'and that when the animal bites, the poison is squeezed into the wound, not along the out- 
side of the teeth, but through tlieir interior^ along the conduits or perforations which terminate near 
their apices or points. Mead has described only a single perforation in each of tlie venomous fangs j 
but Fontana asserts there are two in each. See the last mentioned author's Traite sur le Venin de la 
Vipere, torn. i. p. 6 — 8. 

f This assertion of Redi's is not accurate. It is evident that, in the before-mentioned perforations or 
canals of the canine teeth, there will always remain some of the venomous fluid, and therefore there '■ 
will always be a greater or less risk of being poisoned when pricked by tliem. In two experiments 
Fontana killed animals by wounding them with a viper's tooth, several hours after it had been drawn 
out of the head. 

+ This assertion is contradicted by the later experiments of Fontana, who having forced into the 
oesophagus of a pigeon a tea spoonfol of the poison, it was quickly seized with strong convulsions and 
died in less than six minutes. He doubts not it would produce the same fatal effects, when taken 
into the stomach, upon man and other larger animals, provided it were swallowed in sufficient quanti- 
ties. Traite sur le Venin, &c. tom. ii. pp. 308, 309. It would appear, however, to be trae, as Redi 
has stated, that the flesh of animals killed by vipers may be safely eaten, and the wound inflicted by 
their bite sucked with impunity ; because, in either of these ways, the dose of the poison swallowed 
will be too inconsiderable to produce, in so large an animal as man, any powerful effect. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 5^ 

3. He adds, that although Galen and many modern physicians affirm, that 
there is nothing which causeth so much thirst as viper's flesh, yet he hath ex- 
perienced the contrary. 

4. There is no purging virtue at all (he asserts) in the salt of vipers, which 
some chemists have held in such high esteem. 

5. He denies what Aristotle asserts, and what Galen says he so often tried, 
that the spittle of a fasting person kills vipers, and ridicules many other particu- 
lars concerning the antipathy of vipers unto certain things, their manner of con- 
ception and generation, and several other properties commonly ascribed to 
them. 

An Earthqiialie near Oxford, Anno 1665. By Dr. JVallis* and Mr. 
Boyle. N" 10, p. 166, and N"" 11, p. 179- 

On the IQth of January, 1(365-6, towards the evening, at divers places near 
Oxford, was felt a small earthquake. At Oxford it was not noticed as an earth- 
quake ; though the Doctor says, that about that time he was sensible of a kind 
of odd shaking or heaving in his study, which he supposed owing to carts and 
coaches, though a little different from what is usual on these occasions. 

It was perceived at Blechington, about five miles northward of Oxford, and 
also at Bostol, Horton, Stanton St. John's, and so towards Whately, which 
is four miles to the east of Oxford : It was not felt at the same time at all these 
places, but moved successively from Blechington to Whately. 

* Dr. John Wallis, one of the most early and active members of the Royal Society, was bom 
Nov. 23, l6l6, at Ashford, in Kent. He was educated at Cambridge, where, about the year l6"40, 
he entered into orders, and became fellow of Queen's College, Academical studies being much in- 
terrupted, by tlie civil wars, in both the universities, many learned men from them resorted to Lon- 
don, and formed assemblies there. Dr. Wallis belonged to one of these, the members of which 
met once a week, to discourse on philosophical subjects ; and tliis society gave rise to the incor- 
porated Royal Society, of which he tlius became one of tlie first members. In politics Dr. "Wallis 
managed so well as to keep fair with both parties j he was made professor of matliematics at Ox- 
ford, in 1649, by the parliament's visitors, and held that and other appointments from the king after 
the restoration. In l6'58, he was chosen, at Oxford, Custos Archivorum of the university; and 
was appointed one of the divines for revising the book of common prayer. He was universally 
learned, but his application was chiefly to theology and madiematics, on both of which subjects he 
wrote many treatises; he was very skilfiil in deciphering letters written in secret characters, in 
which capacity he was of great service to the state. He was skilled in the art of teaching persons 
bom deaf to speak. He died at Oxford, Oct. 28, 1703, in tlie 87th year of his age. Dr. Wallis 
was always a very usefiil member of the Royal Society, and he kept up a literary correspondence 
with many learned men in an amicable manner; but witli some he had obstinate disputes, as with 
Hobbes, Stubbe, and others. It is said he was of a vigorous constitution, and of a mind strong, 
serene, and not easily ruffled or <Mscomposed. 

H 2 



do PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1660. 

Mr. Boyle riding between Oxford and a lodging he had about four miles 
from that town, in that short space of time, from a settled frost, the wind 
turned and it began to rain. Soon after his getting home, he felt a manifest 
trembling in the house, which stands high comparatively with Oxford. But 
he should not hav^e taken notice of it as an earthquake, had it not been 
perceived by the people of the house. Soon after there happened a brisk storm ; 
on which he sent to make inquiry at a place called Brill, which standing higher 
might be supposed more liable to the effects of the earthquake ; and he was in- 
formed that it was very considerable there ; and that a gentleman's house in 
the neighbourhood shook very much, so that the stones in the parlour mani- 
festly moved to and fro. The hill on which this Brill stands, is stored with 
mineral substances of several sorts. Mr. Boyle adds, that he has been told 
that this earthquake reached a great many miles. 

Observations on tlie Barometer. By Dr. JVallis. N" 10, p. 166. 

The Doctor never observed the quicksilver higher than 30 inches, nor lower 
than 28, at least within -^^ of an inch of these numbers, either over or under. 

In thick foggy weather, he found the quicksilver rise ; which he ascribes to 
the heaviness of the vapours in the air. 

In sun-shiny weather it rises also, and commonly the clearer the weather the 
higher it is ; which may be owing partly to the vapours raised by the sun and 
increasing the weight of the air ; partly to the heat which adds to the elasticity 
of the air ; which latter he mentions, because in sun-shiny weather, which be- 
came afterwards cloudy for an hour or two, the quicksilver has fallen ; and then 
on the sun's breaking out again, it has risen as before. 

In rainy weather it falls, because the air is light in proportion to the quantity 
of vapours that falls ; and also in snowy weather, but not so much as in rain ; 
and sometimes it has fallen upon a hoar-frost in the night. 

In windy weather it generally falls, and more discernibly than in rainy, ow- 
ing possibly to the winds moving the air laterally ; and thereby preventing its 
pressure downwards ; and he never found it lower than in high winds. 

He observed the quicksilver fall without any visible cause, but upon looking 
abroad, he found it had rained at some distance ; whereby the heavier air might 
have in part discharged itself on the lighter. 

The Rotation of Jupiter on his Axis. By Mr. Hook and M. Cassini. 
N" 10, p. 171, and N' 82, p. 4039- 
About nine o'clock at night. May Qth, anno l664, Mr. Hook observed, with 
a good 12 foot telescope, a small spot in the largest of the three obscurer belts 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 6l 

of Jupiter ; and, observing it from time to time, he found that within two 
hours after, the said spot had moved from east to west, about half the length 
of the diameter of Jupiter. 

According to M. Cassini there are two sorts of spots to be seen in the disk 
of Jupiter ; the one being only the shadows of his satellites, the other sort re- 
sembling those that are seen in the moon ; and they are perhaps of the same 
nature, with those called belts. They move from the eastern to the western 
limb ; their apparent motion is unequal, and swifter near the centre than the 
circumference ; and they are never seen so well as when they approach the cen- 
tre ; for in approaching the circumference they become very narrow, and 
almost imperceptible ; which seems to argue that they are flat and super- 
ficial. 

Among these spots, there is none so observable as that situated in the 
northern part of the southern belt. Its diameter is y^- of Jupiter's ; its centre 
when nearest is distant from that of Jupiter about i of the semidiameter of 
that planet. 

M. Cassini, after many observations during the summer l665, found that 
the period of its apparent revolution is 9 hours 56m. He continued to observe 
this spot till the beginning of 1666, when Jupiter approached to the beams of 
the sun ; but after he got out of them it was difficult to be discerned : This 
giving grounds to think that it might be of the nature of the solar spots, 
which appearing for a while, disappear for ever, M. Cassini intermitted his 
observations. 

But, Jan. 19, 1672, N. S. observing Jupiter at 4|- hours in the morning, he 
perceived in the same place of his disk the figure of the same spot, adhering to 
the same southern belt. It had already gone over the half of this belt, and he 
saw it advance gradually towards the w^estem limb, to which it seemed very near 
at 6j- hours. 

By the celerity of its motion near the centre, and by the place where he had 
begun to see it, he judged it might have been in the middle of the belt at 4 
hours 35 m. in the morning. And as he set about making ephemerides of its 
motion for 1672, he perceived that in those he made for 1666, this spot had 
been in the middle of Jupiter the same day, viz. the 19th of Jan. at the same 
hour, so that in six years, of which one is a bissextile, it is found to have made, 
in respect of the earth, at least 5294 revolutions, each of 9 hours, 55 m. 58 
sec, one revolution with another ; and at most, 5295 revolutions of 9 hours, 
55 m. 51 sec. forasmuch as he was assured of the preciseness of one mean revo- 
lution to 4- of a minute. 

Till that time he never observed an immediate return of this spot after 9 



62 PHILOSOPHICAI, TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

hours 56m. ; because that after the appearing of the spot, Jupiter had not con- 
tinued long enough above the horizon to observe him with due distinctness. 
But the night after, March 1st, at 7-|- hours in the evening, he saw this spot in 
the middle of the belt, and at 5 hours 26m. in the morning, he saw it again 
return precisely to the same place. 

An Account of some Boohs, lately published. N"" 10, p. 173. 

I. Hydrostatical Paradoxes, made out by New Experiments, for the most 
part physical and easy, by the Honourable Robert Boyle. This treatise was 
occasioned by the perusal of the learned M. Pascall's tract. Of the Equilibrium 
of Liquors, and of the Weight of the Air. 

II. Nicolai Stenonis de Musculis et Glandulis Observationum specimen; cum 
duabus Epistolis Anatomicis. 

III. Regneri de GraefF, de Succi Pancreatici Natura et usu^ Exercitatio Ana- 
tomico medica. 

The accounts here given of these three books, being a description of the 
contents, are omitted, as of no use at present. 

Observations and Directions concerning the Barometer. By Mr. Boyle » 

N' 11, p, 181. 

It will be requisite for observers with this instrument to give an account of the 
situation of the place where the barometers stand ; because we may thus not 
only be capable of judging whether the instruments were duly constructed, but 
also because the observations may disagree, even when the atmosphere is in the 
same state, as to weight, if one of them stand in a higher part of the country 
than the other. For Mr. Boyle found, by comparing two barometers which 
he had, the one at Oxford, the other at Stanton St. John's, that though the 
former was a very good one, and the latter very carefully filled, yet because at 
Stanton, which is the higher ground, the incumbent part of the atmosphere 
must be lighter, than at Oxford, which is the lower place, there is generally 
between 1 and 3 eighths of an inch difference. 

But as most barometrical observations are subject to exceptions, so he found 
that to be the case with the preceding. For riding one evening from Oxford 
to Stanton, and before he took horse looking on the barometer, he was sur- 
prized to find at his coming to the latter place, which was at no great distance, 
and also considering the shortness of the time, which was less than an hour and a 
half, that the barometer at Stanton was short of its usual height from the other 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 1^$ 

near a quarter of an inch ; though, the weather being fair and calm, there ap- 
peared no manifest change in the air ; and though also since that time the mer- 
cury in the two instruments had for the most part risen and fallen together as 
before. 

Mr. Boyle has observed the heights of the mercury to be greatest in droughts, 
which he supposes owing to the elevation of steams from the earth, which may 
gradually increase the weight of the atmosphere; for March 12, 1665-6, at 
Oxford the quicksilver was higher than had been observ^ed in England, viz. 
about -jV above 30 inches ; but upon the first considerable showers that inter- 
rupted the long drought, he foretold many hours before, that the mercury 
would be very low, and so he found it at Stanton to fall -f- below ig inches, 
there being also a blustering wind with the rain. 

It is rather difficult to settle any general rule about the rising and falling of 
the mercury ; yet in those parts one that seems to hold oftenest is, that when 
high winds blow the mercury is lowest, and yet even this sometimes fails. 

General Heads for a Natural History of a Country, By Mr. Boyle, 

N' 11, p. 186. 

The things to be observed in such a history may be variously divided : As 
into supraterraneous, terrestrial, and subterraneous. But we will at present dis- 
tinguish them into those things that respect the heavens, or concern the air, 
the water, or the earth. 

1. To the first sort of particulars belong the longitude and latitude of the 
place, and consequently the length of the longest and shortest days and nights, 
the climate, the parallels, &c. ; what fixed stars are, and what are not seen 
there. 

2. Concerning the air, may be observed its temperature, as to the first four 
qualities and the measures of them : its weight, clearness, refractive power ; 
its subtilty or grossness ; its abounding with or wanting salts, its variations ac- 
cording to the seasons of the year, and the times of the day ; what duration the 
several kinds of weather usually have ; what meteors it mostly produces, and 
in what order they are generated ; and how long they usually last ; especially, 
what winds it is subject to ; whether any of them be stated and ordinary, &c. 
What diseases are epidemical ; what is the usual salubrity or insalubrity of the 
air ; and with what constitutions it agrees better or worse than others. 

3. Concerning the water, may be observed the sea, its depth, degree of salt- 
ness, tides, currents, &c. Next rivers, their width, length, course, inundations, 
goodness, lightness of waters, &c. Then lakes, ponds, springs, and especially 



64 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

mineral waters, their kinds, qualities, virtues, and how examined. To the 
waters belong also fishes, their kinds, whether salt or fresh water fish ; their 
quantity, size, goodness, seasons, haunts, peculiarities of any kind, and the 
ways of taking them, especially those that are not purely mechanical. 

4. In the earth may be observed, 

1. Itself. 2. Its inhabitants and its productions, both external and internal. 

First, In the earth itself may be observed, its dimensions, situation, east, 
west, north and south : its figure, its plains and valleys, and their extent ; its 
hills and mountains, and their height ; and whether they lie scattered or in 
ridges, and in what directions they run, &c. What promontories, fiery or 
smoaking hills, &c. What the magnetical declination is in several places, and 
the variations of that declination in the same place : what the nature of the soil 
is, whether clay, sandy, &c. or good mould ; and what grains, fruits, and other 
vegetables, do the most naturally agree with it : also, by what particular arts the 
inhabitants improve the advantages and remedy the inconveniences of their 
soil ? 

Secondly, There must be given a careful account of the inhabitants them- 
selves, particularly their stature, shape, colour, features, strength, agility, 
beauty, complexions, hair, diet, inclinations, and customs. Of the women, 
there may be observed their fruitfulness or barrenness, their hard or easy labour, 

&c. W^hat diseasco botK \x^nmpn nnri mpn nrp snbjpr.t to, and nnusual 

symptoms attending them. 

As to the external productions of the earth, the inquiries may be such as 
these: What grasses, grains, herbs, flowers, fruit-trees, timber-trees, cop- 
pices, groves, woods, forests, &c. What peculiarities are observable in any 
of them : What soils they best thrive in. What animals the country has, either 
wild or tame. 

The internal productions or concealments of the earth, are here understood 
to be the riches that lie hid under the ground, and are not already referred to 
other inquiries : what sorts of minerals and quarries the country affords, and 
the particular conditions both of the quarries and the stones : also, how the 
beds of stone lie, in reference to north and south, &c. What clays and earths 
it affords, as tobacco pipe-clay, marls, fullers-earths, earths for potters wares, 
boluses and other medicated earths : What other minerals it yields, as coals, 
salt-mines, or salt-springs, alum, vitriol, sulphur, &c. What metals the 
country yields, and a description of the mines, their number, situation, depth, 
signs, waters, damps, quantities of ore, goodness of ore, extraneous things, 
and ways of reducing their ores into metals, &c. 



TOt. ij PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 65 

Preserving of Ships from being Worm-eaten. N" 11, p. 190. 

There is in the Indian Seas a kind of small worms * that fasten themselves 
to the timber of the ships, and so pierce them that they take in water every 
where ; and so weaken the wood, that it is almost impossible to repair them. 
Many things have been tried to prevent this evil, but without success. Some 
have lined their ships with deal, hair and lime, &c. but, besides that this does 
not altogether prevent the worms, it much retards the ship's way. The Por- 
tuguese scorch their ships to such a degree, that in the quick works there is 
formed a coally crust of about an inch thick. But this is dangerous, as often 
burning the whole ship ; yet the reason why worms do not so destroy Portugal 
ships, is conceived to be the exceeding hardness of the timber employed by them. 

A person in London suggests, that the tar extracted out of sea coals may 
be a good remedy against these noxious worms.-J- 

Account of a Book lately published, entitled. The Origin of Forms 

and Qualities, illustrated hy Considerations and Experiments, By 

the Hon. Robert Boyle. iVMl, j&. 191. 

This curious and excellent piece is a kind of introduction to the principles 
of the mechanical philosophy, explaining, by observations and experiments, 
what may be according to such principles conceived of the nature and origin of 
qualities and forms ; the knowledge of which either makes or supposes the 
fundamental and useful part of natural philosophy. In doing of which, the 
author writes rather for the corpuscularian philosophers, as he is pleased to call 
them, in general, than any party of them, keeping himself thereby disengaged 
from adopting an hypothesis, with which perhaps he is not so thoroughly satis- 
fied, and of which he does not conceive himself to be under the necessity of 
making use here ; and accordingly forbearing to employ arguments that are 
either grounded on, or suppose atoms, or any innate motion belonging to 
them ; or that the essence of bodies consists in extension ; or that a vacuum 
is impossible ; or that there are such glohuli coelestes, or such a materia sub- 
tilis, as the Cartesians employ to explain most of the phasnomena of nature. 

The remainder of this memoir consists of a rather minute description of the 
contents of this ingenious book, which is now in the possession of all the learned. 

New Observations on the Planet Mat^s. By Mr. Hook. N" 11, p. 198. 
There was very lately produced a paper, containing some observations, made 

* The teredo navalis. Linn. 

■\ The most effectual method of preservmg tlie bottoms of ships is that now in use, sheathing 
them with copper. 

VOL. I. I 



66 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66d. 

by Mr. Hook, on the planet Mars ; in the face of which he affirmed that he 
had discovered, in the late months of February and March, that there are 
several maculae or spotted parts, changing their place, and not returning to the 
same position till the next ensuing night, near about the same time. Whence 
it may be collected^ that Mars, as well as Jupiter and the Earth, &c. revolves 
about his own axis. 

Preserving of Birds talten out of the Egg. By Mr. Boyle. 

A^" l!2, p. 199. 

In order to observe the process of nature in the formation of a chick, Mr. 
Boyle opened the eggs at different periods after incubation, and carefully taking 
out the embryos, embalmed each of them in spirit of wine in a distinct glass 
carefully stopped. 

In making these experiments some circumstances are to be observed ; one 
is, that there be generally mixed with the spirit of wine a little spirit of sal 
ammoniac. The other, that it is proper to put the foetuses for some time in 
ordinary spirit of wine, to wash off the looser filth, and then let them soak in 
the same kind of spirit or better, that the foetus, being removed into more pure 
and dephlegmated spirit of wine, may not discolour it. 

Of an unusual Method of propagating Midherry Trees in Virginia* 

N' 12, p. 201. 

I have planted ten thousand mulberry trees, and hope within two or three 
years to have good silk by this means. My method, which is uncommon, 
accelerates their growth two or three years sooner than if they were sown in 
seed. I intend likewise to plant them as thick as hedges, like currants or 
gooseberries. By this method they will always be young tender plants, and be 
easily cut in great quantities with a pair of garden-sheers, whereby one man 
may gather as much as four could do when they are in trees at distance from 
each other. But possibly the best way would be to sow some acres with mul- 
berry seed, and to cut them with a scythe, and thus keep them under ever 
after. 

To make a Glass of a small Plano-convex Sphere, to refract the Rays 
of Light to a Focus at a greater Distance than usual. By Mr. Hook. 
N' 12, p. 202. 

Prepare two glasses, the one exactly flat on both sides, the other flat on one 
and convex on the other, of any sphere you please. Let the flat glass be a little 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 67 

broader than the other ; and let them both be put into a ring of brass, and so 
fastened with cement, that their plane surfaces may be exactly parallel, and the 
convex side of the plano-convex glass lie inward, so as not to touch the flat of 
the other. Then fill the space between, by a small hole in the side of the brass 
ring, with water, or oil of turpentine, or spirit of wine, or saline liquors, &c, 
after which stoj) the hole with a screw. Then, according to the different re- 
fraction of the liquors, shall the focus be longer or shorter. 

This is but one instance, among many, of the possibility of making a glass, 
ground in a smaller sphere, to constitute a telescope of a much greater length. 
Though I must add, that of spherical optic glasses, those are the best which are 
made of the greatest sphere, and whose substance has the greatest refraction. 

Shining JForms in Oysters, By M. AuzouT. N" 12, p. 203. 

These observations occur in the French journal of April 12, l666, in two 
letters, written by M. Auzout to M. de la Voye ; the substance of which may 
be reduced to the following particulars : 

M. Auzout causing more than 20 dozen of oysters to be opened by candle 
light, saw on removing the light shining worms in them of three sorts. One 
sort was whitish, having 24 or 25 feet on each side, forked ; a black speck on 
one side of the head (taken by him for a chrystallin), and the back like an eel, 
stripped of her skin. The second red, and resembling the common glow worm, 
with folds on their backs, and feet like the former ; and with a nose like that 
of a dog, and one eye in the head. The third sort was speckled, having a head 
like that of a sole, with many tufts of whitish hair on the sides of it. 

Among them he saw two more firm than the rest, which shone all over; 
and when they fell from the oyster, twinkled like a great star, shining strongly, 
and emitting rays of a violet-light by turns, for the space of 20 seconds. Which 
scintillation the observer imputes to this, that those worms being alive, and 
sometimes raising their head, sometimes their tail, like a carp, the light in- 
creased and lessened accordingly; seeing that when they ceased to shine, by 
bringing back the light, he found them dead. 

Some Observations on the [medical] Effects of Touch and Friction, 
By Mr. Oldenburg. N' 12, p. 207- 

Touch and friction (the author observes) have been considered by some as 
no inefficacious agents in the cure of many diseases and infirmities. 

1 . The illustrious Lord Verulam, in his History of Life and Death (Hist. 6. 
^ 3.) observes, that the motion and warmth excited by friction draw forth 

12 



68 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666, 

into the parts new juice and vigour : And, canon XIII, he affirms, that frictions 
conduce much to longevity. 

2. The Hon. Robert Boyle, in his Usefulness of Experimental Philosophy 
{§ 2. ch. 15.) considering the body of a living man or any animal as an en- 
gine so composed, that there is a conspiring communication betwixt its parts, 
by virtue whereof a very slight impression of adventitious matter upon some 
one part may be able to work on some other distant part, or perhaps on the 
whole engine, a change far exceeding what the same adventitious matter could 
do upon a body not so contrived : — Representing (I say) an animal in this 
manner, and thence inferring how it may be altered for the better or worse 
by motions or impulses confessedly mechanical, observes, how some are re- 
covered from swooning fits by pricking ; others grow faint and vomit by the 
motion of a coach ; others by the agitation of a ship, recovering by rest and 
going a shore. Again, how in our stables a horse well curried is half fed, &c. 
The same writer upon the authority of Piso, refers to the Brasilian empirics, 
whose rude frictions do strange things, both in preserving health and curing 
diseases ; curing cold and chronic complaints by friction, as they do acute dis^ 
orders by unction. 

3. In this section we have (on the authority of Dr. John Beale) an account 
of a very large wen of two or three years standing, being cured by the applica- 
tion of a dead man's hand to it ; and of warts being removed in another person 
by the same means.* Also, of a gentlemen being cured of a great pain in his 
feet (probably of a gouty nature) by having them licked night and morning by 
a spaniel. In the last part of these observations, we are told of a blacksmith, 
who possessed the particular faculty of Causing vomitings by stroking the 
stomach, of giving stools by stroking the belly, and of appeasing the gout and 
other pains by stroking the parts affected.'}- 

Some Particulars communicated from Abroad, concerning the Permanent 
Spot in Jupiter ; and a Contest between tivo Artists on Optic Glasses, 
&c. N' 12, p. 209. 

Eustachio Divini, says the informer, has written a long letter, pretending that 
the permanent spot ;|; in Jupiter was first of all discovered with his glasses ; and 

* The influence of this uncertain and disgusting remedy in the removal of glandular tumors is re- 
ferable to the imagination ; through the medium of which a considerable effect is sometimes produced 
upon the absorbent system. 

■[ Thus it appears that animal magnetism is of a more remote date than modern empirics imagine. 

X See Number 1 , of these Transactions ; by the date of which it will appear, that that spot was 
observed in England, a good while before any such thing was so much as heard of elsewhere. 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 69 

that P. Gotignies is the first that has from thence deduced the motion of Jupi- 
ter about his axis ; and that Signior Cassini opposed it at first ; to whom the 
said Gotignies wrote a letter of complaint on this matter. 

The same Eustachio pretends likewise, that his great glasses excel those of 
Campani ; and that in all the trials made with them, they have performed bet- 
ter ; and that Campani was not willing to do what was necessary for properly 
comparing the one with the other, viz. To put equal eye-glasses in them, or 
to exchange the same glasses. 

The said Divini affirms also, that he has found out a way to know whether 
an object-glass be good or not, by only looking upon it, without trying. This 
would be of good use, especially if it should extend so far as to discern the 
goodness of such a glass, while it is yet on the cement. 

An Account of Dr. Sydenham's Booh, entitled, Methodus Curandi 
Febres, Propriis observationibus super structa. N" 12, p. 210. 
Dr. Sydenham's work being in the hands of every medical practitioner, it 
would be superfluous to insert an analysis of it here ; but on this occasion it 
may be proper to notice that the merit of this great physician and original 
writer consist, in his accurate descriptions of what he terms epidemic consti- 
tutions ; in his history and treatment of the small-pox ; and in his rejection 
of the hot and cordial method of treatment in this eruptive disorder as well as 
in fevers in general. His theoretical reasonings however are by no means 
satisfactory ; and it has been justly observed by many medical writers, that he 
carried one part of his cooling method of cure (viz. venesection) to too great 
^ a length. A short account of his life is prefixed to the English translation of 
his works by Swan. 

Certain Problems in Navigation. By Mr. Nicholas Mercator* 

N" 13, p. 215. 

The line of artificial tangents, or the logarithmical tangent-line,-|- beginning 
at 45 degrees, and taking every half degree for a whole one, is found to agree 

* Nicholas Mercator, an ingenious mathematician, and a learned member of the Royal Society, 
was a native of Holstein, in Germany ; but he spent most of his time in England, where he died in 
the year 10.90, at only 50 years of age. He was the author of many works in geometry, geography, 
astronomy, astrology, logarithms, &c. 

t It does not appear by whom, nor by what accident, was discovered the noted property which 
is the subject of the above memoir by Mercator, being the analogy between a scale of logarithmic 
tangents, and Wright's protraction of the nautical meridian line, which consisted of tlie sums of the 
secants. It appears however to have been first published, and introduced into the practice of navi- 
gation, by Henry Bond, who mentions this property in an edition of Norwood's Epitome of Navi- 
gation, printed about l645 5 and he again treats of it more fully in ao edition of Gunter's works. 



fO PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO ]666. 

pretty nearly with the meridian-line of the sea chart ; both of them growing, 
as it were, after the same proportion. But the table of meridional degrees, 
being calculated only to every sexagesimal minute of a degree, shows some small 
difference from the said logarithmical tangent-line. Hence it may be doubted, 
whether that difference does not arise from that little error which is committed 
by calculating the table of meridional degrees only to every minute. 

Mr. Oughtred, in chap. vi. of his Navigation, mentions a method disco- 
vered by himself, by which it may be proved that the small parts of the meri- 
dian may not be one minute (which on the face of the earth answers to above an 
English mile) nor the hundred-thousandth, or, if necessary, the millionth part 
of a minute, scarce exceeding one fifteenth part of an inch : which thing, he 
says, he is able to perform in tables, to the radius 10000000; yet nothing at 
all differing either in their form or manner of working from those that are now 
commonly in use. 

How this is to be done, this author has not made known to the public. 
And, though such tables to the radius 10000000 had been brought to light, 
yet would they not be sufficient to prove the identity or sameness of the said two 
lines, as to continue the comparison between them as far as the one of them, 
viz. the logarithmical tangent-line, is already calculated, that is, to ten places, 
besides the characteristic. 

Now, therefore, if a certain rule could be produced, by which the agreement 
or disagreement of the said two lines might be shewn, not only to that extent 
of places to which that tangent line is already calculated, but also to as many 
more as the same may be yet further extended to in infinitum, surely that rule 
would not only save us the labour of making tables to the radius 10000000, but 
also the helix or spiral line of the ship's course would be reduced to a more 
precise exactness than ever was pretended by him : and this most noble and 
useful science (as he justly calls it) which is the bond of most distant countries, 

printed in l653, where he teaches, from this property, how to resolve all the cases of Mercator's or 
Wright's sailing by the logarithmic tangents, independent of the table of meridional parts. This 
analogy had only been found to be nearly true by trials, but not demonstrated to be a strict mathe- 
matical property. Such demonstration seems to have been first discovered by Mercator, the author 
of the above memoir, who, wishing to make the most advantage of this and another concealed in- 
vention in navigation, in the above paper invites the public to enter into a wager with him, on his 
ability to prove the truth or falsehood of the supposed analogy. But tliis mercenary proposal seems 
not to have been taken up by any one, and Mercator reserved his demonstration. The proposal 
however excited the attention of mathematicians to the subject itself, and a demonstration was not 
long wanting. The first was published about two years after, by James Gregor}% in his Exercitationes 
Geometricae, and from thence, and other similar properties, there demonstrated, he shows how the 
tables of logarithmic tangents and secants may easily be computed from tlie natural tangents and 
secants. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 71 

and the consociation of remotest nations, '-, ould attain its full lustre and per- 
fection. 

Besides that the same rule would also discover a far easier way of making lo- 
garithms than ever was practised or known, and therefore might serve, when- 
ever there should be occasion, to extend the logarithms beyond the number of 
places already known. 

Moreover, such a rule would enable men to draw the meridian line geometri- 
cally, that is, without tables or scales: which indeed might also be done by- 
setting off the secants of every whole or half degree, if there were not this in- 
convenience in it, that a line, composed of so many small parts, would be 
subject to many eiTors, especially in a small compass. 

The same rule also will serve to find the course and distance between two 
places assigned, as far as practice shall require it; and that without any table 
of meridional parts, and yet with as much ease and exactness. 

And as all these things depend on the solution of this question, whether the 
artificial tangent-line be the true meridian-line ? I undertake, by God's assist- 
ance, to resolve the said question. And in order to let the world know with 
what readiness and confidence I undertake it, I am willing to lay a wager against 
any one or more persons that have a mind to engage, for so much as another 
invention of mine, which is of less subtlety, but of far greater benefit to the 
public, may \c of worth to the inventor. 

For the great advantage which all merchants, mariners, and consequently the 
commonwealth may receive from this other invention, is, in my judgment, 
highly valuable; as it will often make a ship sail against even a contrary wind, 
and yet as near to the place intended as if the wind had been favourable : or 
will enable one to gain something in the intended way whether the wind be fair 
or not (except only when you go directly south or north), but the advantage will 
be most where there is most need of it, that is, when the wind is contrary : So 
that one may very often gain a fifth, fourth, third part, or more of the in- 
tended voyage, according as it is longer or shorter, but always most in a longer 
voyage. 

All this the proposer is to make good by the verdict of some able men, who 
also may give a guess what this latter invention may be worth to the owner : 
And for so much, and no more, he will stand engaged against any one or 
more persons, that he will and shall resolve the question above-mentioned, viz. 
Whether the artificial tangent-line be the true meridian line; and if not, then he 
will lose, and transfer to the other party the whole benefit of the last men- 
tioned invention. But if, on the contrary, he prove or disprove the identity 
of the said two lines, to the judgment of some able mathematicians, that 



72 • PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666» 

then so much money be paid him by the other party as the said invention was 
valued at. 

A new Covtrwance of a Wheel-Barometer. By Dr. Hook. 

N° 13, p.2lS. 

This is only an easy way of applying an index to any common baroscope, 
whether the glass be only a single tube, or have a round bolthead at the top. 
And by it the variation in the altitude of the mercurial cylinder, which at most 
is hardly three inches, may be made as distinguishable as if it were three feet, 
or three yards. 

The manner is evident by figure 5, pi. 1, where ABC represent the tube, 
which may be either blunt or with a head, as A. This is to be filled with 
quicksilver, and inverted as usual into a vessel of stagnant mercury of the 
shape I K, that is, having its sides about three or four inches high, and the 
tube equally wide both above and below ; and, if possible, of equal capacity 
with the hollow of the tube about B : for then the quicksilver rising as much 
in the hollow of I, as it descends at B, the difference of the height in the 
receiver I, will be just half the usual difference. And if the receiving vessel 
I K have a larger cavity, the difference will be less ; but if less, the difference 
will be greater : but whether the difference be made more or less, it is no 
great matter, since by the contrivance of the wheel and indexj 4fhe least varia- 
tion may be made as sensible as is desired, by diminishing the width of the 
cylinder E, and lengthening the index F G, according to the proportion 
required. 

Of four Sims and tivo uncommon Rainhoivs observed in France. 

N" 13, p. 219. 

On the gth of April 1 QQQ, about half an hour past Q, there appeared three 
circles in the sky. One of them, SCHN, fig. 6, pi. 1, was very large, a 
little interrupted, and white every where, without the mixture of any other 
colour. It passed through the middle of the sun's disk, and was parallel to 
the horizon. Its diameter was above 100 degrees, and its centre not far from 
the zenith A. 

The second D E B O, was much less, and deficient in some places, having 
the colours of a rainbow, especially in that part which was within the great 
circle. It had the true sun for its centre. 

The third H D N, was less than the first, but greater than the second ; it 
was not entire, but only an arch or portion of a circle, whose centre was far 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 73 

distant from that of the sun, and whose circumference about its middle D was 
joined to that of the least circle, intersecting the greatest circle at its two ex- 
tremities H N. In this circle were discerned also the colours of a rainbow, but 
they were not so strong as those of the second. 

At the part where the circumference of this third circle closed with that of 
the second, there was a great brightness of rainbow-colours mixed together : 
And at the two extremities, where this second circle intersected the first, ap- 
peared two parhelias or mock-suns H N ; which shone very bright, but not so 
bright or so well defined as the true sun. The false sun H towards the south, 
was larger, and far more luminous than that towards the east. 

Besides those two parhelias which were on the two sides of the true sun, in 
the intersection of the first and third circle, there was also upon the first great 
circle, a third mock sun C, situated to the north, which was less and less bright 
than the two others. So that at the same time there were seen four suns in the 
heavens. There was also a very dark space I, between D and R. 

This appearance is considered as one of the most remarkable that can be seen, 
by reason of the eccentricity of the circle H D N, and because the parhelia were 
not in the intersectioiTof the circle D E B O with the great circle S C H IS, but 
in that of the semicircle H D N. Which are different from the position of 
those five suns seen at Rome on March 29, 1629, between two and three 
o'clock A. M, two of them appearing in the intersection of a circle passing 
through the sun's disk, with another that was concentric with the sun, as in 

%• 7. 

As for the two uncommon rainbows, they appeared at Chartres the 10th of 
August 1665, about half an hour past six in the evening ; crossing each other 
nearly at right angles, as seen in fig. 8. 

That opposite to the sun, in the usual manner, was more deeply coloured 
than that which crossed it ; though the colours of the first Iris were not indeed 
so strong as they are seen at other times. 

The greatest height of the stronger rainbow was about 45 degrees ; the 
feebler rainbow lost one of its legs by growing fainter, about 20 degrees above 
the stronger ; and the leg below appeared continued to the horizon. 

The fainter seemed to be a portion of a great circle ; and the stronger but a 
portion of a small circle, as usual. 

The sun at their appearance was about six degrees high above the horizon: 
and the river of Chartres, which runs nearly from south to north, was between 
the observer and the rainbow ; and he stood level with this river, at the dis- 
tance of 150 paces from it. 

VOL. I. K 



74 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 



A Relation of an Accident by Thunder and Lightning at Oxford. By 

Dr. IFallis. N" 13, p. 222. 

Two scholars of Wadham College being in a boat, without a waterman, and 
having just pushed off from shore at Medley to return home, were by a stroke 
of lightning, as they stood at the head of the boat, both forced out of the boat 
into the water. One of them was instantly struck dead, no appearance of life 
being discernible in him, though he was taken out of the water after he had 
been scarcely a minute in it. The other was stuck fast in the mud (with his 
feet downwards and his upper parts above water) like a post, not able to help 
himself out ; but, except a present stunning or numbness, had no other hurt, 
but was so confused, that he knew not how he came there out of the boat, and 
had no recollection of the thunder and lightning. He was very feeble and faint, 
and though he was immediately put into a warm bed, he had not thoroughly 
recovered by the next night ; and whether he afterwards recovered or not, was 
not known. — The body of him who was killed was examined the next morning 
by Dr. Willis, Dr. Mallington, Dr. Lower, and myself, with some others. We 
found no wound at all in the skin ; the face and neck were swart and black, but 
not more than might be ordinary by the settling of the blood. On the right 
side of the neck was a little blackish spot about an inch long, and about -i- of 
an inch broad, and was as if it had been seared with a hot iron ; and as I re- 
member, one somewhat bigger on the left side of the neck, below the ear. 
Straight down the breast, but towards the left side of it, was a large place about 
three quarters of a foot in length, and about two inches in breadth, in some 
places more, in some less, which was burnt and hard like leather burnt with the 
fire, of a deep blackish red colour, not much unlike the scorched skin of a 
roasted pig. On the forepart of the left shoulder there was a similar spot about 
the size of a shilling, but that in the neck was blacker, and seemed more 
seared. From the top of the right shoulder, sloping downwards towards that 
place in his breast, was a narrow line of the like scorched skin, as if somewhat 
had come in at the neck and had run down to the breast, and there spread 
broader. The buttons of his doublet were for the most part torn off, and the 
collar thereof just over the forepart of the left shoulder was quite broken asunder, 
as if cut or chopped with a blunt tool. His hat was strangely torn, not just on 
the crown, but on its side and brim. The hole made on its side was large 
enough to admit one's fist, being gashed and torn as if cut with a dull tool. 

The night following the three doctors above mentioned and myself, with some 
surgeons (besides a multitude of others) were present at the opening of the 



TOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 75 

head ; tlie vessels of the brain were pretty full of blood, but nothing amiss 
could be discerned. (The examination was made by candle light, and hastily, 
as the corpse was soon to be interred, and the crowds of people were an impedi- 
ment.) — Some of the hair on the right temple was singed, and the lower part of 
the ear was blacker than the rest of the body. On opening the breast, it was 
found that the burning reached quite through the skin, which was in those 
scorched places hard and horny, and shrunk up, so as not to be so thick as the 
soft skin about it ; but there was no appearance of any injury deeper than the 
skin, the muscles being not at all altered or discoloured. On removing the 
sternum, the lungs and heart exhibited a natural appearance. The whole body 
was, by night, very much swelled, more than in the morning, and smelt very 
strong and offensively ; which might be owing partly to the warmth of the 
weather, (it was the month of May) and partly to the heat of the place occa-* 
sioned by the multitude of people.* 

Of Shining Fish. By Dr. Beale. N' 13, p. 226. 

May 5, 1665, fresh mackrel were boiled in water, with salt and sweet herbs ; 
and they were left in the water for pickle. 

May 6, more fresh mackrel were boiled, and, May 7? both water and mack- 
rel were put into the former water, together with the former mackrel : but 
May 8, in the evening, the cook stirring the water, to take out some of the 
mackrel, found the water at the first motion become very luminous, and 
the fish shining through the water, as adding much to the light which 
the water yielded. The water, by the mixture of salt and herbs in the boiling, 
was of itself thick and rather blackish, than of any other clear colour : yet being 
stirred, it shined, and all the fish appeared more brightly luminous in their 
own shapes. 

Wherever the drops of this water fell, after stirring, they emitted a light. 
On the cook's turning up the lower side of the fish, there was no light : 
and after the water was for some time settled, and fully at rest, it did not shine 
at all. 

May 9, we repeated the same trial,' and found the same effects. The water, 
till it was stirred, gave no light, but was thick and dark. But as soon as the 
cook's hand was thrust into the water, it began to glimmer ; and being gently 
stirred by the hand moving round, it shone in such a manner, that those at 

* In some future accounts of deaths occasioned by lightning, we shall offer a remark or two on the 
appearances which it induces, and on the manner in which it proves fatal. 

k2 



76 phil6sophical transactions. [anno 1666. 

some distance took it for the light of the moon through a window upon a ves- 
sel of milk ; and by brisker circulation it seemed to flame. 

The fish at that time shone both from the inside and outside, but chiefly 
from the throat, and such places as seemed a little broken in the boiling. The 
observer took a piece that shone most, and fitted it both to his great micros- 
cope, and afterwards to the little one ; but he could discern no light by any of 
the glasses ; nor from any drops of the shining water, when put into the 
glasses. And May 10, in the brightest rays of the sun, he examined in 
the great microscope a small broken piece of the fish, which shined most the 
night before, but could find nothing on the surface of the fish very remarkable. 
It seemed whitish, and in a manner dried, with deep inequalities ; and a steam 
rather darkish than luminous seemed to arise like a very fine dust from the 
fish ; with here and there very small and almost imperceptible sparkles in 
the fish. 

The great microscope being fitted in the day-light for this piece of fish, we 
examined it that night, and it yielded no light at all, either by the glass or 
otherwise. Finding it dry, he thought that the moisture of spittle, and touch- 
ing of it, might cause it to shine ; which it did, though but a very little, in a 
few small sparks, which soon became extinguished. This was observed with 
the naked eye. 

He caused two fish to be kept for further trial, two or three days longer, 
in very hot weather, till they were fetid, expecting more brightness, but could 
fiind none either in the water by stirring it, or in the fish taken out of the 
water. 

Remarks on a Letter in the Journal des Scavans of May 24, 1666. 

iV** 13, p. 228. 

Whereas the French author is of opinion, that it is unknown how much 
time a heavy body requires to sink in water, acccording to a certain depth ; 
he may please to take notice, that that has been made out in England by fre- 
quent experiments ; by which several depths, found by this method of sound- 
ing without a line, were examined by trying them over again in the same place 
with a line, after the common way. And as to that quaere of his, whether a 
heavy body descends in the same proportion of swiftness in water, that it would 
do in air ? the answer is, that it does not ; but that, after it is sunk one or 
two fathoms into the water, it has there arrived to its greatest swiftness, and 
keeps after that an equal degree of velocity ; the resistance of the water being 
then found equal to the endeavour of the heavy body downwards. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 77 

And, when the same author alleges that it must be known, when a light 
body reascends from the bottom of the water to the top, in what proportion 
of time and swiftness it rises, he seems not to have considered, that in this 
experiment, the times of the descent and ascent are both taken, and computed 
together; so that, for this purpose, there needs not that nicety which he 
mentions. 

Also, whereas it is further excepted, that this way of sounding depths is no 
new invention ; the answer is ready, that neither is it pretended to be so, in 
the often quoted tract ; it being only intimated there, that the manner of per- 
forming it, as it is in that place represented and described, is new. 

A New Statical Baroscope. By Mr. Boyle. N" 14, p. 231. 

I caused to be blown, at the flame of a lamp, some glass bubbles, as large, 
thin, and light, as I could then procure, and choosing among them one about 
the size of a large orange, and weighing one dram ten grains, I counterpoised 
it in a pair of scales, that would lose their equilibrium with about the 30th 
part of a grain, and were suspended in a frame. I placed both the balance and 
the frame by a good baroscope, from whence I might learn the present weight 
of the atmosphere. Though the scales were not able to show me all the va- 
riations of the air's weight that appeared in the mercurial baroscope, yet they 
did what I expected, by showing me variations so small as altered the height 
of quicksilver half a quarter of an inch, and perhaps much smaller than those : 
nor did I doubt, that if I had nicer scales I should have discerned much smaller 
alterations of the weight of the air, since I had the pleasure to see the bubble 
sometimes in equilibrium with the counterpoise ; and sometimes, when the at - 
mosphere was high, preponderate so manifestly, that the scales being gently 
touched, the cock would play altogether on that side at which the bubble was 
hung; and at other times, when the air was heavier, that which was at the first 
but the counterpoise only would preponderate, and, upon the motion of the 
balance, make the cock vibrate altogether on its side. And this would conti- 
nue sometimes many days together, if the air so long retained the same weight; 
and then, upon any change of weight, the bubble would regain an equilibrium, 
or a preponderance, so that I had oftentimes the satisfaction, by looking first 
upon the statical baroscope, to foretel whether in the mercurial baroscope the 
mercury were high or low. 

So that, the matter of fact having been made out by variety of repeated ob- 
servations, and by sometimes comparing several of those new baroscopes toge- 
ther, I shall add some of these notes about this instrument, which readily occur 
to my memory, reserving the rest till another opportunity. 



78 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666. 

And first, if the ground on which I went in framing this baroscope be 
demanded, the answer in short may be ; 1 . That, though the glass bubble and 
the glass-counterpoise, at the time of their first being weighed, be in the air, 
exactly of the same weight; yet they are very different in bulk; the bubble be- 
ing perhaps a hundred or two hundred times larger than the metalline coun- 
terpoise. 2. That, according to hydrostatical laws, if two bodies of equal gra- 
vity, but unequal bulk, come to be weighed in another medium, they will be 
no longer equiponderant. If the new medium be heavier, the greater body, 
being specifically lighter, will lose more of its weight than the less and more 
compact one; but if the new medium be lighter than the first, then the 
larger body will outweigh the smaller : and this disparity, arising from the 
change of mediums, will be so much the greater, by how much the greater in- 
equality of bulk there is between the bodies. 3. Comparing these two together, 
I considered that it would be all one, as to the effect, whether the bodies were 
weighed in mediums of different gravity, or in the same medium, in case its 
specific gravity were subject to considerable alterations. 

Though a single bubble of competent size be much preferable, by reason that 
a far less quantity and weight of glass is requisite to comprise an equal capacity, 
when the glass is blown into a single bubble, than when it is divided into two ; 
yet if the balance be strong enough to bear so much glass, without being hurt, 
by employing two or a greater number of large bubbles, the effect may be more 
conspicuous than if only a single bubble were employed. 

This instrument may be much improved by divers accommodations. As 

1 . There may be fitted to the cheeks of the balance an arch of a circle, 
divided into 15 or 20 degrees, more or less according to the goodness of the 
balance, that the cock pointing to these divisions may readily, and without 
calculation, show the quantity of the angle, by which, when the scales incline 
either way, the cock declines from the perpendicular, and the beam from its 
horizontal parallelism. 

2. Instead of the ordinary counterpoise of brass, one of gold may be em- 
ployed, or at least of lead, whereof the latter being of equal weight with brass, 
is much less in bulk, and the former amounts not to half its magnitude. 

3. Those parts of the balance made of copper or brass will be less subject to 
rust than steel ; which yet, if well hardened and polished, may last a good while. 

4. Instead of the scales, the bubble maybe hung at one end of the beam, 
and only a counterpoise to it at the other, that the beam may not be burdened 
with unnecessary weight. 

5. The whole instrument, if placed in a small frame, like a square lantern 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 79 

with glass windows, and a hole at the top for the air, it will be more free from 
dust, and irregular agitations. 

6. This instrument being accommodated with a light wheel and an index, 
such as have been applied by Dr. Chr. Wren to weather glasses, and by Mr. 
Hook to baroscopes, may be made to show minuter variations than other- 
wise. 

7. And the length of the beam, and niceness of the balance, may make the 
instrument still more exact. 

Though in some respects this statical baroscope be inferior to the mercurial ; 
yet in others it has its own advantages and conveniences. As, first, it affords 
an ocular proof that the falling and rising of the mercury depends upon the 
varying weight of the atmosphere; since in this baroscope it cannot be pre- 
tended that nfuga vacui, or a funiculus, is the cause of the changes we observe. 

2. It shows, not only that the air has weight, but heavier than some learned 
men will allow ; since even the variation of weight in so small a quantity of air 
as is but equal in bulk to an orange, is manifestly discoverable by such balances. 

3. This statical baroscope will often be more easily prepared than the other. 

4. The essential parts of the scale-baroscope may very easily in a little room be 
carried any where, without the hazard of being spoiled or injured. 5. Mercu- 
rial barometers contain air, more or less, but in the other, that consideration 
does not take place. 6. It being possible to discover hydrostatically both the 
size of the bubble and the contents of the cavity, as also the weight and di- 
mensions of the glassy substance, we may easily discover by this instrument 
this absolute and relative weight of the air. For, when the mercury is either 
very high or very low, or at a medium height, bringing the scale-barometer to 
an exact equilibrium, and observing when the mercury is risen or fallen just an 
inch, or a half or fourth of an inch, &c. and putting in the like minute divisions 
of a grain to the lighter scale, till you have again brought the balance to an ex- 
act equilibrium, you may determine what weight in the statical baroscope an- 
swers to the several altitudes of quicksilver. And if the balance be accommodated 
with a divided arch, or a wheel and index, these observations will assist you for 
the future to determine readily what the bubble has gained or lost in weight by 
the change of the atmosphere's weight. 7 • By this statical instrument we may 
be enabled to compare the mercurial baroscopes of several places, and to make 
some estimate of the gravities of the air. As if, for instance, it is found by ob- 
servation that the bubble weighed just a dram when the mercurial cylinder was 
at the height of 294- inches ; and that the addition of the 1 6th part of a grain 
is requisite to keep the bubble in an equilibrium, when the mercury is risen an 8th, 
or any determinate part of an inch above the former height : and when in another 



'80 ' PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO l66d, 

place, where there is a mercurial barometer, as well freed from air as mine, 
if it appear to weigh precisely a dram, and the mercury in the baroscope there 
stand at just 29^ inches, we may conclude the gravity of the atmosphere to 
be sensibly equal in both those two places, though very distant. And though 
there be no baroscope there, yet if there be an additional weight, as for in- 
stance, the 1 6th part of a grain requisite to be added to the bubble, to bring the 
scales to an equilibrium, it will appear that the air at this second place is, at that 
time, so much heavier than the air of the former place was, when the mercury 
stood at 294- inches. 

But in making such comparisons, we must consider the situations of the 
several places ; for if one of them be in a vale or bottom, and the other on the 
top or some elevated part of a hill, it is not to be expected that the atmosphere 
in this latter place should gravitate as much as the atmosphere in the former, on 
which a longer pillar of air insists. And this suggests a method of ascertaining 
the absolute and comparative height of mountains, &c. by noticing, by the 
baroscope, the difference in the weight of the air at the bottom and at the 
top.* 

The Phases and Revolutions of the Planet Mars about his Axis. 
By Mr, Hook. N' 14, p. 239. 

On the third of March, 1665-6, though the disposition of the air was not 
good, yet I could see now and then the body of Mars appearing of the form A, 
fig. 1, pi. 2, which I presently described by a scheme ; and about 10 minutes 
after, it had through the glass the appearance as in the scheme B. This I was 
sufficiently satisfied, by very often observing it through the tube, and changing 
my eye into various positions, that so there might be no kind of fallacy in it, 
could be nothing else, but some more dusky and spotted parts of the face of 
this planet. 

March 10, finding the air very thick, I made use of a very shallow eye- 
glass, as nothing appeared distinct with the greater charge ; and saw the ap- 
pearance of the planet as in C, which I imagined might be the representation 
of the former spots by a lesser charge. About 3 o'clock the same morning, 
the air being very bad (though to appearance exceeding clear, and causing all 
the stars to twinkle, and the minute stars to appear very thick) the body seemed 
like D ; which I still supposed to be the representation of the same spots 
through a more confused and glaring air. 

• Thus we find that the method of measuring heights by the barometer, is nearly as old as tlie 
instrument itself. 



VT)L. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 81 

But observing March 21, I was surprised to find the air, though not so clear 
as to the appearance of small stars, so exceeding transparent, and the face of 
Mars so very well defined, and round and distinct, that I could manifestly see 
it of the shape in E, about half an hour after nine at night. The triangular 
spot on the right side (as it was inverted by the telescope, according to the ap- 
pearances, through which all the preceding figures are drawn) appeared very 
black and distinct, the other towards the left more dim ; but both of them 
sufficiently plain and defined. About a quarter before 12 o'clock the same 
night, I observed it again with the same glass, and found the appearance exactly 
as in F ; which I imagined to show a motion of the former triangular spot. 

Also March 22, about half an hour after 8 at night, finding the same spots 
in the same posture, as at G, I concluded that the preceding observation was 
only the appearance of the same spots at another height and thickness of the 
air ; and thought myself confirmed in this opinion, by finding them in much 
the same posture March 23, about half an hour after Q, as at H, though the 
air was not so good as before. 

And though I desired to make observations about 3 o'clock those mornings, 
yet something or other inter\-ened, that hindered me, till March 28, about 
3 o'clock, the air being light in weight, though moist and a little hazy, 
when I plainly saw it to have the form represented in I ; which is not recon- 
cileable with the other appearances, unless we allow a turbinated motion of 
- Mars upon its centre : which, if such there be, from the observations made 
March 21, 22, and 23, we may guess it to be once or twice in about 24 hours, 
unless it may have some kind of librating motion ; which seems not so 
likely. 

Observations made in Italy, confirming the former, and fixing the 
Period of the Revolution of Mars. By J. D. Cassini. N° 14, 
p. 2^2. 

That with a telescope of 24 palmes, or of about 1 6 feet, wrought after S. 
Campani's way, he began to observe February 6, l666, N. S. in the morning, 
and saw two dark spots in the first face of Mars, as represented at K, pi. 2, 
%. 2. 

That with the same glass he observed Feb. -14, in the evening, in the other 
face of this planet, two other spots, like those of the first, but larger ; as L. 

That afterwards continuing the observations, he found the spots of these two 
faces to turn by little and little from east to west, and to return at last to the 
same situation wherein he had seen them first. 

VOL. I. L 



<fe ^Philosophical trans AeTioNS. [anno i666. 

That S. Campani having also observed at Rome, with glasses of 50 palmes, or 
about 35 feet, likewise of his own contrivance, had seen in the same planet the 
same phaenomena ; as M the first face March 3 in the evening, and N the 2d 
face March 1 8 in the evening 

That sometimes he saw during the same night, the two faces of Mars, one 
in the evening, the other in the morning. 

That the motion of these spots in the inferior part of the apparent hemisphere 
of Mars is made from east to west, as that of all the other celestial bodies, and 
is performed by parallels, that decline much from the equator, and little from 
the ecliptic. 

That the spots return the next day to the same situation, 40 minutes later 
than the day before; so that in every 36 or 37 days, about the same hour they 
come again to the same place. 

He states that some other astronomers have also made at Rome several ob- 
servations of these spots of Mars, from March -i-|- to March -f-g-, with glasses 
wrought by Eustachio Divini, of 25 and 45 palmes : which spots he makes but 
little different from his own of the first face ; as will by and by appear, by the 
direction to the schemes. 

But he adds that those other Roman astronomers who have observed with 
Divini's glasses, will have the conversion of Mars to be performed, not in 24h. 
40 m, as he maintains it is, but in about 13h. 

And to evince that they are mistaken in these observations of theirs, he 
alleges, that they assure that the spots which they have seen in this planet 
by an Eustachian telescope, the ^ of March, were small, very distant from 
one another, remote from the middle of the disk, and the oriental spot was less 
than the occidental, as- is represented by the fig. O, like that of the first face of 
Mars ; whereas, on the contrary, Cassini pretends to evidence by his observations, 
made at the same time at Bononia, that the same day and hour those spots were 
very large, near one another, in the midst of the disk, the oriental larger 
than the occidental, as appears by fig. P, which is that of the second face of 
Mars. 

Besides, he declares that those astronomers were too hasty in determining, 
after five or six observations only, in how much time Mars finished his revolu- 
tion ; and denies it to be performed in 13 hours : adding, that though he him- 
self had observed for a much longer time than they, yet he durst not for a great 
while define whether Mars made but one turn in 24 hours 40 minutes, or two ; 
and that all that he could for a long time afiirm, was only this, that after 24 h. 
40 m. this planet appeared in the same manner he did before. 

But since those first observations, he affirms to have found cause to deter- 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 69 

mine that the period of this conversion is made in the said space of 24 h. 40m ; 
and not oftener than once within that time ; alleging for proof; 

1 . That whereas Feb. 6, N. S. he saw the spots of the first face of Mars 
moving from eleven o'clock in the night until break of day, they appeared not 
afterwards in the evening after the rising of that planet ; whence he infers, that 
after 12 hours and 20 minutes, the same spots did not come about; since that 
the same which in the morning were seen in the middle, upon the rising of 
Mars, after 13 or 14 hours might have appeared near the occidental limb. But 
because he might be imposed upon by vapours, whilst Mars was yet so near 
the horizon, he gives this other determination, viz. 

2. Whereas he saw the first face of Mars the 6th of February at 1 1 o'clock 
of the night following ; he did not see the same after 1 8 days at the same hour, 
as he ought to have done, if the period is performed in the space of 12h. 20m. 

3. Again, whereas he saw, Feb. 24 in the evening, the other face of Mars, 
he could not see the same the 13th and 15th day of March, to wit, after 17 
and 19 days, as he should have done, if the revolution were made in the newly 
mentioned time. 

4. Again, whereas the 27th of March in the evening he saw the second face 
of Mars, he could not see it the 14th and l6th of April. 

From all which observations he judges it to be evident, that the period of 
this planet's revolution is not performed in the space of 12 hours 20 min. but in 
about 24 hours 40 min. more exactly to be determined by comparing distant 
observ^ations : and that those who affirm the former must have been deceived 
by not well distinguishing the two faces, and by having seen the second, mistak- 
ing it for the first. 

All which he concludes with this hint, that, when he defines the time of the 
revolution of Mars, he does not speak of its mean revolution, but only of that 
which he observed whilst Mars was opposite to the sun, which is the shortest 
of all.* 

The Phases of the Planet Jupiter. By Mr. Hook. N" 14, p. 245. 

Anno 1666, June 26th, between three and four o'clock in the morning, I 
observed the body of Jupiter through a 60 foot-glass, and found the apparent 
diameter of it through the tube to be somewhat more than two degrees, that 
is, about four times as large as the diameter of the moon appears to the naked 
eye. 

* The more nice observations of later observers have proved that Cassini was right in his suspi- 
cions above expressed j the period of the rotation of Mars having been settled by modern astronomers 
at 24h. 39m. 22 8. 

l2 



84 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

I saw the limb pretty round, and very well defined without radiation. The 
parts of the phasis of it had various degrees of light. About a and f, its north 
and south poles, (in the fig. Q. pi. 2) it was somewhat darker, and gradually 
grew brighter towards h and e, two belts or zones ; the one of which {h) was a 
small dark belt crossing the body southward; adjoining to which was a small 
line of a somewhat lighter part ; and below that again, southwards, was the large 
black belt c. Between that and e, the other smaller black belt, was a pretty 
large and bright zone; but the middle c/, was somewhat darker than the edges. 
I perceived, about 3h. 15m. near the middle of this, a very dark round spot, 
like that represented at g, which was not to be perceived above half an hour be- 
fore. And I observed it in about 10 minutes time to be got almost to d, keep- 
ing equal distance from the satellite A, which moved also westwardly, . and was 
joined to the disk at ?, at 3h. 25m. After which, the air growing very hazy, 
and as appeared by the baroscope very light also in weight, I could not observe 
it ; so that it was sufficiently evident that this black spot was nothing else save 
the shadow of the satellite h, eclipsing a part of the face of Jupiter. About 
two hours before, I had observed a large darker spot in the larger belt about h, 
which in about an hour or little more, moving westwards, disappeared. About a 
week before I discovered also, together with a spot in the belt c, another spot 
in the belt e, which kept the same way and velocity with that of the belt c. 
The other three satellites in^he time of this eclipse, made by the satellite, were 
westwards of the body of Jupiter; appearing as bright through the tube as the 
body of Jupiter did to the naked eye ; and I was able to see them longer through 
the tube, after the day-light came on, than I was able to see the body of Ju- 
piter with my naked eye. 

Observation of Saturn. By Mr. Hook. N" 14, p. 246. 

June 29, 1666, between 11 and 12 at night, I observed the body of Satm-n 
through a 60 foot telescope, and found it exactly of the shape represented in 
the figure R, pi. 2. The ring appeared of a somewhat brighter light than the 
body ; and the black lines a a, crossing the ring, and b b crossing the body 
(whether shadows or not, I dispute not) were plainly visible ; whence I could 
manifestly see that the southern part of the ring was on this side of the body, 
and the nothern part behind, or covered by the body. 

A sad Effect of Thunder and Light7img. By Thomas Neale, Esq. 

N'U, p. 247. 

On the 24th of January 1665-6, Mr. Brooks of Hampshire, going from Win- 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 85 

Chester towards his house near Andover, in very bad weather, was killed by 
lightning, together with his horse. At about a mile from Winchester he was 
found with his face beaten into the ground, one leg in the stirrup, the other 
in the horse's mane ; his cloaths all burnt off his back, and his hair and all his 
body singed ; and his cloaths were so scattered and consumed, that not enough 
to fill the crown of a hat could be found. His nose was beaten into his face, 
and his chin into his breast, in which was a wound cut almost as low as his 
navel. His gloves were whole, but his hands in them singed to the bone. 
The hip-bone and shoulder of his horse burned and bruised, and his saddle torn 
into small pieces. 

Of some Books lately published. N° 14, p. 248. 

I. Relations of Divers Curious Voyages, by Mons. Thevenot, vol. 3. in 
French. This book contains chiefly, the Embassy of the Dutch into China, 
translated out of the Dutch manuscript : a Geographical Description of China, 
translated out of a Chinese author by Martinius ; and the account which the 
Directors of the Dutch East-India Company made to the States General, 
touching the state of affairs in the East-Indies, when their late fleet parted 
from thence. 

II. A Discourse on the Causes of the Inundation of the Nile. The author 
of this book is Monsieur de la Chambre, who being persuaded, from several 
circumstances which accompany the overflowing of this river, that it cannot 
proceed from rain, ventures to assign as a cause, as well as for other effects 
of its swelling, the nitre with which that water abounds.* 

III. De Principiis et Ratiocinatione Geometrarum ; Contra Fastum Profes- 
sorum Geometriae; authore Thoma Hobbes. It seems that this author is 
angry with all geometricians but himself; yea he plainly says in the dedica- 
tion of his book, that he invades the whole nation of them ; and unwilling, it 
seems, to be called to an account for doing so; he will acknowledge no judge 
of this age ; but is full of hopes that posterity will pronounce for him. Mean- 
while he ventures to advance this Dilemma ; Eorum qui de iisdem rebus mecum 
aliquid ediderunt, aut solus insanio Ego, aut solus non irisanio ; tertium enim non 
est, nisi (quod dicet forte aliquis) insaniamus omnes^ Doubtless, one of these 
will be granted him. 

* It is now well known that the overflowing of the Nile in summer, is owing to the torrents of 
rain and the melting of the snow on the mountains in Abyssinia and Upper Egjpt. 



S6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [ANNO 1666. 

As to the book itself, he professes that he does not write it against Geo- 
metry, but geometers ; and that his design in it is to show, that there is no 
less uncertainty and falsity in the writings of mathematicians, than there is in 
those of naturalists, moralists, &c. though he judges that physics, ethics, and 
politics, if they were well demonstrated, would be as certain as the mathe- 
matics. 

Attacking the mathematical principles as they are found in books, and withal 
some demonstrations, he takes to task Euclid himself, instead of all, as the 
master of all geometricians, and with him his best interpreter Clavius, examin- 
ing in the first place the principles of Euclid : Secondly, declaring false what 
is superstructed upon them, whether by Euclid or Clavius, or any geometer 
whatsoever that has made use of those or other (as he is pleased to entitle 
them) false principles. Thirdly, pretending that he means so to combat 
all, both principles and demonstrations, undertaken by him, as that he will 
substitute better in their room, lest he should seem to undermine the science 
itself. 

IV. King Solomon's Portraiture of Old Age ; by John Smith, M. D. This 
treatise being a philosophical discourse, though upon a sacred theme, may cer- 
tainly claim a place among Philosophical Transactions. Among other ingeni- 
ous observations on the subject, the author gives the following very curious 
one ; that the expression of Solomon (Eccles. chap. 12.) probably denotes the 
same doctrine as the discovery of the sagacious Harvey, of the Blood's Circu- 
lation. The pitche?- being interpreted for the veins, the fountain for the right 
ventricle of tlw heart ; the cistern for the left ; the wheel the circulation. 

A neiv Frigorific Experiment, showing how a considerable Degree of Cold 
may he suddenly produced, without the help of Snow, Ice, Hail, 
Wind, or Nitre, and that at any Time of the Year. By Mr. Boyle. 
Nn5,p.255i 

Among the several ways by which I have made infrigidating mixtures with 
sal ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) the most simple and easy is this: Take 
1 lb. of powdered sal ammoniac and about three pints or pounds of water ; put 
the salt into the liquor, either altogether, if your design be to produce an in- 
tense but short coldness ; or, at two, three, or four several times, if you desire 
that the produced coldness should rather last somewhat longer than be so 
great. Stir the powder in the liquor with a stick or whalebone (or some other 
thing that will not be acted upon by the brine) to hasten the dissolution of the 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 87 

salt, upon the quickness of which depends very much the intensity of the cold 
that will ensue. 

I. That a considerable degree of cold is really produced by this is evident, 
1 St. To the touch ; 2dly, By the dew which collects on the sides of the vessel 
containing the solution ; 3dly, By plunging into it (which is the best and surest 
test) a good sealed weather-glass furnished with tinctured spirit of wine.* For 
the ball [bulb] of this being put into our frigorific mixture, the crimson liquor 
will nimbly enough descend much lower than when it was kept either in the 
open air or in common water of the same temperature with that wherein the 
sal ammoniac was put to dissolve. 

II. The duration of the cold produced by this experiment depends upon 
several circumstances; as, 1st, Upon the season of the year and present tempera- 
ture of the air ; 2dly, Upon the quantity of the salt and water ; 3dly, Upon the 
goodness and fitness of the particular parcel of salt that is employed ; 4thly, 
Upon the way of putting the salt into the water; for if you cast it in all at once, 
the water will sooner acquire an intense degree of coldness, but it will also the 
sooner return to its former temperature : whereas, if you desire but an inferior 
degree of that quality, but that may last longer (which will usually be the most 
convenient for the cooling of drinks) then you may put in the salt little by little. 
For keeping a long weather-glass (thermometer) for a good while in our im- 
pregnated mixture, I often purposely tried that when the tinctured liquor sub- 
sided but slowly or was at a stand, by putting in, from time to time, two or 
three spoonfuls of fresh salt, and stirring the water to quicken the solution, the 
spirit of wine would begin again to descend. The refrigerating process may be 
lengthened by having part of the sal ammoniac but grossly pounded, so as to be 
longer in dissolving. In spring I have found by a good weather-glass (thermo- 
meter) a sensible artificial cold, made by a pound of sal ammoniac at the utmost, 
to last about two or three hours. 

III. To cool drinks with this mixture, you may put them in thin glasses, the 
thinner the better ; which (their orifices being stopped and kept above the mix- 
ture) may be moved to and fro in it, the liquor being then immediately poured 
out and drank ; or, if the glass be conveniently shaped, it may be drank out of 
that, without pouring it into another, which lessens the coolness. 

IV. Whether sal ammoniac mixed with sand or earth, and not dissolved, but 
only moistened with a little water sprinkled upon it, will answer for cooling 

* In the subsequent part of the paper this weather-glass is more fitly termed a thermoscope or 
thermometer. 



88f PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666. 

bottles of wine or other liquors, Mr. Boyle says he did not satisfy himself by a. 
sufficient number of trials.* 

V. For the cooling of air and liquors, and to adjust weather-glasses or ther- 
mometers, (to be able to do which at all times of the year was one of the chief 
aims that made me think of this experiment -}-) or to give a small quantity of 
beer, &c. a moderate degree of coolness, it wdll not be requisite to employ near 
so much as a whole pound of sal ammoniac at a time. A few ounces dissolved 
in about four times their weight of water will suffice. 

VI. In this section Mr. Boyle relates, that about the end of March he w as able, 
with a pound of sal ammoniac and a requisite proportion of water, to produce ice 
in a very short space of time. His sealed thermoscope (containin^tinctured 
spirit of wine) was 1 6 inches long, the ball [bulb] about the size of a walnut, 
and the diameter of the tube about an 8th or 10th of an inch. Being put into 
the water before the salt was added, the coloured spirit was first at 8^ inches, 
and after some time a little beneath 7f ; but in about a quarter of an hour after 
the sal ammoniac was added, it descended to 2-f^ inches, and in seven or eight 
minutes before that time, the vapour and drops of water on the outside of the 
glass began to freeze. When the frigorific power was at its height, water 
thinly placed on the outside of the glass, whilst the mixture was quickly stirred 
up and down, would freeze in a quarter of a minute. After three hours from 
the beginning of the operation, the crimson liquor of the thermometer was at 
4 4 inches, the height to which sti'ong and durable frosts had reduced it in the 
winter. 

VII. The sal ammoniac employed in these experiments may be recovered (to 
save expense) by evaporating the solution, and crystallizing it. The salt thus 
obtained will serve again for fresh frigorific mixtures. J 

* As the absorption of heat or production of cold depends upon the conversion of the salt from its 
solid form into a fluid state ; it is evident tliat, when it is only partially dissolved, as in the case of 
its being mixing with sand and merely sprinkled with water, tlae degree of refrigeration will be very 
inconsiderable. 

f Since Mr. Boyle's time tliermometers have been more accurately adjusted by employing snow or 
ice just beginning to melt for the freezing point, and water boiling under a pressure of the atmosphere 
corresponding to 29>8 of the barometer, for the boiling point. 

X A solution of sal ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) and nitre (nitrate of potash) produces a greater 
degree of cold than a selution of sal ammoniac alone. But there are other salts which produce this 
effect in a much stronger degree, such as tlie nitrate of ammonia dissolved in water, tlie phosphate of 
soda dissolved in diluted nitric acid, the sulphate of soda dissolved in the same acid, or in diluted sul- 
phuric acid, &c. See Mr. Walker's experiments on artificial cold, Phil. Trans, vols. 77, 7^- When 
we come to give an account of tliese experiments, we shall have an opportunity of noticing the intense 
degrees of cold which may be produced by means of snow and the diluted nitric and sulphuric 
acids, or of snow and muriate of lime. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 89 

J7i Account of two Boohs lately published in London. N" 15, p. 261. 

I. Euclidis Elementa Geometrica, novo ordine ac methodo demonstrata. In this 
edition the anonymous author pretends to have rendered these elements more 
expeditious, by bringing into one place what belongs to one and the same sub- 
ject; comprising, 1 . What Euclid had said of lines, straight, intersecting one 
another, and parallel. 2. What he has demonstrated of a single triangle, and 
of triangles compared one with another. 3. What of the circle, and its pro- 
perties. 4. What of proportions in triangles and other figures. 5. What of 
quadrats and rectangles, made of lines diversely cut. 6. What of plane super- 
ficies. 7. What of solids. After which follow the problems. The definitions 
are put to each chapter as need requires. The axioms, because they are few, 
and almost every where necessary, are not thus distributed in chapters. The 
postulata are not subjoined to the axioms, but reserved for the problems, the 
author considering that they being practical principles, had only place in pro- 
blems. 

II. The English Vine-yard vindicated. The author (Mr. John Rose, his 
Majesty's gardener at his royal garden in St. James's) in this small tract directs 
Englishmen in the choice of the fruit, and the planting of vineyards, hereto* 
fore very frequently cultivated, though of late almost neglected by them. 

Hypothesis on the Flux and Reflux of the Sea. Addressed to Mr. 
Boyle by Dr. John Wallis. N" 16, p. 263. 

You were earnest with me, when you last went hence, that I would put in 
writing what at divers times, for these three or four years, I have been dis- 
coursing with yourself and others concerning the common centre of gravity of 
the earth and moon, for the solving the phaenomena as well of the sea's ebbing 
and flowing, as of some perplexities in astronomical observations of the places 
of the celestial bodies. 

How much the world and the great bodies therein are managed according to 
the laws of motion and static principles, and with how much more clearness 
and satisfaction many of the more abstruse phaenomena have been solved oh 
such principles, within this last century than formerly; I need not discourse to 
you who are well versed in it. For since Galilaso, and after him Torricellio 
and others, have applied mechanic principles to the solving of philosophical dif- 
ficulties, natural philosophy is well known to have been rendered more intelli- 
gible, and to have made a much greater progress in less than a hundred yearS;, 
than before for many ages. 

VOL. I. M 



§0 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

The sea's ebbing and flowing has so great a connexion with the moon's mo- 
tion, that in a manner all philosophers have attributed much of its cause to the 
moon, which either by some occult quality, or particular influence which it 
has on moist bodies, or by some magnetic virtue, drawing the water towards 
it,* which should therefore make the water highest where the moon is vertical, 
or by its gravity and pressure downwards upon the terraqueous globe, which 
should make it lowest, where the moon is vertical, or by whatever other means, 
has so great an influence on, or at least connexion with, the sea's flux and re- 
flux, that it would seem very unreasonable to separate the consideration of the 
moon's motion from that of the sea: the periods of tides, to say nothing of the 
greatness of them near the new and full moon, so constantly waiting on the 
moon's motion, that it may be well presumed, that either the one is governed 
by the other, or at least both by some common cause. 

But the first that I know who took in the consideration of the earth's mo- 
tion, diurnal and annual, was Galilaeo, who, in his System of the World, has a 
particular discourse on this subject; which, from the first time I read it, seemed 
to me so very rational, that I could never be of other opinion, than that the 
true account of this great phenomenon was to be referred to the earth's motion 
as the principal cause of it ; yet that of the moon not to be excluded as to the 
determining the periods of tides, and other circumstances concerning them. 
And though it be manifest enough, that Galilaeo, as to some particulars, was 
mistaken in the account which he there gives of it; yet that may be very well 
allowed, without any blemish to so deserving a person, or prejudice to the main 
hypothesis : for that discourse is to be looked upon only as an Essay of the ge- 
neral hypothesis; which as to particulars was to be afterwards adjusted, from a 
good General History of Tides ; which it is manifest enough that he had not, 
and which is in a great measure yet wanting. 

And what I say of Galilaeo, I must in like manner desire to be understood of 
what I am now ready to say to you. For I do not profess to be so well skilled 
in the history of tides, as to undertake presently to accommodate my general 
hypothesis to particular cases; or indeed to undertake for the certainty of it, 
but only as an essay propose it to further consideration, to stand or fall, as it 
shall be found to answer matter of fact. 

I consider therefore, that in the tides, or the flux and reflux of the sea, be- 
sides extraordinary extravagances, or irregularities, whence great inundations or 
strangely high tides follow, (which yet perhaps may prove not to be so merely 

* It is curious to observe here how near the conjectures of Wallis approached to the true cause and 
theory of the tides^ afterwards more fully developed and demonstrated by Newton. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Ql 

accidental as they have been thought to be, but might from the regular laws of 
motion, if well considered, be both well accounted for, and even foretold;) 
these three notorious observations are made of the reciprocation of tides. 

1. The diurnal reciprocation; whereby twice in somewhat more than 24 
hours, we have a flood and an ebb; or a high-water and low-water. 1. The 
menstmal ; whereby in one synodical period of the moon, suppose from full- 
moon to full-moon, the time of those diurnal vicissitudes moves round through 
the whole compass of the ^^jy^y\^i^oM ^ or natural day of 24 hours; as for instance, 
if at the full moon the full sea be at such or such a place just at noon, it shall 
be the next day at the same place somewhat before one of the clock ; the day 
following, between one and two ; and so onward, till at the new moon it shall 
be at midnight ; the other tide, which in the full moon was at midnight, now at 
the new moon coming to be at noon ; and so forward, till at the next full moon 
the full sea shall at the same place come to be at noon again : Again, that of the 
spring tides and neap tides ; about the full moon and new moon the tides are 
at the highest, at the quadratures the tides are at the lowest; and at the times 
intermediate, proportionably. 3. The annual, whereby it is observed, that at 
some part of the year, the spring tides are yet much higher than the spring 
tides at others, which times are usually taken to be at the spring and autumn, 
or the two equinoxes ; but I have reason to believe, as well from my own ob- 
servations for many years, as of others who have alike observed it, that we 
should rather assign the beginnings of February and November, than the two 
equinoxes. 

Now in order to give account of these three periods, according to the laws of 
motion and mechanic principles, we shall first take for granted, what is now 
pretty commonly entertained by those who treat of such matters, that a body 
in motion is apt to continue its motion, and that in the same degree of cele- 
rity, unless hindered by some contrary impediment, like as a body at rest is apt 
to continue so, unless by something acting on it put into motion ; and accord- 
ingly, if on a board or table some loose incumbent weight be for some time 
moved, and have thereby contracted an impetus to motion at such a rate ; if that 
board or table chance by some external obstacle or otherwise to be stopped or 
considerably retarded in its motion, the incumbent loose body will shoot for- 
ward upon it; and contrarywise, in case that board or table chance to be acce- 
lerated or put forward with a considerably greater speed than before, the loose 
incumbent body, not having yet obtained an equal impetus with it, will be left 
behind, or seem to fly backward upon it. Or, which is Galilaso's instance, if 
a broad vessel of water, for some time evenly carried forward with the water in 
it, chance to meet with a stop, or to slack its motion, the water will dash for- 

M 2 



9^ THILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

ward and rise higher at the fore part of the vessel : and, contrarywise, if the 
vessel be suddenly put forward faster than before, the water will dash backwards, 
and rise at the hinder part of the vessel. So that an acceleration or retardation 
of the vessel which carries it, will cause a rising of the water in one part, and a 
falling in another; which yet, by its own weight, will again be reduced to a 
level as it was before. And consequently, supposing the sea to be but as a 
loose body, carried about with the earth, but not so united to it, as necessarily 
to receive the same degree of impetus with it as its fixed parts do, the accele- 
ration or retardation in the motion of this or that part of the earth will cause 
such a dashing of the water, or rising at one part with a falling at another, as 
what we call the flux and reflux of the sea. 

Now, this premised, we are next, with him, to suppose the earth carried 
about with a double motion ; the one annual, as (Fig. 1. pi. 3.) in BEC the 
great orb in which the centre of the earth B is supposed to move about the 
sun A. The other diurnal, whereby the whole moves upon its own axis, and 
each point in its surface describes a circle, as D E F G. 

It is then manifest, that if we suppose that the earth moved but by any one 
of these motions, and that regularly, the water having once attained an equal 
impetus thereunto, would still hold equal pace with it ; but the true motion of 
each part of the earth's surface being compounded of those two motions, the 
annual and diurnal ; while a point in the earth's surface moves about its centre 
B, from G to D and E, and at the same time its centre B be carried forwards 
to C, the true motion of that point forwards is made up of both those mo- 
tions ; to wit, of B to C, and of G to E ; but while G moves by D to E, E 
moves backward by F to G, contrary to the motion of B to C ; so that the 
true motion of E is but the difference of B C and E G ; for beside the motion 
of B about the centre, G is also put forward as much as from G to E, and E 
put backward as much as from E to G ; so that the diurnal motion in that 
part of the earth which is next the sun, as E F G, abates the progress of the 
annual, and most of all at F ; and in the other part which is from the sun, as 
GDE, it increases it, and most of all at D, that is, in the day time there is 
abated, and in the night time added to the annual motion, about as much as is 
G E, the earth's diameter. Which would afford us a cause of two tides in 
twenty-four hours ; the one upon the greatest acceleration of motion^ the 
other upon its greatest retardation. 

And thus far Galilaeo's discourse holds well enough ; but then in this it comes 
short, that as it gives an account of two tides, so those two tides are always 
to be at F and D, that is at noon and midnight ; whereas experience tells us 
that the time of tides moves in a month's space through all the 24 hours. Of 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. QS 

which he gives us no account. For though he takes notice of a menstrual 
period, yet he does it only as to the quantity of the tides, greater or less ; not as 
to the time of the tides, sooner or later. 

To supply this,* Jo. Baptista Balianus makes the earth to be but a secondary 
planet ; and to move not directly about the sun, but about the moon, the 
moon meanwhile moving about the sun ; in like manner as we suppose the 
earth to move about the sun, and the moon about it. 

But this, though it might furnish us with the foundation of a menstrual 
period of accelerations and retardations in the compound motion of several parts 
of the earth's surface ; yet I am not at all inclined to admit this as a true hypo- 
thesis, for divers reasons, which if not demonstrative are yet so consonant to the 
general system of the world, as that we have no good ground to disbelieve 
them. For, 1st, The earth being undeniably the greater body of the two, it 
cannot be thought probable that this should be carried about by the moon, 
less than itself; the contrary being seen not only in the sun, which is larger 
than any of the planets which it carries about; but in Jupiter larger than any of 
his satellites ; and Saturn than his. 2d, As the sun, by its motion about its 
own axis is with good reason judged to be the physical cause of the primary 
planets moving about it, so there is the like reason to believe that Jupiter and 
Saturn moving about their axes is the physical cause of their satellites mov- 
ing about them; which motion of Jupiter has been of late discovered, by the 
lielp of a fixed spot discerned in him ; and we have reason to believe the like 
of Saturn. Whether Venus and Mercury, about whom no satellites have been 
yet observed, be likewise so moved, we have not yet the like ground to deter- 
mine : but we have of Mars, from the observations of Mr. Hook, made in 
February and March last, consonant to the like observations of Jupiter made 
by him in May l664. Now that the earth has such a motion about its own 
axis, whereby it might be fitted to carry about the moon, is evident by its 
diurnal motion. And it seems as evident that the moon has not, because of 
the same side of the moon always turned towards us ; which could not be if the 
moon carried the earth about : unless we should say, that it carries about the 
earth in just the same period in which it turns upon its own axis : which is 
contrary to that of the sun carr)'ing about the planets ; the shortest of whose 
periods is yet longer than that of the sun's moving about its own axis. And 
the like of Jupiter, shorter than the period of any of his satellites. Of Saturn 
we have not yet any period assigned, but it is likely to be shorter than that of 
his satellites. And therefore we have reason to believe, not that by the moon's 

♦ Vid. Riccioli Almagest, novum, Tom. I. lib. 4. cap. JO. n. Ill, p. 21 6", 2. 



Q4 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIOXS. [aNNO 1666. 

motion about its axis the earth should be carried by a contemporary period, 
whereby the same face of the moon should be ever towards us ; but that by the 
earth's revolution about its axis in 24 hours, the moon should be carried about 
it in about 29 days, without any motion on its own axis : and accordingly, that 
the secondary planets about Jupiter and Saturn are not, like their principals, 
turned about their own axes. And therefore I am not at all inclined to be- 
lieve that the menstrual period of the tides with us is to be solved by such an 
hypothesis. 

Instead of this, that surmise of mine, for I dare not yet with confidence 
give it any better name, is to this purpose. 

The earth and moon being known to be bodies of so great connexion 
(whether by any magnetic, or what other tie I will not determine) as that the 
motion of the one follows that of the other, may well enough be looked upon 
as one body, or rather one aggregate of bodies which have one common centre 
of gravity ; which centre, according to the known laws of statics, is in a 
straight line connecting their respective centres, so divided as that its parts be 
in reciprocal proportion to the gravities of the two bodies. As for example, 
suppose the magnitude, and therefore probably the gravity of the moon to be 
about the one and fortieth part of that of the earth ; and the distance of the 
moon's centre from the centre of the earth to be about 56 semidiameters of 
the earth, the distance of the common centre of gravity of the two bodies 
will be from that of the earth, about the 42d part of 56 semidiameters ; that 
is, about 44 or 4- of a semidiameter, that is about 4- of a semidiameter of the 
earth above its surface in the air, directly between the earth and moon. 

Now supposing the earth and moon jointly as one body, carried about by 
the sun in the great orb of the annual motion ; this motion is to be estimated 
according to the laws of statics, as in other cases, by the motion of the com- 
mon centre of gravity of both bodies. For we are accustomed in statics to esti- 
mate a body or aggregate of bodies to be moved upwards, downwards, or other- 
wise, so much as its common centre of gravity is so moved, howsoever the parts 
may change places amongst themselves. 

And accordingly the line of the annual motion will be described, not by the 
centre of the earth, nor by the centre of the moon, but by the common centre 
of gravity of the bodies, the earth and moon, as one aggregate. 

Now supposing A B C D E, (fig. 2 and 3, pi. 3) to be a part of the great orb of 
the annual motion described by the common centre of gravity, in so long time 
as from a full moon at A to the next new moon at E ; the centre of the earth at 
T, and that of the moon at L, must each of them, supposing their common 
centre of gravity to keep the line A E, be supposed to describe a periphery about 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Q5 

that common centre, as the moon describes her line of menstrual motion. Of 
which I have in the scheme only drawn that of the earth, as being sufficient to 
our present purpose ; parallel to which, if need be, we may suppose one de- 
scribed by the moon, whose distance is also to be supposed much greater from 
T than in the figure is expressed, or was necessary to express. And in like 
manner E F G H I, from that new moon at E, to the next full moon at I. 

From A to E, from full moon to new moon, T moves, in its own epicycle, 
upwards from the sun : and from E to I, from new moon to full moon, it moves 
downwards toward the sun. Again from C to G, from last quarter to the fol- 
lowing first quarter, it moves forwards according to the annual motion ; but 
from G forward to C, from the first quarter to the ensuing last quarter, it moves 
contrary to the annual motion. 

It is manifest therefore, according to this hypothesis, that from last quarter 
to first quarter, from C to G, while T is above the line of the annual mo- 
tion, its menstrual motion in its epicycle adds somewhat of acceleration 
to the annual motion, and most of all at E, the new moon ; and from the 
first to the last quarter, from G forw^ard to C, while T is below the line of the 
annual motion, it abates of the annual motion, and most of all at I^ or A the 
full moon. 

So that in pursuance of Galilaeo's notion, the menstrual adding to or detract- 
ing from the annual motion, should either leave behind or cast forward the 
loose waters incumbent on the earth, and thereby cause a tide or accumulation 
of waters ; and most of all at the full moon and new moon, where those ac- 
celerations or retardations are greatest. 

Now this menstrual motion, if nothing else were superadded to the annual, 
would give us two tides in a month, and no more; the one upon the acceleration, 
the other on the retardation, at new moon and full moon ; and two ebbs at the 
two quarters ; and in the intervals rising and falling water. 

But the diurnal motion superadded, doth the same to this menstrual, as 
Galilaeo supposes it to do to that annual ; that is, adds to, or subtracts from, 
the menstrual acceleration or retardation ; and so gives us tide upon tide. 

For in whatsoever part of its epicycle we suppose T to be ; yet because, while 
by its menstrual motion the centre moves in the circle L T N, fig. 4 ; each point 
in its surface, by its diurnal motion, moves in the circle LMN: whatever 
effect, accelerative or tardative, the menstrual would give, that effect by the 
diurnal is increased in the parts LMN, or rather the semicircle 1 M n, and 
most of all at M ; but diminished in the parts N O L, or rather n 1, and most 
of all at O. So that at M and O, that is when the moon is in the meridian 
below or above the horizon, we are to have the diurnal tide or high water, oc- 



QQ PrilLOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

casioned by the greatest acceleration or retardation, which the diurnal arch gives 
to that of the menstrual ; which seems to be the true cause of the daily tides. 
And withal gives an account, not only why it should be every day, but like- 
wise why at such a time of the day, and why this time should in a month run 
through the whole 24 hours, viz. because the moon's coming to the meridian 
above and below the horizon, or as the seamen call it, the moon's southing 
and northing, doth so ; as likewise of the spring tides and neap tides. For when 
it so happens that the menstrual and diurnal accelerations or retardations are 
coincident, as at new moons and full moons, the effect must needs be the 
greater. And although this happen but to one of the two tides, that is the 
night tide at the new moon, when both motions do most of all accelerate, and 
the day tide at full moon, when both do most retard the annual motion, yet 
this tide being tlms raised by two concurrent causes, though the next tide have 
not the same cause also, the impetus contracted will have influence upon the 
next tide; for a like reason as a pendulum, let fall from a higher arch, will 
make the vibration on the other side, beyond the perpendicular, to be also 
greater; or, of water in a broad vessel, if it be so jogged as to be cast forward 
to a good height above its level, will upon its recoiling, by its own gravity, 
mount so much the higher on the hinder part. 

But here also we are to take notice, that though all parts of the earth by its 
diurnal motion do turn about its axis, and describe parallel, yet not equal cir- 
cles, but greater near the equinoctial, and lesser near the poles; which may be 
a cause why the tides in some parts may be mudi greater than in others. But 
this belongs to the particular considerations, not to the general hypothesis. 

Having thus endeavoured to give an account of the diurnal and menstrual 
periods of tides, it remains that I endeavour the like as to the annual. Of 
which there is at least thus much agreed, that at some times of the year, the 
tides are noted to be much higher than at other times. But here I have a 
double task; flrst, to rectify the observation, and then to give an account of it. 

As to the first, it having been observed that those high tides have used to 
happen about the spring and autumn ; it has been generally taken for granted 
that the two equinoxes are the proper times to which these annual high tides 
are to be referred, and such causes sought for as might best suit with such a 
supposition. 

But it is now the best part of twenty years since I have had frequent occasions 
to converse with some inhabitants of Romney-marsh in Kent; where the sea 
being kept out by great earthen walls, that as at high water not to overflow the 
level ; and the inhabitants' livelihood depending most on grazing, or feeding 
.sheep, they are very vigilant and observant at what times they are most in 



VOL. I.j PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. g7 

danger of having their lands drowned. And I find them generally agreed, by 
their constant observations, and experience dearly bought, that their times of 
danger are about the beginning of February and of November : that is, at those 
spring tides which happen near those times ; to which they give the names of 
Candlemass-stream and Allhallond-stream : And if they escape those spring 
tides, they apprehend themselves out of danger for the rest of the year. And 
as for March and September, the two equinoxes, they are as little solicitous of 
them as of any other part of the year. 

This I confess I much wondered at, and suspected it to be a mistake of him 
that first told me. But I soon found that it was not only his but a general 
observation of others too, both there and elsewhere along the sea coast. And 
though they did not pretend to know any reason of it, nor so much as to en- 
quire after it, yet none made doubt of it, but would rather laugh at any that 
should talk of March and September as being the dangerous times. And since 
that time, I have myself very frequently observed, both at London and else- 
where, as I have had occasion, that in those months of February and Novem- 
ber, especially November, the tides have run much higher than at other times; 
though I confess I have not been so diligent to set down those observations as 
I should have done. Yet this I do particularly very well remember, that in 
November l66o, having occasion to go by coach from the Strand to West- 
minster, I found the water so high in the middle of King street, that it came 
up not only to the boots but into the body of the coach ; and the Palace-yard 
overflowed, as likewise the market place, and many other places ; and the 
cellars generally filled up with water. And in November last, 1660, it may yet 
be very well remembered what very high tides there were, not only on the 
coasts of England, where much hurt was done by them, but much more in 
Holland, where, by reason of those inundations, many villages and towns were 
overflowed. And though I cannot so particularly name other years, yet I have 
very often obser\'ed tides strangely high about those times of the year. 

This observation for several years caused me much to wonder, not only be- 
cause it is so contrary to the received opinion of the two equinoxes, but be- 
cause I could not think of any thing signal at those times of the year ; as being 
neither the two equinoxes, nor the two solstices, nor the sun's apogee and 
perigee, (or earth's aphelium and perihelium;) nor indeed at <:ontrary times of 
the year, which at least would seem to be expected. From Allhallondtide to 
Candlemas being but three months, and from thence to Allhallondtide again 
nine months. 

At length it came into my mind, about four years since, that though there do 
not about these times happen any single signal accident, which might cast it 00 
VOL. I. N 



98 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666i 

these times, yet there is a compound of two that may do it : which is, the 
inequality of the natural day (I mean that of 24 hours from noon to noon) 
arising at least from a double cause ; either of which singly would cast it upon 
other times, but both jointly on those. 

It is commonly thought, how unequal soever the length be of the artificial 
days, as contradistinguished to nights, yet that the natural days, reckoning 
from noon to noon, are all equal : but astronomers know well that even these 
days are unequal. 

For this natural day is measured not only by one entire conversion of the 
equinoctial, or 24 equinoctial hours, which is indeed taken to be performed 
in equal times, but increases by so much as answers to that part of the sun's (or 
earth's,) annual motion as is performed in that time. For when that part of 
the equinoctial which with the sun was at the meridian yesterday at noon, is 
come thither again to-day, it is not yet noon, because the sun is not now at the 
place where yesterday he was, but is gone forward about one degree more or 
less, but we must stay till that place where the sun now is comes to the meri- 
dian before it be now noon. 

Now this additament, above the 24 equinoctial hours, or entire conversion, 
of the equinoctial, is upon a double account unequal : First, Because the sun, 
by reason of its apogee and perigee at all times of the year, dispatches in one day 
an equal arch of the ecliptic, but greater arches near the perigee, which is about 
the middle of December, and lesser near the apogee, which is about the middle 
of June; as will appear sufficiently by the tables of the sun's annual motion. 
Secondly, Though the sun should in the ecliptic move always at the same rate, 
yet equal arches of the ecliptic do not in all parts of the zodiac answer to equal 
arches of the equinoctial, by which we are to estimate time; because some 
parts of it, as about the two solstitial points, lie nearer to a parallel position to 
the equinoctial than others, as those about the two equinoctial points, where 
the ecliptic and equinoctial do intersect ; whereupon an arch of the ecliptic, near 
the solstitial points, answers to a greater arch of the equinoctial, than an arch 
equal thereunto near the equinoctial points ; as doth sufficiently appear by the 
tables of the sun's right ascension. 

According to the first of these causes, we should have the longest natural 
days in December, and the shortest in June, which if it did operate alone, would 
give us at those times two annual high waters. 

According to the second cause, if operating singly, we should have the 
longest days at the two solstices in June and December, and the two shortest at 
the equinoxes in March and September; which would at those times give oc- 
casion of four annual high waters. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 99 

But the true inequality of the natural days, arising from a complication 
of those two causes, sometimes crossing and sometimes promoting each other, 
though we should find some increases or decreases of the natural days at all 
those seasons answerable to the respective causes, and perhaps of tides propor- 
tionably thereunto, yet the longest and shortest natural days absolutely of the 
whole year, arising from this complication of causes, are about those times of 
Allhallondtide and Candlemas, about which those annual high tides are found to 
be; as will appear by the tables of equation of natural days. And therefore I 
think we may with very good reason cast this annual period upon that cause, 
or rather complication of causes. For, as we before showed in the menstrual 
and diurnal, there will, by this inequality of natural days, arise a physical acce- 
leration and retardation of the earth's mean motion, and accordingly a casting 
of the waters backward or forward, either of which will cause an accumulation 
or high water. 

It is true, that these longest and .shortest days do fall rather before than after 
Allhallondtide and Candlemas, to wit the ends of October and January; but so 
do also sometimes those high tides : and it is not yet so well agreed amongst 
astronomers what are all the causes, and in what degrees, of the inequality of 
natural days, but that there be diversities among them, about the true time : 
and whether the introducing of this new motion of the earth in its epicycle 
about this common centre of gravity, ought not therein also to be accounted 
for, I will not now determine ; having already said enough, if not too much, 
for the explaining of this general hypothesis, leaving the particularities of it to 
be adjusted according to the true measures of the motions; if the general hypo- 
thesis be found fit to be admitted. 

Yet this I must add, that whereas I cast the time of the daily tides to be at 
all places when the moon is there in the meridian ; it must be understood of 
open seas, where the water hath such free scope for its motions, as if the whole 
globe of earth were equally covered with water; well knowing that in bays 
and inland channels, the position of the banks, and other like causes, must 
needs make the times to be much different from what we suppose in the open 
seas; and likewise, that even in the open seas, islands and currents, gulfs and 
shallows, may have some influence, though not comparable to that of bays and 
channels. And moreover, though I think that seamen do commonly reckon 
the time of high water in the open seas to be when the moon is there in the 
meridian, as this hypothesis would cast it ; yet I do not take myself to be so 
well furnished with a history of tides, as to assure myself of it, much less to 
accommodate it to particular places and cases. 

Having thus dispatched the main of what I had to say concerning the sea's 

n2 



100 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666» 

ebbing and flowing : had I not been already too tedious, I should now proceed 
to give a further reason, why I do introduce this consideration of the common 
centre of gravity in reference to astronomical accounts. For indeed that 
which may possibly seem at first to be an objection against it, is with me one 
reason for it. 

: It may be thought, perhaps, that if the earth should thus describe an epicycle 
about the common centre of gravity, it would, by this its change of place, dis- 
turb the celestial motions, and make the apparent places of the planets, espe- 
cially some of them, different from what they would otherwise be. For though 
so small a removal of the earth as the epicycle would cause, especially if its se- 
midiameter should not be above li of the earth's semidiameter, would scarce 
be sensible, if at all, to the remoter planets, yet as to the nearer it might. 

Now though what Galilaeo answers to a like objection in his hypothesis, that 
it is possible there may be some small difference which astronomers have not 
yet been so accurate as to observe, might here perhaps serve the turn ; yet my 
answer is much otherwise, to wit, that such difference hath been observed, 
and hath very much puzzled astronomers to give an account of. About which 
you will find Mr. Horrocks, in some of his letters, whereof I did formerly, 
upon the command of the Royal Society, make an extract, was very much per- 
plexed ; and was fain, for want of other relief, to have recourse to somewhat 
like Kepler's amicable fibres, which did, according to the several positions of 
the moon, accelerate or retard the moon's motion ; which amicable fibres he 
had no affection to at all, as there appears, if he could any other ways give 
account of those little inequalities; and would much rather, I doubt not, have 
embraced this notion of the common centre of gravity, to solve the phenome- 
non, had it come to his mind, or been suggested to him. And you find that 
other astronomers have been seen to bring in, some upon one supposition some 
upon another, some kind of menstrual equation, to solve the inequalities of the 
moon's motion, according to her sy nodical revolution, or different aspects, of 
new moon, full moon, &c. beside what concerns her own periodical motion. 

For which this consideration of the common centre of gravity of the earth 
and moon, is so proper a remedy, especially if it shall be found precisely to 
answer those phaenomena, which I have not examined, but am very apt to be- 
lieve, that it is so far from being with me an objection against it, that it is one 
of the reasons which make me inclinable to introduce it. 

I must, before I leave this, add one consideration more ; that if we shall 
upon these considerations think it reasonable, thus to consider the common 
centre of gravity of the earth and moon ; it may as well be thought reasonable,, 
that the like consideration should be had of Jupiter and his four satellites, which. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 101 

according to the complication of their several motions, will' somewhat change the 
position of Jupiter as to that common centre of gravity of all these bodies ; 
which yet, because of their smallness, may chance to be so little, as that, at this 
distance, the change of this apparent place may not be discernible. And what 
is said of Jupiter is in the like manner to be understood of Saturn and his 
satellite, discovered by Huygens : For all these satellites are to their principals as 
so many moons to the earth. And I do very well remember, in the letters be- 
fore cited, Mr. Horrocks expresses some such little inequalities in Saturn's mo- 
tion, of which he could not imagine what account to give, as if (to use his ex- 
pression) this crabbed old Saturn had despised his youth. Which for aught I 
know might well enough have been accounted for, if at that time the satellite 
of Saturn had been discovered, and that Mr. Horrocks had thought of such a 
notion as the common centre of gravity of Saturn and his companion, to be 
considerable as to the guiding of his motion. 

You have now, in obedience to your commands, an account of my thoughts 
as to this matter, though yet immature and unpolished : What use you will 
please to make of them I shall leave to your prudence, &c. 

All Appendix, written hy Way of Letter to the Publisher, being an 
Answer to some Objections made by several Persons to the preceding 
Discourse. N° 16, p. 281. 

I received yours, and am very well contented that objections be made against 
my hypothesis concerning tides : being proposed but as a conjecture to be 
examined ; and upon that examination rectified, if there be occasion ; or re- 
jected if it will not hold water. 

1 . To the first objection of those you mention, That it appears not how two 
bodies that have no tie can have one common centre of gravity ; that is, for so 
I understand the intendment of the objection, can act or be acted in the same 
manner as if they were connected : I shall only answer, that it is harder to 
show how they have than that they have it. That the loadstone and iron have 
somewhat equivalent to a tie, though we see it not, yet by the effects we know. 
And it would be easy to show that two loadstones at once applied in different 
positions to the same needle, at some convenient distance, will draw it, not to 
point directly to either of them, but to some point between both ; which point 
is, as to those two, the common centre of attraction; and it is the same as if 
some one loadstone were in that point. Yet have these two loadstones no 
connection or tie, though a common centre of virtue, according to which they 
jointly act. And as to the present case, how the earth and moon are connect- 



102 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1^66. 

ed, I will not now undertake to show, nor is it necessary to my purpose ; but 
that there is somewhat that does connect them, as much as what connects the 
loadstone and the iron which it draws, is past doubt to those who allow them 
to be carried. about by the sun, as one aggregate or body, whose parts keep a 
respective position to one another : Like as Jupiter with his four satellites, and 
Saturn with his one. Some tie there is that makes those satellites attend their 
lords, and move in a body; though we do not see that tie, nor hear the words 
of command. And so here.* 

2. To the second objection, that at Chatham and in the Thames the an- 
nual spring tides happen about the equinoxes ; not (as this hypothesis doth sup- 
pose elsewhere to have been observed) about the beginning of February and 
November: if their meaning be, that annual high tides do then happen, 
and then only ; if this prove true it will ease me of half my work. For it is 
then easily answered, that it depends upon the obliquity of the zodiac ; the 
parts of the equinoctial answering to equal parts of the zodiac, being near the 
solstitial points greatest, and near the equinoctial points least of all. But beside 
this annual vicissitude of the equinoxes, not to say of the four cardinal points, 
which my hypothesis doth allow and assert, I believe it will be found that 
there is another annual vicissitude answering to the sun*s apogaeum and peri- 
gaeum. And that the greatest tides of all will be found to be upon a result of 
these two causes co-operating : which (as doth the inequality of natural days, 
depending on these same causes) will light nearer the times I mention. To 
what is said to be observed at Chatham and in the Thames, contrary to that I 
allege as observed in Rumney Marsh, I must at present ditiyiiv, and refer to 
a melius inquirendum. If those who object this contrary observation, shall 
after this notice find upon new observations heedfully taken, that the spring- 
tides in February and November are not so high as those in March and Sep- 
tember ; I shall then think the objection very considerable. But I do very 
well remember, that I have seen in November very high tides at London, as 
well as in Rumney Marsh. And the time is not yet so far past, but that it 
may be remembered (by yourself or others then in London) whether in No- 
vember last, when the tides were so high at Dover, at Deal, at Margate, and 
all along the coast from thence to Rumney Marsh, as to do in some of those 
places much hurt, (and in Holland much more,) whether I say, there were 
not also at the same time at London very high tides. But a good diary of the 
height and time both of high-water and low-water, for a year or two toge- 

* It is curious to observe how near, in these ingenious speculations. Dr. Wallis approached to the 
universal principle of attraction of all matter, almost ever since so successfully employed in tlie systCna 
of the universe. 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. IQ$ 

ther, even at Chatham or Greenwich ; but rather at some place in the open 
sea, or at the Land's End in Cornwall, or on the west parts of Ireland ; or at 
St. Helen's, or the Bermudas, &c. would do more to the resolving of thig 
point than any verbal discourse without it. 

3. To the third objection, that supposing the earth and moon to move 
about a common centre of gravity ; if that the highest tides be at the new 
moon, when the moon being nearest to the sun, the earth is farthest from it, 
and its compound motion at the swiftest ; and that the tides abate as the earth 
approaches nearer, till it comes into the supposed circle of her annual motion : 
it may be demanded why do they not still abate as the earth comes yet nearer 
to the sun, and the swiftness of its compound motion still slackens ? And so, 
why have we not spring tides at the new moon, when the motion is swiftest, 
and neap tides at full moon, when the motion is slowest, but spring tides at 
both ? — the answer, if observed, is already given in my hypothesis itself. Be- 
cause the effect is indifferently to follow either upon a sudden acceleration, or 
a sudden retardation. (Like as a loose thing lying on a moving body ; if the 
body be thrust suddenly forward, that loose thing is cast back or rather left 
behind, not having yet obtained an equal impetus with that of the body on 
which it lies ; but if stopped or notably retarded, that loose incumbent is 
tlirown forward by its formerly contracted impetus not yet qualified, or accom- 
modated to the slowness of the body on which it lies.) Now both of these 
happening, the one at the new moon, the other at the full moon, do cause 
high tides at both. 

4. To the fourth objection, that the highest tides are not at all places 
about the new moon and full moon ; and particularly, that in some places of 
the East Indies the highest tides are at the quadratures : I must first answer 
in general, that as to the particular varieties of tides in several parts of the 
world, I cannot pretend to give a satisfactory account, for want of a competent 
history of tides, &c. Because, as is intimated in what I wrote in the general, 
the various positions of channels, bays, promontories, gulfs, shallows, cur- 
rents, trade-winds, &c. must needs make an innumerable variety of accidents 
in particular places, of which no satisfactory account is to be given from the 
general hypothesis, though never so true, without a due consideration of all 
those : which is a task too great for me to undertake, being so ill furnished 
with materials for it. And then as to the particular instance of some places in 
the East Indies, where the highest tides are at the quadratures, I suppose it 
may be chiefly intended of those about Cambaia and Pegu ; at which places, 
beside that they are situated at the inmost parts of vast bays or gulfs, they 
have also vast in-draughts of some hundred miles within land ; which when 



i04 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

the tides are out do lie in a manner quite dry ; and may therefore very well 
be supposed to participate the effect of the menstrual tides many days after the 
cause of them happens in the open sea ; upon a like ground as in straits and 
narrow channels, the diurnal tides happen some hours later than in the ocean. 
And a like account must be given of particular accidents in other places, from 
the particular situation of those places, as bays, channels, currents, &c. 

5. To the fifth objection, that the spring tides happen not with us just at 
the full and change, but two or three days after ; I should with the more con- 
fidence attempt an answer, were I certain whether it be so in the open seas, 
or only in our channels. For the answers will not be the same in both cases. 
If only in our channels, where the tides find a large in-draught, but not in the 
open seas, we must seek the reason of it from the particular position of these 
places. But if it be so generally in the wide open seas ; we must then seek a 
reason of it from the general hypothesis. And till I know the matter of fact, 
I know not well which to offer at ; lest, whilst I attempt to solve one, I should 
fall foul of the other. I know that mariners use to speak of spring tides at the 
new and full of the moon ; though I have still had a suspicion that it might be 
some days after, as well in the open seas as in our narrower channels ; of 
which suspicion you will find some intimations even in my first papers : but 
this, though I can admit, yet, because I was not sure of it, I durst not build 
upon it. The truth is, the flux and reflux of water in a vessel by reason of the 
jogging of it, though it follow thereupon, yet is for the most part discernible 
some time after. For there must upon that jog be some time for motion, be- 
fore the accumulation can have made a tide. And so I do not know but that 
we must allow it in all the periods. For as the menstrual high tide is not till 
some days after the full and change ; so is the diurnal high water about as 
many hours after the moon's coming to south ; I mean at sea, for in channels 
it varies to all hours, according as they are nearer or further from the open sea : 
and the annual high tides of November and February somewhat later than 
(what I conjecture to be from the same causes) the greatest inequalities of the 
natural days happening in January and October. But this though I can admit, 
yet (till I am sure of the matter of fact) I do not build upon. And since it has 
hitherto been the custom to speak with that laxness of expression, assigning 
the times of new moon, full moon, and quadratures, with the moon's coming 
to south, for what is near those times ; I did not think myself obliged in my 
conjectural hypothesis, to speak more nicely. If the hypothesis for the main 
of it be found rational, the niceties of it are to be adjusted in time from par- 
ticular observation. 

Having thus given you some answers to the objections you signify to have 



TOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 105 

been made by several persons to my hypothesis, and that in the same order 
your paper presents them to me : I shall next give you some account of the 
two books which you advised me to consult ; so far as seems necessary to this 
business ; which upon your intimation I have since perused, though before 
I had not. 

And first, as to that of Isaac Vossius, De motu Marium et Ventorum ; 
though I do not concur with him in his hypothesis, that all the great motions 
of the seas, &c. should arise only from so small a warming of the water as to 
raise it (where most of all) not a foot in perpendicular, (as in his 12th chap- 
ter,) or that there is no other connexion between the moon's motion and the 
tide's menstrual period, than a casual synchronism, which seems to be the 
doctrine of his l6th and 18th chapters ; beside many other things in his 
philosophy which I cannot allow ; yet I am well enough pleased with what 
is historical in it, of the matter of fact ; especially if I may be secure that he 
is therein accurate and candid, not wresting the phaenomena to his own 
purpose. But I find nothing in it which induces me to vary from my 
hypothesis. For granting his historicals to be all true, the account of the 
constant current of the sea westward, and of the constant eastern blasts, &c. 
within the tropics, is much more plausibly, and I suppose truly rendered by 
Galilaeo long since from the earth's diurnal motion ; (which near the equator 
describing a greater circle than nearer the poles, makes the current to be there 
more conspicuous and swift, and consequently the eddy or re-current motion 
nearer the poles, where this is more remiss ;) than can easily be rendered by 
so small a tumor as he supposes. Not to add that his account of the progres- 
sive motion, which he fancieth to follow upon this tumefaction, and by acce- 
leration to grow to so great a height near the shore (as in chap. 13 and 14) is 
a notion which seems to me too extravagant to be solved by any laws of statics. 
And that of the moon's motion only synchronizing with the tides casually, 
without any physical connexion, I can very hardly assent to. For it can hardly 
be imagined that any such constant synchronism should be in nature, but 
where either the one is the cause of the other, or both depend upon some 
common cause. And where we see so fair a foundation for a physical connec- 
tion, I am not prone to ascribe it to an independent synchronism. In sum, 
his history doth well enough agree with my hypothesis ; and I think the phaeno- 
mena are much better solved by mine than his. 

And then as to Gassendus, in his discourse De ^stu Maris, I find him, af- 
ter the relating of many other opinions concerning the cause of it, inclining to 
that of Galilaeo, ascribing it to the acceleration and retardation of the earth's 
motion, compounded of the annual and diurnal ; and moreover attempting to 

VOL. I. O 



lb6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

give an account of the menstrual periods from the earth's carrying the moon 
about itself as Jupiter doth his satellites, which together with them is carried 
about by the sun as one aggregate ; and that the earth with its moon is to be 
supposed in like manner to be carried about by the sun as one aggregate, cannot 
be reasonably doubted, by those who entertain the Copernican hypothesis, and 
do allow the same of Jupiter and his satellites. But though he would thus 
have the earth and moon looked upon as two parts of the same moved aggre- 
gate, yet he does still suppose, as Galilaeo had done before him, that the line 
of the mean motion of this aggregate, (or, as he calls, motus equahilis et viluti 
medius), is described by the centre of the earth, about which centre he supposes 
both its own revolution to be made, and an epicycle described by the moon's 
motion, not by another point, distinct from the centres of both, about which, 
as the common centre of gravity, as well that of the earth as that of the moon, 
are to describe several epicycles. And for that reason fails of giving any clear 
account of this menstrual period. And in like manner, he proposes the con- 
sideration as well of the earth's aphelium and perihelium as of the equinoctial 
and solstitial points, in order to find a reason of the annual vicissitudes ; but 
does not fix upon any thing in which he can acquiesce : and therefore leaves it 
in medio as he found it. 

It had been more agreeable to the laws of statics, if he had, as I do, so con- 
sidered the earth and moon as two parts of the same moveable, (not so, as he 
doth, alium in centra et sequentem precise revolutionem axis, alium remotius ac 
velut in circumferentia, but) so as to make neither of them the centre, but both 
out of it, describing epicycles about it : like as, when a long stick thrown in 
the air, whose one end is heavier than the other, is whirled about, so as that 
the end which did first fly foremost becomes hindmost; the proper line of mo- 
tion of this whole body is not that which is described by either end, but that 
which is described by a middle point between them ; about which point each 
end in whirling describes an epicycle. And indeed, in the present case, it is not 
the epicycle described by the moon, but that described by the earth, which 
gives the menstrual vicissitudes of motion to the water; which would, as to this, 
be the same if the earth so move, whether there were any moon to move or 
not; nor would the moon's motion, supposing the earth to hold on its own 
course, any whit concern the motion of the water. 

But now, after all our physical or statical considerations, the clearest evidence 
for this hypothesis, if it can be had, will be from celestial observations, as for 
instance, (see fig. 5) supposing the sun at S, the earth's place in its annual orb 
at T, and Mars (in opposition to the sun or near it) at M, from whence Mars 
should appear in the zodiac at 7, and will at full moon be seen there to be; 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. J07 

the moon being at C, and the earth at c: and the Hke at the new moon. But 
if the moon be in the first quarter at A, and the earth at a; Mars will be seen, 
not at <y, but at a, too slow; and when the moon is at B, and the earth at b. 
Mars will be seen at |3 yet too slow; till at the full moon, the moon at C, the 
earth at c, Mars will be seen at -y, its true place, as if the earth were at T. 
But then, after the full, the moon at D, the earth at d, Mars will be seen, not 
at y but at §, too forward, and yet more, when the moon, at the last quarter, is 
at E, the earth at e, and Mars seen at f. If therefore Mars, when in opposi- 
tion to the sun, be found (all other allowances being made) somewhat too back- 
ward before the full moon, and somewhat too forward after the full moon, and 
most of all at the quadratures; it will be the best confirmation of the hypothesis. 
The like may be fitted to Mars in other positions, mutatis mutandis ; and so for 
the other planets. 

But this proof is of like nature as that of the parallax is of the earth's annual 
orb, to prove the Copernican hypothesis. If it can be observed, it proves the 
affirmative, but if it cannot be observed, it doth not convince the negative, but 
only proves that the semidiameter of the earth's epicycle is so small, as not to 
make any discernible parallax. And indeed I doubt that will be the issue. For 
the semidiameter of this epicycle being little more than the semidiameter of the 
earth itself, or about IJ- thereof, (as is conjectured in the hypothesis, from the 
magnitudes and distances of the earth and moon compared), and there having 
not as yet been observed any discernible parallax of Mars, even in his nearest 
position to the earth ; it is very suspicious, that here it may prove so too. An^ 
whether any of the other planets will be more favourable in this point, I can- 
not say.* 

Animadversions of Dr. JFallis, upon Mr. HoBBEs's'f late BookX, De 
Principiis et Ratiocinatione Geometrariim. Written to a Friend. 
N' 16, p. 289. 

Since I saw you last I have read over Mr. Hobbes's book Contra Geometras, 
or De Principiis et Ratiocinatione Geometrarum, which you then showed me. 

* Although Dr. Wallis did not strike out the true cause and theory of the tides ; yet tlie numer- 
ous arguments and reflections here employed are so ingenious in other respects^ as to render the paper 
on the whole a very important composition. 

+ Thomas Hobbesj the author of this book, was bom at Malmsbury in 1588, and died in 1679, 
being 91 years of age. He studied at Oxford, and afterwards travelled through Europe several 
times, as governor to different young noblemen 3 on which occasions, holding a distinguished rank 
as a philosopher and a general scholar, he cultivated an intimate personal acquaintance with Des- 
cartes, Mersenne, Gassendi, Galileo, and other eminent philosophers;, with whom, after his 

O 2 



108 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

A new book of old matter: containing but a repetition of what he had before 
told us more than once, and which hath been answered long ago. 

In which, though there be faults enough to offer ample matter for a large 
confutation, yet I am scarce inclined to believe that any will bestow so much 
pains upon it. For, if that be true, which in his preface he saith of himself, 
aut solus insanio ego, aut solus nan insanio, it would either be needless, or to no 
purpose. For, by his own confession, all others, if they be not mad themselves, 
ought to think him so : and therefore as to them a confutation would be need- 
less ; who, it is like, are well enough satisfied already, at least out of danger of 
being seduced. And, as to himself, it would be to no purpose. For, if he be 
the mad man, it is not to be hoped that he will be convinced by reason ; or, 
if we all be so, we are in no capacity to attempt it. 

But there is yet another reason why I think it not to need a confutation. 
Because what is in it has been sufficiently confuted already : and so effectually 
as that he professes himself not to hope that this age is like to give sentence 
for him, whatever nondum imhuta posteritas may do. Nor doth there appear any 
reason why he should again repeat it, unless he can hope that what was at first 
false may by oft repeating become true. 

I shall therefore, instead of a large answer, only give you a brief account of 
what is in it, and where it has been already answered. 

The chief of what he has to say in his first ten chapters against Euclid's de- 
finitions amounts but to this, that he thinks Euclid ought to have allowed his 
point some bigness, his line some breadth, and his surface some thickness. 

But where in his dialogues he solemnly undertakes to demonstrate it, for it 
is there his 4 1 st proposition, his demonstration amounts to no more than this ; 
that unless a line be allowed some latitude it is not possible that his quadratures 
can be true. For finding himself reduced to these inconveniences; 1. That his 
geometrical construction would not consist with arithmetical calculations, nor 
with what Archimedes and others have long demonstrated. 2. That the arch 
of a circle must be allowed to be sometimes shorter than its chord, and some- 
times longer than its tangent. 3. That the same straight line must be allowed 

return, he corresponded on scientific subjects. On the breaking out of the civil wars he retired into 
France, where he became mathematical preceptor to the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles the 2d, 
who had also fled to that country, and who, after the restoration, granted a pension to Mr. Hobbes 
for his life. He wrote much on a variety of subjects, philosophy, matliematics, poetry, law, polity-, 
&c, in most of which his opinions have been accounted heterogeneal. In consequence he was 
almost always involved in warm and contentious disputes, particularly with the learned Dr. Wallis, 
who attacked Hobbes' s pretended quadrature of the circle, &c. 
% See a former notice of this book, at p. 85. 



# 



TOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. lOQ 

at one place only to touch, and at another place to cut the same circle, with 
others of like nature ; he finds it necessary, that these things may not seem 
absurd, to allow his lines some breadth, (that so, as he speaks, while a straight 
line with its outside doth at one place touch the circle, it may with its inside at 
another place cut it, &c.) But I should sooner take this to be a confutation of 
his quadratures than a demonstration of the breadth of a mathematical line. 

And what he now adds being to this purpose ; that though Euclid's InfxfTov, 
which we translate a point, be not indeed nomen quanti ; yet cannot this be 
actually represented by any thing, but what will have some magnitude ; nor can 
a painter, no not Apelles himself, draw a line so small, but that it will have 
some breadth ; nor can thread be spun so fine, but that it will have some big- 
ness, is nothing to the business, for Euclid does not speak either of such points, 
or of such lines. 

He should rather have considered of his own expedient, that when one of his 
broad lines, passing through one of his great points, is supposed to cut another 
line proposed, into two equal parts ; we are to understand the middle of the 
breadth of that line passing through the middle of that point, to distinguish 
the line given into two equal parts. And he should then have considered fur- 
ther, that Euclid by a line means no more than what Mr. Hobbes would call 
the middle of the breadth of his ; and Euclid's point is but the middle of Mr. 
Hobbes's. And then, for the same reason that Mr. Hobbes's middle must be 
said to have no magnitude, (for else not the whole middle, but the middle of 
the middle will be in the middle, and the whole will not be equal to its two 
halves, but larger than both by so much as the middle comes to ;) Euclid's 
lines must as well be said to have no breadth, and his points no bigness. 

In like manner, when Euclid and others do make the term or end of a line, 
a point ; if this point have parts or greatness, then not the point, but the 
outer half of this point ends the line, for that the inner half of that point is 
not at the end is manifest, because the outer half is beyond it : and again, if 
that outer half have parts also ; not this, but the outer part of it, and again the 
outer part of that outer part, and so in infinitum. So that as long as any thing 
of line remains, we are not yet at the end ; and consequently if we must have 
passed the whole length before we be at the end, then that end (or punctum ter^ 
minansj has nothing of length ; for when the whole length is past, there is 
nothing of it left. And if Mr. Hobbes tells us that this end is not punctum, 
but only signum (which he does allow non esse nomen quanti) even this will 
serve our turn well enough. Euclid's Ir^jLiiov, which some interpreters render 
by signum., others have thought fit, with Tully, to call punctum : but if Mr. 
Hobbes like not that name, we will not contend about it. Let it ht punctum, 



no PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

or let it be signum, or if he please he may call it vexillum. But then he is to 
remember that this is only a controversy in grammar, not in mathematics ; 
and his book should have been intituled Contra Grammaticos^ not Contra 
Geometras. Nor is it Euclid, but Cicero, that is concerned, in rendering the 
Greek Sn/xsroi/, by the Latin punctum., not by Mr. Hobbes's signum. The 
mathematician is equally content with either word. 

What he saith concerning the angle of contact amounts but to thus much, 
that by the angle of contact he does not mean either what Euclid calls an angle, 
or any thing of that kind ; and therefore says nothing to the purpose of what 
was in controversy between Clavius and Peletarius, when he says, that an 
angle of contact hath some magnitude : but that by the angle of contact, he 
understands the crookedness of the arch ; and in saying the angle of contact 
has some magnitude, his meaning is, that the arch of a circle has some crook- 
edness, or is a crooked line : and that of equal arches, that is the more crook- 
ed whose chord is shortest ; which I think none will deny, for who ever 
doubted but that a circular arch is crooked ? or that of such arches equal in 
length, that is the more crooked whose ends by bowing are brought nearest 
together ? But why the crookedness of an arch should be called an angle of 
contact, I know no other reason, but because Mr. Hobbes loves to call that 
chalk which others call cheese. 

What he says here of ratios or proportions, and their calculics for eight 
chapters together, is but the same for substance, as he had formerly said in his 
4th dialogue and elsewhere. To which you may see a full answer in my Hob- 
bius Heauton-tim. from page 49 to p. 88, which I need not here repeat. 

The quadrature of a circle, which here he gives us, is one of those twelve of 
his, which in my Hobbius Heauton-timorumenus, are already confuted ; and 
is the ninth in order, as I there rank them. I call it one, because he takes it 
so to be ; though it might as well be called two. For as there, so here, it 
consists of two branches, which are both false ; and each overthrows the 
other. 

His demonstration of chap. 23, where he would prove that the aggregate of 
the radius and of the tangent of 30 degrees, is equal to a line whose square 
is equal to 10 squares of the semiradius, is confuted not only by me in the 
place forecited, where this is proved to be impossible, but by himself also in 
this same chapter, where he proves sufficiently, and doth confess, that this de- 
monstration and the 47th proposition of the first of Euclid cannot be both truel 
But, which is worst of all, whether Euclid's proposition be false or true, his 
demonstration must needs be false. For he is in this dilemma : if that propo- 
sition be true, his demonstration is false, for he grants that they cannot be 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



Ill 



VOL. I.] 

both true. And again, if that proposition be false, his demonstration is so 
too ; for this depends upon that, and therefore must fall with it. 

His section of an angle in ratione data, has no other foundation than his 
supposed quadrature. And therefore that being false, this must fall with it. 

His appendix, wherein he undertakes to show a method of finding any num- 
ber of mean proportionals between two lines given, depends upon the sup- 
posed truth of his 22d chapter, about dividing an arch in any proportion 
given, as himself professes ; and as is evident by the construction which sup- 
poses such a section. And therefore, that failing, this falls with it. 

And so this whole structure falls to the ground. And withal, the proposi- 
tion 4T , El. 1, doth still stand fast, which he tells us must have fallen, if his 
demonstrations had stood : and so geometry and arithmetic do still agree, 
which he tells us had otherwise been at odds. 



It was 

dark- 
ened. 



^ diam. . .^ 

4 digits. . . , 

^ 5 dig 

1 6 dig-. 

I 7 dig 

L 6 dig 



5 dig. 
4 dig. 
3 dig. 
1 dig. 
1 dig. 
O dig. 





h. 


m. 


at 


7 


6 


at 


7 


13 


at 


7 


20 


at 


7 


26 


at 


7 


32 


at 


7 


37 



Observations^ made in several Places^ of the Eclipse of the Sun, 
Juns 22, 1666. N' 17, p. 295. 

The observations that were made at London by Mr. Willughby, Dr. Pope, 
Mr. Hook, and Mr. Philips, are these : — 

The Eclipse began at 5h. 43 m. 

h. m. 

at 6 00 
at 6 7 

at 6 13 

at 6 21 

at 6 39-1- 

at 6 57 

Its duration hence appears to have been one hour and 54 m. Its greatest 
obscurity somewhat more than 7 digits. About the middle, between the per- 
pendicular and westward horizontal radius of the sun, viewing it through Mr. 
Boyle's 60-foot telescope, there was perceived a little of the limb of the moon 
without the disk of the sun : which seemed to some of the observers to come 
from some shining atmosphere about the body either of the sun or moon. 

They observed the figure of this eclipse, and measured the digits, by casting 
the figure through a five-foot telescoue, on an extended paper fixed at a certain 
distance from the eye-glass, and havmg a round figure ; all the diameters being 
divided by six concentric circles into 12 digits. 

The Madrid Observations. 
The observations made at Madrid by a noble member of the Koyal Society, 



112' PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO \666. 

the Earl of Sandwich, as they were sent to the T^ord Viscount Brounker, are 
these : At Madrid, the ecHpse began about five o'clock in the morning : at 5h. 
15 m. the sun's altitude was 6° 55'. 

The middle of it was at 6h. 2m. the sun's altitude 15 deg. 5'. 

The end was exactly at 7h. 5 m. the sun's altitude 25 deg. 24'. 

The duration was 2h. 4m. 

37 Parts of the sun's diameter remained light, and 63 parts dark. 

The Paris Observations. 

The observations made at Paris by Monsieur Payen, are these : 

The eclipse began there at 5 h. 44 m. 52 sec. mane; and ended at 7 h. 43 m. 6 sec. 
So that its whole duration was ih. 58m. 14 sec. The greatest obscuration they 
assign to have been 7 dig. 50'; but they add, that it seemed to have been greater 
by 3 minutes ; which M. Payen imputes to a particular motion of libration of 
the sun's globe, which kept that luminary in the same phasis for the space of 
8 min. and some seconds, as if it had been stopped in the midst of its course; 
rather than to a tremulous motion of the atmosphere, as Scheiner would 
have it. 

They conceive that the apparent diameters were almost equal ; seeing that in 
the phasis of six digits, the circumference of the moon's disk passed through the 
centre of that of the sun, so as that two lines drawn through the two horns of 
the sun, made with the common semidiameter two equilateral triangles. 

Then they observe, that the beginning and the middle of this eclipse hap- 
pened to be in the north east hemisphere, and the end in the south east. The 
first contact of the two disks was obsei-ved in the superior limb of the sun's disk 
in respect to the vertical line, and in the inferior in respect to the ecliptic : But 
the middle and the end were seen in the superior limb, in respect both of the 
vertical and the ecliptic : And, what to this author seems extraordinary, both 
the beginning and the end of this eclipse happened to be in the oriental part of 
the sutf s disk. Lastly, They take notice, that by their observations it appears 
that there is but little exactness in all the astronomical tables predicting the 
quantity, beginning and duration of this eclipse. 

Inquiries and Directions concerning Tides. By Dr. Wallis. 

N^ 17, />. 297. 

Dr. Wallis having, in his Hypothesis of Tides, intimated, that he had reason 
to believe that the annual spring tides happen to be rather about the beginnings 
of February and November than the two equinoxes, desires that some intelli- 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 113 

gent persons at London or Greenwich, but rather nearer the sea or upon the 
sea-shore, would make particular observations of all the spring tides, (new moon 
and full moon) between this and the end of November; and noting the hour 
and the perpendicular height ; that it may be seen whether those in September 
or November be highest : And also to observe the low waters ; which may be 
easily done by a mark made upon any standing post in the water, by any water- 
man or other intelligent person who dwells by the water side. 

Considerations and Inquiries concerning Tides. By Sir Robert 

Moray. N" 17, p- 298. 

It being observed, that tides increase and decrease regularly at several seasons 
according to the moon's age, so as about the new and full moon, or within two 
or three days after, in the western parts of Europe, the tides are at the highest, 
and about the quarter moons at the lowest, the former being called spring tides 
the other neap tides ; and that according to the height and excesses of the tides, 
the ebbs in opposition are answerable to them, the highest tide having the 
lowest ebb, and the lowest ebb the highest tide ; the tide from the quarter to 
the highest spring tide increasing in a certain proportion, and from the spring 
tide to the quarter tide decreasing in like proportion as is supposed ; and also 
the ebb rising and falling constantly after the same manner : It is wished that 
it may be inquired, in what proportion these increases and decreases, risings and 
fallings, happen to be in regard of one another ? 

And it is supposed, from some observations made by the above-mentioned 
gentleman, that the increase of the tides is made in the proportion of sines, 
the first increase exceeding the lowest tide in a small proportion, the next in a 
greater, the third greater than that ; and so on to the middlemost, where the 
excess is greatest, diminishing again from that to the highest spring tide ; so as 
the proportions before and after the middle do greatly answer one another, or 
seem to do so. And likewise from the highest spring tide to the lowest neap 
tide, the decreases seem to keep the like proportions ; the ebbs rising and fall- 
ing in like manner and in like proportions. All which is supposed to take place 
when no wind or other accident causes an alteration. 

And as it is observed, that upon the main sea-shore the current of the ebbings 
and fiowings is sometimes swifter and sometimes slacker than at others, so as in 
the beginning of the flood the tide moves faster but in a small degree, in- 
creasing its swiftness constantly till towards the middle of the flood, and then ' 
decreasing in velocity again from the middle to the top of high water; it is sup- 
posed that in equal spaces of time, the increase and decrease of velocity, and 

VOL. I. P 



114 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

consequently the degrees of the risings and fallings of the same in equal spaces 
of time, are performed according to the proportion of sines. 

But it is conceived that the said proportion cannot hold exactly and precisely 
in regard of the inequalities that happen in the periods of the tides, which are 
commonly observed and believed to follow certain positions of the moon in re- 
spect of the equinox, which are known not to keep a precise and constant 
course ; so that there not intervening equal portions of time between one new 
moon and another, the moon's return to the same meridian cannot be always 
performed in the same time ; and consequently there must be a like variation of 
the tides in the velocity, and in the risings and fallings of the tides, as to equal 
spaces of time. And the tides from new moon to new moon being not always 
the same in number, as sometimes but 57, sometimes 58, and sometimes 59, 
without any certain order of succession, this is another evidence of the difficulty 
of reducing this to any great exactness. Yet it is very desirable that observa- 
tions be constantly made of all these particulars for some months and even 
years together. And because such observations will be the more easily and 
exactly made where the tides rise highest, it is presumed, that a fit apparatus 
being made for the purpose, they may be made about Bristol or Chepstow 
best of any places in England, because the tides are said thereabouts to rise to 
10 or 12 fathoms; as upon the coast of Brittany in France, they do to 13 
and 14. 

In order to which this following apparatus is proposed to be made use of. In 
spme convenient place upon a wall, rock, or bridge, &c. let there be an obser- 
vatory, standing as near as may be to the brink of the sea or upon some wall ; 
and if it cannot be well placed just where the low water is, there may be a chan- 
nel cut from the low water to the bottom of the wall, rock, &c. The observa- 
tory to be raised above the high water 18 or 20 feet ; and a pump placed per- 
pendicularly by the wall, reaching above the high water as high as conveniently 
may be. Upon the top of the pump a pulley to be fastened, for letting down 
into the pump a piece of floating wood, which, as the water comes in, may rise 
and fall with it. And because the rising and falling of the water amounts to 60 
or 70 feet, the counterpoise of the weight that goes into the pump to hang 
upon as many pulleys as may serve to make it rise and fall within the space by 
which the height of the pump exceeds the height of the water; and because by 
this means the counterpoise will rise and fall slower, and consequently by less 
proportions than the weight itself, the first pulley may have upon it a wheel or 
two to turn indexes at any proportion required, so as to give the minute parts 
of the motion, and degrees of risings and fallings. All which is to be observed 
by pendulum watches that have minutes and seconds. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 115 

To prevent the water from rising and falling with an undulation, it will be 
proper that the hole by which the water enters be less than half the bore of the 
pump. 

The particular observations to be made may be as follows : 

1 . The degrees of rising and falling of the water every quarter of an hour, or 
as often as may be, from the periods of the tides and ebbs; to be observed night 
and day for two or three months. 

2. The degrees of the velocity of the motion of the water every quarter of 
an hour, for some whole tides together ; to be obsened by a second pendulum 
watch, and a log fastened to a line of about 50 fathoms wound about a wheel. 

3. Exact measures of the heights of every highest tide and ebb, from one 
spring tide to another, for some months, or rather years. 

4. The exact heights of spring tides and spring ebbs for some years together. 

5. The direction of the wind at every observation of the tides ; the times of 
its changes, and the degrees of its strength. 

6. The state of the weather as to rain, hail, mist, haziness, &c. and the times 
of its changes. 

7. At the times of observing the tides, the height of the thermometer, the 
baroscope, and the hygroscope ; the age of the moon, and her azimuths and her 
place; also the sun's place. 

A7i Account of several Books lately published. N° 17, p- 301, &c. 

I. Johannis Hevelii Descriptio Cometae, Anno JErsd Christianae MDCLXV 
exorti; una cum Mantissa Prodromi Cometici, Observationes omnes prions 
Cometae MDCLIV, ex iisque genuinum motum accurate deductum, cum Notis 
et Animadversionibus, exhibens. 

This book undertakes to give an account of the second of the two late comets, 
which appeared when the other was scarce extinct ; concerning which, the au- 
thor assigns both its true place and its proper motion ; adding a fair delinea- 
tion of its course, with the genuine representations of its head and train, in 
each day of its appearing ; and subjoining a general description of some of its 
more remarkable phaenomena. It was observed at Dantzick by the author from 
April 6, half past one in the morning, till April 20, at three in the morning. 
During which time it went with a moderate velocity, making 46 deg. in its orbit, 
according to the order of the signs, moving from the breast of Pegasus towards 
the head of Andromeda, and the left horn of Aries ; having, as it is presumed, 
taken its rise from above Sagittary, and run through the breast of Antinous, 
under Aquila and the Dolphin to the said Pegasus, and so on, as is already 
expressed. 

p 2 



Il6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1 660. 

The head of it is in the book described of a colour like that of Jupiter, all 
along much brighter than that of the former comet, though of a somewhat less 
magnitude ; having in its middle only one round, but very bright and large, 
kernel or speck, resplendent like gold, and encompassed with another more 
dilute and seemingly uniform matter: its tail being at first about 17 deg. and 
afterwards 20, and sometimes 25 deg. long, and divaricated towards the end, 
which became narrower and more attenuated as it approached towards the sun. 

He observes, that this star in progress of time became retrograde, whence it 
came to pass, that in the months of June and July it did not appear again before 
the rising of the sun, though the sun left it far behind: whereas, if it had pro 
ceeded toward the eye of Taurus, it would have appeared again in the morning. 

He maintains that this comet was not the same with the former, which he 
thinks may be demonstrated only by a due delineation of both their courses 
upon the globe. 

He concludes, 1st, With an intimation of his sense concerning two other co- 
mets pretended to have been lately seen ; one at Rome, about the girdle of An- 
dromeda, in the months of February and March, 1664 ; the other in Ger- 
many, in Capricorn, about Saturn in the head of Sagittary, during the months 
of September and October, 1665. 2dly, With an advertisement of what he 
has done in that important work for the advancement of astronomy, and the due 
restitution of the fixed stars. 

The second part of this book endeavours to justify the author's observations 
touching the former comet, excepted against by M. Auzout in several parti- 
culars. 

From all which he pretends to prove that he has not erred in his observation 
of February 1 8, nor been prepossessed by any hypothesis, nor deluded by any 
fixed star, as M. Auzout thinks ; but that near the first star of Aries there then 
appeared a phenomenon most like to that comet that was seen some days be- 
fore, if compared with the observations made thereof February 12, 13, 14; 
though he wiH not hitherto positively determine, whether that phenomenon 
which appeared to him February 18, was indeed that very comet which he saw 
with his naked eye and observed with his geometrical instruments, the said 
12, 13, and 14th days of February; or whether it was another; and whether 
he had lost that comet, which moved towards the second star in Aries : but 
leaves to the learned world, and particularly to the Royal Society, to judge of 
this and the other particulars in controversy. 

II. Isaacus Vossius * de Nili et Aliorum Fluminum Origine. 

* Isaac Vossius, bornatLeyden in ]6l8, was a man of considerable talents and learning, and 
spent a long life, of 7 1 years, in close study. He recdved several honours and emoluments from 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 117 

In Number 14 of these Transactions was given an account of the cause of 
the inundation of the Nile, by M. de la Chambre : This book is to give 
another, not only of the inundation, but also of the origin of that and of 
other rivers, showing, 

1 . That those subterraneous channels, through which several philosophers 
teach that the sea discharges itself into the rivers, are not only imaginary, 
but useless ; as it is impossible for the water to rise from the subterraneous 
places up to the mountains, where commonly the sources of rivers are. 

1. He explains why, if a pipe be put into a basin full of water, the water is 
seen more raised in the pipe than in the basin, and rises higher according as 
the pipe is narrower. On the contrary, if the same pipe be put into a basin 
full of quicksilver, the quicksilver is lower in the pipe than in the basin. He 
adds, that this observation makes nothing for the explication of the origin of 
rivers ; because, though it be true that the water by this means rises above 
its level, yet it does never run out at the top of the pipe. Having said 
this, he answers to the other arguments commonly alleged to maintain this 
opinion. 

3. He pretends that all rivers proceed from collections of rain-waters; and 
that as the water that falls upon hills gathers more easily together than that 
which falls in plains, therefore it is that rivers usually take their source from 
hills. Thence also it happens that there are more rivers than torrents in the 
temperate zones; and, on the contrary, more torrents than rivers in the torrid 
zone ; for, as in hot climates the mountains are far higher, the water that 
descends from them with impetuosity runs away in a short time, and forms 
such collections of water as soon dry up ; but in cold climates the waters run 
off but slowly, and are renewed and recruited by rain before they are quite 
dried up; because the hills are there lower, and the bed of rivers has less 
declivity. 

Having thus discoursed of rivers in general, he treats of the Nile in parti- 
cular ; and there, he proves by many recent relations, that the sources of 
the Nile are on this side of the equinoxial in j(Ethiopia, of which he gives 

different sovereigns. He held a correspondence with Queen Christina of Sweden, who employed 
him in some literary commissions ; and at the Queen's request he visited that country, and taught 
her the Greek language; though she afterwards discarded him, on hearing that he intended to write 
against Salmasius. In l66'3 he received a present of money from Louis the 14th of France, with a 
complimentary letter from the minister Colbert. In 167O he came to England, when King Charles 
the 2d made him canon of Windsor ; though he knew his character well enough to say, there was 
nothing that Vossius refused to believe except the bible. Vossius was author of many writings ; and 
died at Windsor in 16"89; leaving, as supposed, the best private librar}' in the world; whicli was 
afterwards purchased by the university of Leyden. 



118 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO i666 

an accurate map, correcting many faults which geographers have committed 
in the description of Abyssinia, which they believe to be much greater than it 
really is. 

This supposed, he easily shows why the Nile yearly overflows about the end 
of June : for, as at that time there falls much rain in Ethiopia, it must needs 
be that the Nile, whose source is in that country, should then overflow when 
those rains begin, and again subside when they cease. 

There are besides in this book two other tracts. In the first, M. Vossius main- 
tains that the soul of animals is nothing but fire ; that there are no invisible 
atoms ; nor so much as any pores even in the skin of man. Here he treats 
also of refractions, and alleges the examples of several persons, who have 
seen the sun by means of refraction when he was really under the hori- 
zon. 

In the second, he discourses of some points of the mechanics ; and relates, 
among other things, that the arrows and battering rams (Aries) of the ancients, 
did as much execution as our muskets and cannons. 

III. Le Discernement du Corps et de I'Ame, par M. de Cordemoy. 

This French treatise examines the different operations of the soul and body, 
and the secret of their union ; pretending to discover to every one, what he is, 
and what is transacting within him. 

Patterns of the Tables proposed to he made for observing Tides. 
By Sir Rob. Moray. N' 18, p. 311. 

Of these patterns, one is for marking the precise time of high and low water 
during one month, that is between new and new moon, or full and full moon. 
The other for marking the degrees of the risings and fallings of the water in 
equal spaces of time, and the velocity of its motion at several heights ; with 
the degrees of heat and cold, &c. these particulars having every one a ruled 
column allotted for each. 

Other Inquiries concerning the Sea. By Mr. Boyle. N° 18, p. 315. 

What is the proportion of salt in the water of difl^erent seas ? Whether in the 
same sea it be always the same ? If not, how does it differ ? 

What is the relative gravity of sea waters to fresh waters, and what to one 
another ? Whether it varies not in summer and winter, and on other accounts ? 
And whether in the same season its gravity proceeds only from the greater or 
less proportion of salt in it, and not sometimes from other causes ? And 
what are the difl^ering gravities of the sea water, according to the climates ? 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. HQ 

What are the odours, colours a^d tastes observable in sea water ? 

What is the depth of the sea in several places, and the order of its in- 
crease and decrease ; and whether the bottom of the sea always rises towards 
the shore, unless accidentally interrupted ? 

Of the bottom of the sea, and how it differs from the surface of the earth, 
in reference to the soil, and evenness or roughness of the superficies ; also the 
stones, minerals and vegetables to be found there ? 

What the figuration of the seas from north to south, and from east to west, 
and in the several hemispheres and climates ? 

What communication there is of seas by straits and subterraneous con- 
veyances ? 

Of the motion of the sea by winds, and how far storms reach downwards ? 

Of the grand motions of the body of the sea, especially of the tides, their 
nature and differences? 

What power the sea has to produce or hasten putrefaction in some bodies, 
and to preserve others ; as wood, cables, &c. ? 

Of the power ascribed to the sea to eject dead bodies, succinum, ambergris ? 

Of the shining of the sea in the night ? 

What are the medical virtues of the sea, especially against hydrophobia ? 

What is its virtue to manure land ? And what are the plants that thrive best 
with sea water ? 

Some Considerations concerning the parenchymatous Parts of the Body, 
By Dr. Edmund King. N' 18, p. 316. 

The parenchymatous parts of the body are (this writer observes) generally sup- 
posed by anatomists to be in very many places wholly void of vessels, and to be 
designed chiefly to fill up cavities and interstices between the vessels, to bolster 
up the same, and to convey them through the parts ; whereas on examination 
he has found the parenchyma of the liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, &c. full of 
vessels.* 

Observatio?is on Petrifications. By Dr. Beale. N° 18, p. 320. 

A good history of petrifaction, and of the manner in which nature proceeds 
in that operation, would be very satisfactory. For if we could attain to the 
mode of causing petrifactions by art, directing the process at pleasure, such 
an art might be very useful, being applied to prevent the generation of the 

* This is the substance of Dr. King's communication, rather prolix, and containing some observa- 
tions not altogether relevant to the subject. 



120 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

Stone and gravel in human bodies, or to ^ssolve those concretions after they 
have been there formed.* 

To such reflections an extraordinary case is added by Dr.Beale, being a narrative 
of a stone not long since taken out of the womb [or bladder ?] of a woman in 
his neighbourhood, near Trent in Somersetshire, by incision, and who after- 
wards was perfectly cured, though she had carried the stone with extreme tor- 
ments for eight or nine years. The operation was performed at Easter 1666 ; 
after which time he weighed the stone and found it wanted somewhat of four 
ounces, though it had lost of the weight it formerly had, being very light for a 
stone of that bulk. He further describes it to be of a whitish colour, lighter 
than ash-colour. It had no deep asperities, and had somewhat of an oval figure, 
but less at one end than a hen's egg, and larger and blunter at the other than 
a goose's egg. 

Of IVorms that eat Stones and Mortar. By M. de la Voye. 

N' 18, p. 321. 

In a large and very ancient wall of free-stone in the Benedictins Abbey at 
Caen in Normandy, facing southward, are found many stones so eaten by 
worms, that one may run one's hand into most of the cavities. In these cavities 
there is abundance of live worms with their excrement, and of the stone dust 
which they eat. Between many of the cavities there remain but leaves as it 
were of stone, very thin, which part them. I have taken some of these living 
worms, which I found in the eaten stone, and put them into a box with several 
bits of the stone, leaving them there together for the space of eight days ; and 
then opening the box, the stone seemed to me so sensibly eaten, that I could no 
longer doubt of it. 

These worms are inclosed in a shell which is grayish, and of the size of a 
barley-corn, sharper at one end than the other. By means of an excellent mi- 
croscope I have observed, that this shell is all overspread with little stones and 
small greenish eggs ; and that there is at the sharpest end a little hole, by which 
these creatures discharge their excrement; and at the other end a somewhat 
larger hole, through which they put out their heads and fasten themselves to 
the stones they gnaw. They are not so shut up but that sometimes they come 
out and walk abroad. They are all black, about two lines of an inch long, and 
three quarters of a line broad. Their body is distinguished into several plies or 

* The mode in which petrifactions are formed is now very well understood ; but the knowledge 
of this natural process throws no light either upon the origin of urinary calculi (whose chemical com- 
position is different) or upon the means of preventing their formation. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 121 

folds, and near their head they have three feet on each side, which have but 
two joints, resembling those of a louse. When they move, their body is com- 
monly upwards, with their mouth against the stone. They have a large head, 
somewhat flat and even, of the colour of a tortoise shell, with some small white, 
hair. Their mouth is also large, where may be seen four kinds of jaw-bones, 
lying crosswise, which they move continually, opening and shutting them like a 
pair of compasses with four branches. The jaws, on both sides of the mouth, 
are all black ; the nether-jaw has a point like the sting of a bee, but uniform. 
They draw threads out of their mouth with their fore-feet, using that point to 
range them, and to form their shells of them. They have ten eyes, very black 
and rounds which appear to be larger than a pin's head. There are five of them 
on each side of the head. 

Besides these worms, I have found that mortar is eaten by an immense num- 
ber of small creatures, of the size of cheese mites. These have but two eyes, 
and are blackish. They have four feet on each side pretty long. The point of 
their muzzle is very sharp, like that of a spider. 

You may observe more of them in walls exposed to the south than in others. 
The worms that eat the stone live longer than those that eat the mortar, which 
scarcely live above eight days. I have observed all their parts with a good mi- 
croscope, without which, and a great deal of attention, it is difficult to see them 
well. 

I have seen other very old walls altogether eaten, as those of the Temple at 
Paris, where I could find no worms, but the cavities were full of shells of vari- 
ous kinds, diversely figured and turned ; all which I believe to be little animals 
petrified. 

Some promiscuous Observations made i?i Somersetshire, and imparted 
hy Dr Beale. N' 18, p. 323. 

This paper contains only notice of a quantity of oak trees found lying a little 
under the surface of the earth near Bridgwater. Also of some water that cattle 
would not drink in the driest seasons. And of quantities of dead eels found in 
holes under the ice. 

To find the Year of the Julian Period, hy a new and very easy Method. 
By M. J. De Billy.'' iSf" 18, p. 324. 

Multiply the solar cycle by 4845, and the lunar by 4200, and that of the in- 

* Father James de Billy was a learned French Jesuit, in the 17th century, bom in Corapeigne 
1602, and died at Dijon 16/9* at 77 years of age. He wrote several mathematical works ; as^ 
VOL. I. Q 



122 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

diction by 69 1 6. Then divide the sum of the products by 7980^ which is the 
Julian period : the remainder of the division, without having regard to the 
quotient, will be the year required. 

Ex. gr. Let the cycle of the sun be 3 ; of the moon 4 ; and of the indie- 
tion 5. Multiply 3 by 4845, and you have 14535 ; and 4 by 4200, which 
gives 1 6800; also 5 by 69 1 6, which gives 34580. The sum of the products 
is 65915 ; which being divided by 7980, gives 8 for the quotient, and the 
number 2075, which remains, is the year of the Julian period. 

An Account of some Booh lately puhlisJied. N" 18, p. 324. 

I. Tentamina Physico-Theologica de Deo, sive Theologia Scolastica, ad 
Normam Novae et Reformatae Philosophiae concinnata, et duobus libris com- 
prehensa. 

II. Honorati Fabri, Soc. Jesu Theologi, Tractatus duo ; quorum Prior est de 
Plantis et de Generatione Animalium ; Posterior, de Homine. 

As the matter of this book is considerable, so is the order and dependence 
of all its parts excellent; since all the propositions are ranged according to a 
geometrical method, and so well disposed that the latter always suppose the 
former, and seem to depend all of them upon certain evident principles, whence 
they flow by a natural consequence. 

III. Relation du Voyage de I'Eveque de Beryte, par la Turquie, la Perse, 
les Indes, &c. jusques au Royaume de Siam, et autres lieux ; par M. de 
Bo urges, Prestre, &c. 

This author, employing his pen chiefly, according to his design, to give an 
account of the success the undertakers of this voyage had in propagating the 
Christian faith in the remoter parts of the world, and relating, on that occasion, 
what number of churches they have founded in Cochin China and the kingdom 
of Tonquin, in which latter alone he afiirms that there are more than three 
hundred thousand Christians. 

J Petrifaction. By Mr. Ph. Packer. . N" 19, p- 329- 

Near Wadley, a mile from Farringdon in Berks, there grows an elm containing 
near a tun of timber, which has now lost the top, and has grown hollow. From 
the butt of the tree one of the spreading limbs having been formerly cut oft' ..with 
an axe, that part of the butt, being about l-i- foot above ground, and inward with- 

1. Opus Astronomicon; 2. Nova Geometriae Clavis Algebra 3 3. Tabulae Lodovicaej 4. Diophan- 
tus Redivivus} and perhaps some others. 

A method of investigating such rules as that above, may be seen in Dr. Hutton's translation of 
Montucla's Philosophical Recreations, vol. iii. p. 231. 



rOL. I.] J'HILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 123 

in the trunk of the tree, has contracted a petrified crust about the thickness of a 
shilling, all over the woody part within the bark; the marks of the axe also re- 
maining very conspicuous with this petrified crust upon it. By what means it 
should thus happen cannot well be conceived, as there is no water near it, and as 
the part is above the ground, and the tree still growing: unless, being perhaps 
cut at a season when the sap was flowing, the oozing of the sap might become 
petrified by the air, and the tree grow rotten and hollow inward since that time. 

Inquiries concerning Mines. By Mr. Boyle, N" 19, p- 330. 

These queries are reduced by the author to six heads : 

I. The neighbouring country about the mines. II. The soil where the mines 
are. III. The signs of mines. IV. The structure and other particulars belong- 
ing to the mines themselves. V. The nature and circumstances of the ore. 
VI. The reduction of the ore into metal. 

/. Queries on the neighbouring Country. 

Whether the country be mountainous, plain, or distinguished with vales? 
Whether high or low, &c. fruitful or barren, cold or temperate, rocky or not, 
hollow or solid ? Whether they run in ridges or seem confusedly placed ; and, 
if the former, what way the ridges run north and south, &c. &c. 

Whether the country be barren or fruitful ? What it produces, and what it 
most abounds in ? 

What cattle it nourishes, and what their nature and peculiarities ? 

The diseases and lives of the inhabitants longer or shorter than ordinary ? 

The rivers, brooks, springs, and other waters ; and the nature of them ? 

Whether the air be dry or moist, hot or cold, clear or foggy, thick or 
thin, heavy or light ; any subterraneous streams, and what they are ? 

//. The Soil. 

Whether the soil be stony ; and, if it be, what kind of stones it abounds with ? 
Whether it be clayey, marly, chalky, &c. ? 

///. The Signs or Indications of Mines. 

By what signs they know or guess that there is a mine in such a place? 

Whether it be observed that trees and other greater plants seem to have their 
tops burned, or other leaves or outsides discoloured ? Or whether there be any 
plants that affect to grow over such mines, or the contrary ? 

What colour the stones and pebbles take in the brooks, springs, or other 

a 2 



124 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666. 

waters ?— Whether the waters, by their taste, smell, ponderousness, &c. indicate 
any minerals ? — ^Whether snow will not lie, or frost continue so long, or dew be 
collected upon the ground, more or less than usual ? — And whether the dew or 
the rain there will discolour white linen or woollen cloths, spread over night 
on the surface of the ground ? — The state of the place as to thunder and light- 
ning, storms or earthquakes, nocturnal lights and fiery meteors ? — ^What indica- 
tions from mists, or the virgula divinatoria ? — What signs afford a probability 
of mines, or direction for following a vein over hills, valleys, lakes, &c. 

The strata under the surface : their number, nature, depth, order, thickness, &c. 
— Indications by certain stones or marcasites, &c. — Peculiar kind of earths. 
Also heats or damps. 

IF. The Structure, &c. of Mines. 

The depth of the shaft or grove : what its width and extent ? Whether the 
vein run horizontal or dip ? what inclination it has ? What its flexures; and what its 
directions ? — ^What air-shaft belongs to the mine? Whether it be single, double, 
&c. and if several, what their distances, situation, &c. ? — ^What waters spring in 
the mine ; at what depths ; and their quantity and nature ? — ^What expedients and 
engines are employed to free the mines from water ? — ^What are the conditions, 
number, &c. of the adits ? — ^Whether the mine be troubled with damps, and of 
what kind they are ? — ^What methods the mine men use in following the vein and 
tracing their passages under ground (which ' they call plumming and dyalling) 
according to the several exigencies ? And whether they employ the instruments 
made with the help of the loadstone, the same way that is usual, or what other 
instruments? — What methods they take to secure themselves from the uncertainty 
incident to the guidance of magnetic needles from the iron-stone ore that they 
may meet with under ground ? — How the miners deal with the rocks and spars 
they often meet with before they come at the ore ? Whether they use fire to 
soften, calcine, or crack them ? How they employ it, and with what measure 
of success ? — ^What instruments they use to break the rock, &c. ? And how the 
mine men work; whether naked or clothed? And what lights they use to work 
by ? — How veins are followed, lost, and' recovered ? And how several miners 
work on the same vein ? And what is the best way of getting all the ore in a 
vein and most conveniently ? — How they convey out their ore and other things 
that are to be carried out of the mine ? 

F. The Nature of the Ore. 

Whether the ore runs in the vein, or lies dispersed in scattered pieces ; or be 
divided partly into a vein, and partly into loose masses ; or like a wall between 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 125 

two rocks, as it were in a cleft ; or be interspersed in the firm rock, like 
speckled marble ? Or be found in grains like sand or gravel ; as store of excel- 
lent tin is said to be found in some parts of Cornwall at the sides and in the 
channels of running waters ; or whether the ore be of a softer consistence, 
like earth or lome, as there is lead-ore in Ireland holding store of silver ; and 
iron ore in the north parts of Scotland and elsewhere ? And what is observable 
in it as to weight, colour, mixture, &c. 

Whether any part of the metal be found in the mine perfect and complete ? 

Whether the mine affords any parcels of metal that seem to grow like 
plants, as I have sometimes seen silver growing as it seemed out of stone or 
spar, almost like blades of grass ; as also large grains of a metal, which appeared 
to me, and which those that tried some of it, affirmed to be gold, abounding 
in a stony lump, that seemed to consist chiefly of a peculiar kind of spar. 

The depth of the vein. Its concomitants or coat. — ^What are the principal 
qualities of these extraneous substances : as that spar is white, but transparent, 
almost like coarse crystal, heavy, brittle, easily divisible into flakes, &c ? Caulk 
of a different texture, white, opake, and like a stone, but much more pon- 
derous. Mundick I have had of a fine golden colour. 

Whether the vein oe inclosed every way in its coats ; or whether it only lie 
between them ? — Whether the vein be uninterrupted, or in some places 
broken off; and whether it be abruptly or not ; and whether it be by vales, 
brooks, gullets, &c. ? — How wide the interruptions are ; what signs whereby to 
find the vein again ? 

What proportion of metal it affords ? as in our iron mines it is observed, 
that about three tuns of iron-stone will afford one tun of metal : and I have had 
lead ore, which an ingenious man, to whom I recommended such trials, affirm- 
ed to me to afford three parts in four of good lead. 

Whether the ore be pure in its kind from other metals ? and if not, of what 
metals it participates ; and in what proportion ? as I have known it observed, 
that lead ore, that is poor in its own metal, affords more silver than other ; 
and I remember that the ore lately mentioned, being rich in lead, scarce afford- 
ed us upon the cuppel, an atom of silver. And Matthesius informs us, that a 
little gold is not unfrequently found in iron-ore. And I have by me some 
gold that never endured the fire, taken out of a lump of tin ore. 

VI. Reduction of the Ore into Metal, 

What are the mechanic and previous operations, as beating, grinding, wash- 
ing, &c. that are used to separate the ore from the heterogeneous bodies, and 
prepare it for the fire ? — Whether mercury be made use of, to extract the 



126 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666, 

nobler from the baser metals ? — ^Whether the burning and beating of the ore 
be used to prepare it for the furnace ? — What flux-powders, and other ways 
they have to try and examine the goodness of the ore in small quantities ?— 
Whether, when they work in great, they use to melt the ore with any flux or 
additaments, or only by the force of the fire, or in any way between both ? 
— What kind of furnaces they use to melt the ore in ? — ^What kinds of fuel, 
and what quantities of it, are wont to be employed in the furnace, within the 
compass of a day or week ? How much is put in at a time ? How often it is re- 
newed ? and how much ore in a determinate time, as a week or a day, is wont 
to be reduced to metal ? — Whether the ore be melted by a wind excited by 
the fire itself, as in wind ovens ? Or by the course of waters ? Or actuated by 
the blast of bellows ? — ^What contrivance they have to let or take out the metal 
that is in fusion, and cast it into bars, sows, pigs, &c. — What clay, sand, or 
mould they let it run or pour it through ? And after what manner they re- 
frigerate it ? — What are the ways of distinguishing them, and estimating the 
goodness of the metals ? — ^Whether they do any thing to the metal after it is 
once brought to fusion, and if need be, melt it over again, to give it a melior- 
ation ? As when iron is refined and turned into steel ; and what distinct fur- 
naces and peculiar ways of ordering the metals are employed to effect this im- 
provement ? — ^Whether in those places where the metal is melted, there be not 
elevated some corpuscles, that stick to the upper parts of the furnace or build- 
ing ? And if there be, whether they be barely fuliginous and recrementitious 
exhalations or at least in part, metalline flowers ? — ^Whether the metal, being 
brought to fusion, affbrds any recrements ? — ^Whether, after the metal has 
been once melted, the remaining part of the ore being exposed to the air, will 
in time be impregnated, or ripened so as to afford more metal ? 

Answers to Queries. By M. Hevelius. N° 19? p- 346. 

The inquiries you proposed to me, I imparted to several of my learned 
friends : but hitherto I have attained an answer but to few particulars. Among 
the rest you will find a letter of the learned Johannes Scheffcrus, professor in 
the Swedish university at Upsal, wherein he discourses handsomely of several 
things, being ready to entertain a literary commerce with you about such mat- 
ters. Touching amber I am almost of the same mind with him, that it is a 
kind of fossil pitch or bitumen ; seeing it is not only found on the shore of the 
Prussian sea, but also digged up in subterraneous places, some German miles 
distant from the sea, and that not only in sandy, but also in other hills of 
firmer earth ; of which I myself have seen pretty big pieces. — Concerning 
swallows, I have frequently heard fishermen affirm, that they have here often 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 127 

fished them out of the lakes in the winter, but I never have seen it myself. — 
Whilst I am writing this, I receive letters out of Denmark, advertising me, 
that those two learned men, Thomas and Erasmus Bartholin, intend shortly 
to answer the same quaeries. Next winter, if God vouchsafe me life and 
health, I purpose to make a journey to Konigsberg, where I hope to learn 
many things, especially about amber. 

I am very glad to understand that you have so good telescopes, as to make 
such considerable observations in Jupiter and Mars, as you have lately done in 
England. I have no leisure now, by reason of the observations of the fixed 
stars, which I now almost constantly am employed about, to do any thing in 
the advancing of telescopes. I am obliged to finish the catalogue of the fixed 
stars ; having meanwhile the contentment to find that many excellent persons 
labour about the improvement of optic glasses. Before I conclude, I must give 
notice to the lovers of astronomy, that on the 24th of September (N. S.) of 
this year, I have observed that new star in Pectore Cygni, which from the year 
1662, until this time, has been almost altogether hid, not only with my naked 
eye, like a star of the 6th or 7th magnitude, but also with a very large sextant. 
It is still in the very same part of the heavens where it was formerly, from 
An. 1601, to almost 1662. For its distance from Scheat Pegasi I have found 
35' 51' 20", and from Marcab, 43° 10' 50'', which distances, as I have found 
in my journal, are equal to those which I observed An. l658, the 1st of No- 
vember. For the distance from Scheat at that time was 35° 5 1' 20", and from 
Marcab 43° lO' 25" : It is therefore certain, that it is the self same star which 
Kepler first saw An. 1601, and continued until 1662. But whether in time it 
will grow larger and larger, or be lost again, time must show. He that will ob- 
serve this star, must take care lest he mistake those three more southern ones 
of the sixth magnitude, and now in a manner somewhat brighter than the new 
star in Collo Cygni. The highest of those three is distant from Scheat Pegasi 
36° 25' 45^ the middlemost from the same 37° 25' 20", and the lowest 
36° 4' 30'.* 

Anstvej^s to Queries. By M, J oh. Schefferus. iV° 19, p- 349. 
That he is confident the Royal Society of England will do much good for the 
advancement of useful knowledge. 

That he conceives amber to be a kind of fossil pitch, whose veins lie at the 
bottom of the sea ; believing that it is hardened in course of time, and by the 
motion of the sea cast on shore. 

That it is most certain, that swallows sink themselves towards autumn into 
lakes, no otherwise than frogs ; and that many have assured him of it, who 
* For the figure of this constellation^ see p. 1 37. 



128 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

had seen them drawn out with a net together with fishes, and put to the fire 
and thereby revived. 

That it is also very true that many animals there grow white in winter, and 
recover their own colour in summer. That himself has seen and had hares, 
which about the beginning of winter and spring were half white, and half of 
their native colour ; that in the midst of winter he never saw any but all white. 
That foxes also are white in winter, and squirrels grayish, mixed of dark and 
white colour. 

That fishes are killed by reason of the ice not being broken : but first, in 
ponds only or narrow lakes ; next, in such lakes only where the ice is pretty 
thick ; for, where it is thin, they die not so easily ; lastly, that those fishes 
that lie in slimy or clayey ground die not so soon as others. 

That neither oil, nor a strong brine of bay salt, is truly congealed into ice, 
in those parts, viz. at Upsal in Sweden. 

That the frost pierces into the earth two cubits or Swedish ells ; and what 
moisture is found in it is white like ice : That waters, if standing, freeze to a 
greater depth, even to three such ells or more ; but those that have a current 
less: that rapid rivers freeze not at all; nor ever-bubbling springs; and that, these 
latter seem even to be warmer in winter than in summer. 

The Method observed in Transfusing the Blood out of one Animal into 
another. By the Hon. Robert Boyle. N" 20, p. 353. 

The method here described was first practised by Dr. Lower of Oxford. 
Take up the carotid artery of the dog or other animal, whose blood is to be 
transfused into another of the same or a different kind, and separate it from the 
nerve of the eighth pair, and lay it bare above an inch. Then make a strong 
ligature on the upper part of the artery not to be untied again : but an inch be- 
low, viz. towards the heart, make another ligature of a running knot, which 
may be loosened or fastened as there shall be occasion. Having made these two 
knots, draw two threads under the artery between the two ligatures ; and then 
open the artery and put in a quill, and tie the artery upon the quill very fast by 
those two threads, and stop the quill with a stick. After this make bare the 
jugular vein in the other dog about an inch and half long ; and at each end 
make a ligature with a running knot, and in the space betwixt the two running 
knots drawn under the vein two threads, as in the other : then make an incision 
in the vein, and put into it two quills, one into the descendent part of the vein, 
to receive the blood from the other dog, and carry it to the heart; and the 
other quill put into the other part of the jugular vein, which comes from the 



VOL. I.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 12^ 

head (out of which the second dog's own blood must run into dishes.) These 
two quills being put in and tied fast, stop them with a stick till there be occasion 
to open them. 

All things being thus prepared, tie the dogs on their sides towards one another 
so conveniently that the quill may go into each other, (for the dogs' necks cannot 
be brought so near, but that you must put two or three several quills more into 
the first two to convey the blood from one to another.) After that unstop the 
quill that goes down into the first dog's jugular vein, and the other quill coming 
out of the other dog's artery ; and by the help of two or three other quills put 
into each other, according as there shall be occasion, insert them into one 
another. Then slip the running knots, and immediately the blood runs through 
the quills as through an artery very impetuously. And immediately as the blood 
runs into the dog unstop the other quill, coming out of the upper part of his 
jugular vein (a ligature being first made about his neck, or else his other jugular 
vein being compressed by one's finger ;) and let his own blood run out at the 
same time into dishes, (yet not constantly, but according as you perceive him 
able to bear it) till the other dog begin to cry and faint, and fall into con- 
vulsions, and at last die by his side. 

Then take out both the quills out of the dog*s jugular vein, and tie the run- 
ning knot fast, and cut the vein asunder, (which you may do without any harm 
to the dog, one jugular vein being sufficient to convey all the blood from the 
head and upper parts, by reason of a large anastomosis, whereby both the jugular 
veins meet about the larynx.) This done, sow up the skin and dismiss him, and 
the dog will leap from the table and shake himself and run away, as if nothing, 
ailed him.' 

And this I have tried several times, before several in the universities, but 
never yet upon more than one dog at a time for want of leisure and convenient 
supplies of several dogs at once. But when I return I doubt not but to give you 
a fuller account, not only by bleeding several dogs into one, but several other 
creatures into one another, as you did propose to me before you left Oxford; 
which will be very easy to perform, and will afford many pleasant and perhaps 
not unuseful experiments. 

But because there are many circumstances necessary to be observed in the 
performing of this experiment, and that you may better direct any one to do it 
without any danger of killing the other dog that is to receive the other's blood, 
I will mention two or three. 

First, That you fasten the dogs at such a convenient distance, that the vein 
nor artery be not stretched ; for then being contracted, they will not admit or 
convey so much blood. 

VOL. I. R 



130 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1666. 

Secondly, That you constantly observe the pulse beyond the quill in the dog's 
jugular vein (which it acquires from the impulse of the arterial blood :) For if 
that fails, then it is a sign the quill is stopped by some congealed blood, so that 
you must dravi' out the arterial quill from the other, and with a probe open the 
passage again in both of them, that the blood may have its free course again. 
For it must be expected when the dog that bleeds into the other has lost much 
blood, that his heart will beat very faintly, and then the impulse of blood being 
weaker, it will be apt to congeal the sooner, so that at the latter end of the work 
you must draw out the quill oftener and clear the passage; if the dog be faint 
hearted as many are, though some stout fierce dogs will bleed freely and uninter- 
ruptedly till they are convulsed and die. But to prevent this trouble, and make 
the experiment certain, you must bleed a great dog into a little one, or a mastiff 
into a cur, as I once tried, and the little dog bled out at least double the quantity 
of his own blood, and left the mastiff dead upon the table ; and after he was un- 
tied he ran away and shaked himself, as if he had been only thrown into water. 
Or else you may get three or four several dogs prepared in the same manner; 
and when one begins to fail and leave off bleeding administer another, and I 
am confident one dog will receive all their blood, (and perhaps more) as long 
as it runs freely, till they are left almost dead by turns : provided that you let 
out the blood proportionably as you let it go into the dog that is to live. 

Thirdly, I suppose the dog that is to bleed out into dishes will endure it the 
better if the dogs that are to be administered to supply his blood be of near an 
equal age, and fed alike the day before, that both their bloods may be of a near 
strength and temper. 

There are many things I have observed upon bleeding dogs to death, which 
I have seen since your departure from Oxford, whereof I shall give you a re- 
lation hereafter ; in the mean time, since you were pleased to mention it to the 
Royal Society, with a promise to give them an account of this experiment, I 
could not but take the first opportunity to clear you from that obligation, &c. 

So far this letter : the directions whereof having been carefully observed 
by those who were employed to make the experiment, have hitherto been at- 
tended with good success ; and that not only upon animals of the same species 
(as two dogs first, and then two sheep) but also upon some of very different 
species, as a sheep and a dog ; the former emitting, the other receiving. 

Note only, that instead of a quill a small crooked thin pipe of silver or brass, 
so slender that the one end may enter into a quill, and having at the other end 
that is to enter into the vein and artery a small knob, for the better fastening 
them to it wiih a thread, will be much fitter than a straight pipe or quill for this 
operation : for so they are much more easy to be managed. 



VOL. I-] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 131 

It is Intended that these trials shall be prosecuted to the utmost variety the 
subject will bear: As by exchanging the blood of old and young, sick and 
healthy, hot and cold, fierce and fearful, lame and wild animals, &c. and that 
not only of the same but also of different kinds. For which end, and to im- 
prove this noble experiment, either for knowledge or use, or both, some inge- 
nious men have already proposed considerable trials and inquiries ; of which per- 
haps an account will be given hereafter. For the present we shall only subjoin 
some 

Considerations about Experiments of this Kind, 

1 . It may be considered in them, that the blood of the emittent animal 
may after a few minutes of time, by its circulation, mix and run out with that 
of the recipient. Wherefore to be assured in these trials that all the blood of 
the recipient is run out, and none left in him but the adventitious blood of the 
emittent, two or three or more animals (which was also hinted in the method 
above) may be prepared and administered to bleed them all out into one. 

2. It seems not irrational to guess aforehand, that the exchange of blood will 
not alter the nature or disposition of the animals upon which it shall be prac- 
tised; though it may be thought worth while, for satisfaction and certainty, to 
determine that point by experiments. The case of exchanging the blood of 
animals seems not like that of grafting, where the scion turns the sap of the 
stock grafted upon into its nature; the fibres of the scion so straining the 
juice which passes from the stem to it, as thereby to change it into that of 
the scion ; whereas in this transfusion there seems to be no such percolation of 
the blood of animals, whereby that of the one should be changed into the na- 
ture of the other. 

3. The most probable use of this experiment may be conjectured to be, that 
one animal may live with the blood of another ; and consequently, that those 
animals that want blood, or have corrupt blood, may be supplied from others 
with a sufficient quantity, and of such as is good, provided the transfusion 
be often repeated, by reason of the quick expense that is made of the blood.* 

An Account of some Sanative JVaters in Herefordshif^e. 
By Dr. Beale. N' 20, p. 358. 

There are two springs, says the writer of this communication, in Herefordshire 

* When these experiments were first projected there was a degree of enthusiasm with respect to 
the result of them, which is not uncommon on such occasions. Time, however, has shown the va- 
nity of those expectations which philosophers then entertained as to the possibility of removing dis- 
eases, and lengthening the natural terra of life, by such means. 

Jl2 



132 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

whereof one is within about a bolt or bow- shot of the top of the near adjoining 
hill of Malvern^* and has had a long and old fame for healing the eyes. 
When he was for some years molested with tetters on the back of one and 
sometimes of both his hands, notwithstanding all endeavours of his friends and 
skilful physicians, he was speedily healed by a neighbouring spring of far less fame. 
Moreover this spring healed very old ulcers on the legs of a poor fellow, after 
other applications had been useless. And by many trials upon his hands and the 
tetters, Dr. B. was persuaded that in long droughts and lasting dry frosts these 
waters were more effectually and more speedily healing than at other times. 

Of Vitriolate Water, ^c. By. Br. Beale. N" 20, p. 359. 

I wish we had a full account of our salt springs at Droitwich near Worcester, 
and at Nantwich in Cheshire, and any other salt springs in England. It 
should be inquired at what distance they are from the sea, or from salt 
fluxes, from hills, and how deep in the vales ? What the weight ? Whether 
in droughts or long frosts the proportion of salt or weight increases ? Whe- 
ther the earth near the springs, or in their passage, has any peculiar ferment^ 
or produces a brackishness, if it rests after it is well drained ? 

Inquiries for Turkey. By Mr. H. iV" 20, p. 360. 

1 . In what part of Turkey the Rusma is to be found ; and in what quantity ? 
Whether the Turks employ it to any other uses besides that of the taking 

' away of hair ? Whether there be different kinds of it ? How it is used to take 
off hair, and how to get store of it ? 

2. Whether the Turks do not only take opium themselves for strength and 
courage, but also give it to their horses, camels and dromedaries, for the same 
purpose, when they find them tired and faint in their travelling? What is the 
greatest dose any men are known to have taken of opium ? and how pre- 
pared ? 

3. What effects are observed from their use, not only of opium, but also of 
coffee, bathing, shaving their heads, using rice ; and why they prefer that 
which grows not unless watered, before wheat, &c. ? 

4. How their Damasco-steel is made and tempered ? 

5. What is their way of dressing and making leather, which though thin and 
supple, will hold out water ? 

* An excellent account of the Malvern spring, by Dr. Wall, is to be found in the 4$tli and 50 th 
yds. of the Transactions. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 133 

6. What method they observe in breeding those excellent horses, they are 
so much famed for ? 

7. Whether they be so skilful in poisoning as is said; and how their poisons 
are curable ? 

8. How the Annenians keep meat fresh and sweet so long? 
Q. What arts or trades have they worth learning ? 

10. Whether there be a tree about Damascus, called mouslac, which every 
year about the month of December is cut down close by the root, and within 
four or five months shoots up again, bringing forth leaves, flowers and fruit, 
and bearing but one apple at a time ? 

11. Whether about Reame, in the southern part of Arabia Felix, there be 
grapes without any grains ? And whether the people in that country live, many 
of them, to 120 years in good health ? 

12. Whether in Candia there be no poisonous creatures ; and whether the 
serpents there are without poison ? 

13. Whether all fruits, herbs, earth, fountains, are naturally saltish in the 
isle of Cyprus ? And whether those parts of this isle, which abound in Cyprus 
trees, are more or less healthful ? 

14. What store of amianthus in Cyprus ; and how it is worked? 

15. Whether mummies be found in the sands of Arabia, that are the dried 
flesh of men buried in those sandy deserts in travelling ? And in what respects 
they differ from the embalmed ones ? 

16. Whether the parts about the city of Constantinople or Asia Minor be 
as subject to earthquakes now as formerly ? And whether the eastern winds do 
not plague the said city with mists, and cause that inconstancy of weather it is 
subject to ? 

1 7 . Whether the earthquakes in Zant and Cephalonia be so frequent, as 
now and then to happen nine or ten times a month ? And whether these isles 
be not very cavernous ? 

18. What is the height of mount Caucasus, its position, temperament, &c.? 

19. With what declivity the water runs out of the Euxine Sea into the Pro- 
pontis ? With what depth ? And if the many tides and eddies called Euripi 
have any certain periods ? 

20. Whether the Caspian empties itself into the Euxine sea by any passage 
under ground ? 

21. By what inland passages they go to China ? 

22. Whether in the aqueducts they line the inside with as good plaster as 
the ancients did ? and how it is made ? 

23. To inquire after those excellent works of antiquity with which that 



134 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l666. 

country abounds. And particularly the size and structure of the aqueducts 
made about Constantinople by Solyman the Magnificent, &c. 

Optic Glasses made of Rock Crystal. By Eustachio Divini. 

iV" 20, p. 362. 

Though it be commonly believed that rock crystal is not fit for optic glasses, 
because there are many veins in it ; yet Eustachio Divini made one of it, 
which he says proved an excellent one, though full of veins.* 

4n Account of the Use of the Grain of Kermes for Coloration. By 
M. Ferny, Apothecary at Montpellier. N"" 20, p. 362. 

The grain of kermes is here described to be an excrescence -f- growing upon 
the wood, and often upon the leaves of a shrub, J plentiful in Languedoc, and 
gathered in the end of May and the beginning of June, full of red juice. Two 
uses are mentioned of this grain, the one for medicine, the other for the dyeing 
of wool ; of which last alone notice is here taken. 

They take the kermes when ripe and spread it upon linen, turning it at first 
(whilst it abounds in moisture) twice or thrice a day, to prevent its heating. 
When there appears red powder among it, they separate it, passing it through 
a sieve ; and then again spread out the grain upon the linen, until there be 
perceived the same red powder : and at the end, this red powder appears about 
and on the surface of the grain, which is still to be passed through a sieve till 
it render no more. 

In the beginning, when the small red grains are seen to move, as they will 

* It is a question whether those were true veins or only superficial strictures and slight scratches. 

t These grains or excrescences, as they are called, are produced by an insect termed by naturalists 
coccvs ilicis. The female insect punctures the bark and leaves of the shrub on which it is found ; de- 
posits its eggs in a sort of nidus thus formed, loses its original shape, and dies. Its reliquiae, with the 
contained eggs, acquire the appearance of grains or excrescences (analogous to gall-nuts) from which 
issue, after a certain time (if no measures are taken to destroy them) a number of young insects. 
The red-powder, mentioned in tlae subsequent part of this paper, consists of larvae destroyed by the 
process of sprinkling the grains with vinegar and afterwards drying them. 

+ The tree or shrub on which the kermes insect is found is the quercus cocci/era, Linn. In the 
South of France, and in some of the provinces of Spain, numbers of people, chiefly women, (who 
for this purpose let their nails grow) are employed in picking these insects from the leaves and 
branches of this species of oak. They are used for dyeing woollen cloth of a scarlet colour, and 
constitute an article of commerce of no small consideration to both the above-mentioned countries. 
The colour they give is more durable than that of cochineal, but not so bright j hence a more fre- 
quent use of the latter in modem times. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 135 

do, they are sprinkled over with strong vinegar, and rubbed between one's 
hands ; afterwards, little balls are formed of them, which are exposed to the 
sun to dry. 

If this red powder should be let alone, without pouring vinegar or some 
other acid liquor upon it, out of every grain there would be formed a little 
fly, which would skip and fly up and down for a day or two, and at last chang- 
ing its colour, fall down quite dead, deprived of all the bitterness which the 
grains whence they are generated had possessed. 

The grain being altogether emptied of its pulp or red powder, is washed in' 
wine, and then exposed to the sun. Being well dried, it is rubbed in a sack 
to render it bright ; and then put up in small sacks, putting in the midst, ac- 
cording to the quantity the grain has affbrded, 10 or 12 pounds (for a quintal) 
of the dust, which is the red powder that came out of it. And accordingly 
as the grain affords more or less of the said powder, dyers buy more or less 
of it. 

It is to be noted, that the first red powder which appears issues out of the 
hole of the grain, that is, on the side where the grain adhered to the plant ; 
and that which about the end appears sticking on the grain has been alive in 
the husk, having pierced its cover, though the hole whence it commonly 
issues remains close as to the eye. 

Boohs lately Published. N' 20, p. 364. 

I. Pinax Rerum Naturalium Brittaniarum continens Vegetabilia, Animalia 
et Fossilia, in hoc insula reperta, Inchoatus. Auth. Christophoro Merret, 
Med. D. et utriusque Societatis Rigiae socio. 

The learned author of this book has, by his laudable example of collecting 
together what natural things are to be found here in England, invited the 
curious in all parts of the world to attempt the like, and thereby to establish 
the much desired and highly useful commerce among naturalists, and to 
contribute every where to the composing of a genuine and full history of 
nature. 

II. Placita Philosophica Guarini. The chief subject of this treatise is natural 
philosophy ; upon many important questions whereof it enlarges, as those of 
the motion of the celestial bodies, of light, of meteors, and of the vital and 
animal functions ; leaving sometimes the common opinions, and delighting in 
the defence of paradoxes. 

III. Gustus Organum, per Lauren tium Bellini, novissime deprehensum. 
A Treatise on the Organ of Taste. By Lawrence Bellini.* 

* Bellini was born at Florence in l643, and studied at Pisa, where the expences of his education 
were defrayed by Ferdinand II. through whose interest he successively obtained the professorships of 



136 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1666. 

This author proposing to himself to discover both the principal organ of 
taste and the nature of its object, begins with the latter, and examines first, 
what is taste? He judges that it is caused by nothing but salts, which being 
variously figured, affect the tongue variously ; alleging this for his chief reason, 
that the salt which is extracted by chemists out of any mixt body whatever 
carries away with it all its taste. He adds that the teeth in grinding the food 
serve much to extract this salt; and that the teeth are so necessary for prepar- 
ing the aliment, that certain animals which seem to have none have them in 
their stomach ; that nature has put at the entry of the palate of those that 
are altogether destitute of them certain moveable inequalities, which are to 
them instead of teeth. -}- 

But then, secondly, concerning the organ of taste he is of opinion, that it is 
neither the flesh, nor the tongue, nor the glandules called amygdalinae, but 
those little eminences (papillae) that are found upon the tongue of all animals. 
He observes, 

1 . That from the middle of the tongue to the root, as also towards the tip, 
there are found innumerable little eminences called papillae, but from the tip 
of the tongue unto the string there are observed none at all. 

2. He hath found by experiment that if you put sal ammoniac upon the places 
of the tongue, where those eminences are not, you will have no taste ; but 
that you will perceive a taste as soon as you put any of that salt upon those 
parts of the tongue, where those eminences or papillae are met with. He there- 
fore infers that those eminences are the principal organ of taste. 

logic, philosophy, physic, and anatomy, in that celebrated university. He was afterwards appointed 
physician to Cosmo III. but through the intrigues of his rivals he lost the favour and confidence of that 
prince ; and being stigmatized as an enemy to religion, he experienced much uneasiness during his 
latter days, living in constant dread of popular fuiy. He published several medical and anatomical 
treatises, viz. De Urinis etPulsibus; De Sanguinis Missionej De Febribusj De Morbis Capitis et 
Pectoris, &c. These have been collected into one 4to, volume, which has often been reprinted. 
Bellini was a man of great learning and very considerable talents, but was too fond of resorting to 
mechanical and mathematical principles for explaining the natural and morbid phaenomena of the hu- 
man body. He died at Florence in 1703, being 6'0 years of age. 

+ The teeth serve two purposes, viz. for seizing the food, as in animals of prey, and for mastica- 
tion, in which operation the saliva becomes mixed with the food. In fishes the teeth are merely instru- 
ments of prehension or seizure, and are not at all subservient to the preparation of tlieir food, the 
solvent power of tlie gastric juice not requiring in them any such aid. The assertion tliat certain ani- 
mals have teeth in tlieir stomach is absolutely false. The mechanical explanation here given of the 
sense of tasting is such as might be expected from one of tlie founders of the iatromathematical sect. 
It was long received, but is now justly discarded. Salts make the greatest impression upon tlie pa- 
pillae of the tongue, i. e. are the most sapid of all substances, not in consequence of tlieir peculiar 
configuration, but of their ready and perfect solubility. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 137 

3. He assures that with a microscope many small holes may be seen in those 
risings or papillae, at the bottom whereof there are small nerves, terminating 
there. But he directs to observe this in live and healthy, not in dead or diseased 
animals. 

Having laid down these observations, he concludes, that taste is performed 
in the following manner, viz. that the particles of salt passing through those 
pores which pierce the papillary eminences, and penetrating as far as to the 
nerves, meet them there, and by means of their small points prick them ; which 
pricking constitutes taste. In the meantime he acknowledges, that before 
him Malpighi, professor at Messina, had made some of these discoveries. 

Calculation of the late Solar Eclipse. By M. Hevelius. iV°21, p. 369. 
This calculation is now useless. 

The Figure of the Stars in the Constellation of Cygnus; togetherwith the 
New Star in it, very lately seen by M. Hevelius again. ^ iV° 2 1 , />. 372. 

The figure of that constellation with the new star in it was thus, hastily 
drawn, sent over by that observer. 









Cauda >}< 


# 










* 


# 






* 


» 


* 




* 
In ancone jilce Aust, 


In ancone 






In Peclore 






Alee Bor. 








* 


* 


* 






* 

* Nova ante 

* 

* a 

* 


# 
pectus 





5fc in Collo, 



>fc In Rostro, 

* See No. 19. p. 127. 
VOL. I. S 



138 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/. 

To Measure the Diameters of the Planets, and the Parallax of the 
Moon. By M. Auzout. iV° 21, p. 373. 

I applied myself last summer to measuring the diameters of the sun, moon, 
and the other planets, by a method which M. Picard and myself have esteemed 
the best of all that have been practised hitherto ; since we can take the diame- 
ters to second minutes, being able to divide one foot into 24,000 or 30,000 parts, 
scarce failing as much as in one part only, or to three or four seconds. I can 
well assure you, that the diameter of the sun, taken in his apogee, has not 
been much less than 31 m. 37 or 40 sec. and certainly not less than 31 m. 35 
sec. and that at present in his perigee it does not exceed 32 m. 45 sec. but may 
be less by a second or two. What is at present troublesome is, that the ver- 
tical diameter, which is the most easy to take, is diminished, even at noon, by 
eight or nine seconds, because of the refractions, which are much greater in 
winter than summer at the same height ; and that the horizontal diameter is 
difficult, because of the swift motion of the heavens. 

As for the moon, I never yet found her diameter less than 29 m. 44 or A5 
sec. and I have not seen it exceed 33m.^or if it has, it was only by a few se- 
conds. But I have not yet taken her in all situations of the apogees and peri- 
gees which happen, with the conjunctions and quadratures. I have found a 
way to know the parallax of the moon, by the means of her diameter: viz. 
if on a day when she is to be in her apogee or perigee, and in the most 
northerly signs, you take her diameter towards the horizon, and then towards 
the south, with her altitudes above the horizon. For if the observation of the 
diameters be exact, as in these situations the moon changes not considerably 
her distance from the earth in six or seven hours, the difference of the diameters 
will show the proportion there is of her distance, with respect to the semidia- 
meter of the earth. The same would yet be practised better in the places where 
the moon passes through the zenith than here ; for the greater the difference 
is of the heights, the greater is that of the diameters. If one were under the 
same meridian, or the same azimuth in two very distant places, and took at 
the same time the diameter of the moon, it would effect the same tiling, 
though not so exactly. 

From what has been said may be collected the reason of the observation 
which M. Hevelius has made in an eclipse of the sun, touching the increase of 
the moon*s diameter near the end. For the moon's diameter must change in 
the eclipses of the sun according to the places where they happen, and accord- 
ing to the hour and height of the moon. And had the eclipse been in the 



VOL. 1.3 PfllLOSOPHlCAE TRANSACTIONS. 13^ 

evening the contrary would have happened ; for the moon in that eclipse, be- 
ginning in the morning, was higher about the end than at the beginning, was 
nearer us, and consequently must appear larger ; but if the eclipse should hap- 
pen in the evening, she would be lower at the end, and therefore more dis- 
tant from us, and consequently appear less. So also in two different places, 
one having the eclipse in the morning, and the other at noon, the moon must 
appear larger to him that hath it at noon: and she must likewise appear larger 
to those who shall have a less elevation of the pole under the same meridian, 
because the moon will be nearer them. 

A Relation of the [^supposed] Loss of the Method of preparing the 
Bo?ionian Stone for shining. Anonymous. N" 21, p. 375. 

In this short notice an apprehension is expressed lest the art of preparing 
and calcining the Bononian stone, so as to possess the property of absorbing 
and emitting light, should be lost.* 

Description of a Swedish Stone, which affords Sidphur, Vitriol^ Alumy 

and Minium. N' 21, p. 375. 

There is a stone in Sweden of a yellow colour, intermixed with streaks of 
white, as if composed of gold and silver, and very heavy. It is found in firm 
rocks, and runs in veins, upon which they lay wood, and set it on fire. When 
the stone is thus heated they cast water upon it to make it split, and then dig it 
up with mattocks. This done, they break it into smaller pieces, and put it into 
iron pots, of the shape represented by fig. 1, pi. 4 ; the mouth of the one going 
into the other. These they place, the one in the oven upon an iron fork 
sloping, so that, the stone being melted, it may run into the other, which stands 
at the mouth of the oven, supported on an iron. The first running of the 
stone is sulphur. 

The remainder of the burned stone is carried out and laid upon a high hill, 
where it lies exposed to the sun and air for the space of two years ; it then takes 

* The Bolognian stone is a barytic spar (sulphate of baiytes). The art of preparing it so as to be- 
come phosphorescent (the accidental discovery of an Italian shoemaker) has never been lost, though 
many have made a great secret of it. The process is very simple. The stone being calcined and 
pulverized is made into thin cakes with mucilage, which, after being dried, are put upon charcoal 
and subjected to the heat of a reverberating furnace. In this state, if it be exposed to the sun's rays 
for a few minutes and immediately afterwards brought into the dark, it will appear luminous. The 
prepared cakes must be carefully preserved from damp. See Malpighi's obsen^ations on the Bolognian 
stone in the xiith vol. of the Transactions, and an account of Mr. Canton's metliod of making a phos- 
phorus that will imbibe and emit light like the Bolognian stone in the Iviiith vol. of the Transactions. 

s 2 



140 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

fire of itself, yielding a thin blue flame, scarce discernible in the day time, and 
leaving a blue dust behind it ; which the workmen observe and mark with 
wooden pins. This they dig up and carry into the work-house, putting it 
into large tubs of water to infuse about 14 hours. The water they afterwards 
boil in kettles as we do saltpetre, and put it into cooling tubs, in which cross 
sticks are placed, and on them the vitriol fastens like sugar-candy. 

The water that remains after the extraction of the vitriol is mixed with an 
eighth part of urine and the lyes of wood-ashes, which is again boiled very 
strong, and being set to cool in tubs with cross sticks, the alum fastens on 
these. 

In the water which remains after the alum, is found a sediment, which, being 
separated from the water, is put into an oven, and wood laid upon it, and fired 
till it become red, which makes the minium, wherewith they paint their houses, 
and make plaster. 

There is a kind of stone in the north of England yielding the same sub- 
stances, except minium.* 

A Shoiver of Ashes in the Archipelago. By Capt. IVm. Badily. 

iVr« 21, p. 377- 

December 6, l631, riding at anchor in the Gulf of Volo, about ten o'clock 
that night, it began to rain sand or ashes, and continued till two o'clock the 
next morning. It was about two inches thick on the deck, so that we threw it 
overboard with shovels, as we did snow the day before. The quantity of a 
bushel we brought home, and presented to several friends, especially to the 
masters of the Trinity House. There was no wind stirring when these ashes 
fell ; and they not only fell in the places where we were, but likewise in other 
parts, as ships were coming from St. John d'Acre to our port ; though at that 
time a hundred leagues from us. We compared the ashes together, and found 
them both alike. 

Co7icerning Salamanders living hi Fire. By M. Steno. 

N' 21, p. 377. 

M. Steno states, that a knight called Corvini had assured him, that having 
cast a salamander, brought by him out of the Indies, into the fire, the animal 
thereupon swelled presently, and then vomited a quantity of thick slimy matter, 

* The mineral above described is a pyritical aluminous ore, and occurs in many other countries as 
well as in Sweden. What the author terms minium was doubtless an oxyd of iron. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 141 

which put out the coals that were in contact with it, to which the salamander re • 
tired immediately, putting them out again in the same manner as soon as they re- 
kindled, and by this means saving himself from the force of the fire for the 
space of two hours. The gentleman was then unwilling to hazard the creature 
any further : That afteru'ards it lived nine months : That he had kept it ele- 
ven months without any other food besides what it took by licking the earth 
on which it moved, and on which it had been brought out of the Indies; which 
at first was covered with a thick moisture, but being dried afterward, the urine 
of the animal served to moisten the same. After the eleven months, the owner 
having a mind to try how the animal would do upon Italian earth, it died three 
days after the earth had been changed.* 

A Relation of an uncommon Accident in two aged Persons. 
By Mr. Colpresse. N" 21, p. 380. 
The first of these relations sets forth that the Rev. Mr. Jos. Shute of Devon- 
shire, when at the age of 81, cut a new tooth, viz. the third grinder in the 
upper jaw. The second relation states, that Maria Stert of the same county, 
aged 75, about the 40th year of her age lost three of her upper incisores or 
cutters, the other drawn out, and so remained toothless as to them for about 
25 years ; when she perceived that a new tooth came forth (without any pain) 
next the canini of the left cheek. And about two years after, another tooth 
grew out likewise without pain, close by the former: The first whereof never 
came to above half the length of her former cutters, the latter scarce breaking 
the skin. They both however proved serviceable till about six weeks since, when, 
as she was eating no hard, crusty or solid food, that tooth which came out first 
fell into her mouth, though she had not perceived it to be loose before, nor had 
suffered any pain from it. It had not a fang like other cutting teeth (incisores) 
but much less and shorter. The other abides firm and serviceable. 

An Account of two Booh. N° 21, p. 381. 
I. Ismaelis Bullialdi-}- ad Astronomos Monita duo : Primum, de Stella Nova, 

* The salamander (iMcata Salamandra. Lin.) is a native of many parts of Europe, and is a 
moderately large lizard, of a black colour, with deep yellow spots and patches : it delights in damp, 
shady places, and is naturally provided with a whitish fluid, exsuding through the numerous and large 
pores of its skinj and which it sometimes even discharges to some little distance around it : in conse- 
quence of this it is not so immediately affected by the force of fire as an animal of a drier nature would 
be, but remains like the snail and many otiier creatures, unscorched for a small space of time. 
Whether the Indian salamander here mentioned was the same species or not, it is impossible to 
determine. 

f Israael BuUiald, the author of this book was bom at Laon^ in the Isle of France, in l605, and 



142 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO I667. 

quae in Collo Ceti ante annos aliquot visa est. Alterum, de Nebulosa in An- 
dromedas Cinguli parte Borea, ante biennium iterum orta. 

The chief end of the author in publishing this tract seems to be to excite 
astronomers to a diligent observation, both of that new star in the neck of the 
Whale to be seen in February and March next; and of that other in the 
northern part of Andromeda's girdle, to be seen at this time. 

As to the former of these stars he affirms, that, as it has appeared for many 
years in the said place, so it will in the beginning of March next appear equal 
to the stars of the third magnitude, or perhaps larger ; and that about the end 
of the same month, if the crepuscle do not hinder, the greatest phasis of it will 
appear, if it keep the same analogy of motions and periods, which it observed 
from An. l638 to An. l664. Where he takes notice of the causes, why its 
two greatest appearances could not be seen An. l664, l665, 1666; and how 
he comes to know that in the beginning of March next it will equal, or even 
exceed the stars of the third magnitude; noting, that from the observations 
hitherto made of this star, it is manifest that the greatest phases every year an- 
ticipate by 32 or 33 days; forasmuch as An. 1660 its greatest appearance was 
about the end of October and the beginning of November; An. 1661, about 
the end of September or the beginning of October; An. 1662, about the end 
of August, &c. so that this year it must be in March, if the former analogy 
hold. 

He collects also from the observations, that one period from the greatest 
phasis to the next consists of about 333 days: but that the interval of the time 
between the times of its beginning to appear equal to the stars of the sixth 
magnitude, and of its ending to do so, consists of about 120 days : And that its 
greatest appearance lasts about 1 5 days : All which yet he would have under- 
stood with some latitude. 

This done, he proceeds to the investigation of the causes of the vicissitudes 
in the emersion and disappearance of this star, and having remarked, that the 
apparent increase and decrease of every lucid body, proceeds either from its 
changed distance from the eye of the observer, or from its various site and posi- 
tion in respect of him, by which the angle of vision is changed ; or from the in- 
crease or diminution of the bulk of the lucid body itself ; and having also de- 
became a celebrated astronomer and mathematician, and tlie author of several ingenious books on 
those sciences] particularly, 1. Philolaus, era Treatise on the true System of the World j 2. Astrono- 
mia Philolaica; 3. A Treatise on Spiral Linesj 4. The two Admonitions noticed in the above Article; 
5. His Arithmetic of Infinites, published in l6'82, being a diffuse amplification of Dr. Wallis's treatise 
on the same subject. Bulliald was the inventor of a useful correction of Bishop Ward's approximating 
hypothesis. 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 143 

monstrated it impossible that this star should move in a circle, or in an ellipsis; 
and proved it improbable that it should move in a straight line; he concludes, 
that there can be no other genuine, or at least no other more probable cause of 
its emersion and occultation than this, that the larger part of that round body 
is obscure and inconspicuous to us, and its lesser part lucid, the whole body 
turning about its own centre and one axe, whereby for one determinate space 
of time it exhibits its lucid part to the earth, for another, subducts it : it not 
being likely that fires should be kindled in the body of that star, and that the 
matter thereof should at certain times take fire and shine, at other times be ex- 
tinguished on the consumption of that matter. 

As to the other star, in the girdle of Andromeda, seen about the beginning 
of 1665 ; he relates, that when in the end of l664 the world beheld the then 
appearing comet, astronomers observed also this new phenomenon, which was 
called by them Nebulosa in Cingulo Andromedae. Concerning which he notes, 
that the same had been already seen many years before by Simon Marius, viz. 
An. 1612, when with a telescope he searched for the satellites of Jupiter, and 
observed their motions. He farther shows that it has formerly appeared, about 
150 years ago, and been taken notice of by an expert, though anonymous 
astronomer ; whose w^ords he cites out of a manuscript, brought out of Hol- 
land by the excellent Jacobus Augustus Thuanus, returning from his embassy 
to Paris ; wherein also was marked the figure of that phenomenon. From all 
this he collects, that whereas this star has been seen formerly, and that 1 50 
years since, but yet neither observed by Hipparchus, nor any other of the 
ancients that we can find ; nor also in the former age by Tycho Brahe, nor in 
our age by Bayerus ; and appeared also in the month of November last much 
lessened and obscure, after it had two years ago shone very bright; that there- 
fore it must needs appear and disappear by turns, like those in the necks of the 
Whale and Swan. 

II. Entriens sur les Vies et sur les Ouvrages des plus excellens Peintres, 
Anciens et Modernes, par M. Felibien. 

Trials proposed hy Mr. Boyle to Dr. Lower for the Improveme)it of 
transfusing Blood out of one live Animal into another. N° 22, p. 385. 

1. Whether by this way of transfusing blood, the disposition of individual 
animals of the same kind may not be much altered ? As whether a fierce dog, 
by being often quite new stocked with the blood of a cowardly dog, may not be- 
come more tame, et vice versa P 

2. Whether immediately upon unbinding a dog, replenished with adventiti- 
ous blood, he will know and fawn upon his master, and do the like customary 



144 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/. 

things as before ? And whether he will do such things better or worse at some 
time after the operation ? 

3. Whether those dogs that have peculiarities will have them either 
abolished, or at least much impaired by transfusion of blood ? (As whether the 
blood of a mastiff, being frequently transfused into a blood-hound or a spaniel, 
will not prejudice them in point of scent ?) 

4. Whether acquired habits will be destroyed or impaired by this experiment? 
{As whether a dog taught to fetch and carry, or to dive after ducks, or to set 
will after frequent and full recruits of the blood of dogs unfit for those exercises 
be as good at them as before ?) 

5. Whether any considerable change is to be observed in the pulse, urine 
and other excrements of the recipient animal, by this operation, or the quan- 
tity of his insensible transpiration ? 

6. Whether the emittent dog being full fed at such a distance of time before 
the operation, that the mass of blood may be supposed to abound with chyle, 
the recipient dog being before hungry, will lose his appetite more than if the 
emittent dog's blood had not been so chylous : and how long, upon a vein opened 
on a dog, the admitted blood will be found to retain chyle ? 

7. Whether a dog may be kept alive without eating by the frequent injec- 
tion of the chyle of another, taken freshly from the receptacle, into the veins 
of the recipient dog ? 

8. Whether a dog, that is sick of some disease chiefly imputable to the mass 
of blood, may be cured by exchanging it for that of a sound dog ? and whether 
a sound dog may receive such diseases from the blood of a sick one, as are not 
otherwise of an infectious nature ? 

g. What will be the operation of frequently stocking (which is feasible 
enough) an old and feeble dog with the blood of young ones, as to liveliness, 
dulness, drowsiness, squeamishness, &c. et vice versa f 

10. Whether a small young dog, by being often fresh stocked with the blood 
of a young dog of a larger kind, will grow bigger than the ordinary size of his 
own kind? 

1 1 . Whether any medicated liquors may be injected together with the blood 
into the recipient dog ? and in case they may, whether there will be any consi- 
derable difference found between the separations made on this occasion, and 
those which would be made, in case such medicated liquors had been injected 
with some other vehicle, or alone, or taken in at the mouth ? 

12. Whether a purging medicine being given to the emittent dog a while 
before the operation, the recipient dog will be thereby purged, and how? 
' (which experiment may be greatly varied.) 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 14J 

13. Whether the operation may be successfully practised, in case the injected 
blood be that of an animal of another species, as of a calf into a dog, &c. and 
of a cold animal, as of a fish, or frog, or tortoise, into the vessels of a hot ani- 
mal, and vice versa ? 

14. Whether the colour of the hair or feathers of the recipient animal, by 
the frequent repeating of this operation, will be changed into that of the 
emittent ? 

15. Whether, by frequently transfusing into the same dog the blood of some 
animal of another species, something further, and more tending to some de- 
grees of a change of species, may be effected, at least in animals near of kin? 
(as spaniels and setting dogs, Irish grey-hounds and ordinary grey-hounds, &c.) 

16. Whether the transfusion may be practised upon pregnant bitches, at 
least at certain times of their pregnancy ? and what effect it will have upon the 
whelps ? * 

A Method of ohserving Eclipses of the Moon. By Mr. Rook, late 
Gresham Professor of Geometry. N 22, p. 388. 

Eclipses of the moon are observed for two principal ends: one astronomical, 
that by comparing observations with calculations, the theory of the moon's mo- 
tion may be perfected, and its tables reformed ; the other geographical, that 
by comparing among themselves the observations of the same ecliptic phases, 
made in divers places, the differences of meridians or longitudes of those places 
may be discovered. 

The knowledge of the eclipse's quantity and duration, the shadows, curvity, 
and inclination, &c. conduce only to the former of these ends. The exact 
time of the beginning, middle, and end of eclipses, as also in total ones the 
beginning and end of total darkness, is useful for both of them. 

But because in observations made by the naked eye, these times considerably 
differ from those with a telescope ; and because the beginning of eclipses and 
the end of total darkness are scarce to be observed exactly, even with glasses 
(none being able clearly to distinguish between the true shadow and penumbra, 
unless he has seen, for some time before, the line separating them pass along 
upon the surface of the moon): and lastly, because in small partial eclipsesj 
the beginning and end, and in total ones of short continuance in the shadow, 
the beginning and end of total darkness are unfit for nice observations, by rea- 
son of the slow change of appearances, occasioned by the oblique motion of the 
shadow. For these reasons I shall propound a method peculiarly designed for 
the accomplishment of the geographical end in observing lunar eclipses, free, as 
far as is possible, from all such inconveniences. 

* To most of these questions a negative answer may be given. 
VOL. r. T 



i46 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I6Q7 . 

For, first, It will not be practicable without a telescope. Secondly,- The ob- 
server will always have opportunity, before his principal observation, to note the 
distinction between the true shadow and the penumbra. And, thirdly. It will 
be applicable to those seasons of the eclipse, when the alteration in the appear- 
ances is most sudden. For which purpose, let a select number of the most 
eminent spots, dispersed over the moon's surface, be pitched on to be con- 
stantly used in all parts of the world ; as, for example, those which M. Heve- 
lius calls Mons Sinai, ^tna, Porphyrites, Scrorum ; Insula Besbicus, Creta ; 
Palus Mseotis, Maraeotis, and Lacus Niger Major. 

In each eclipse let, for instance, three of these spots, which then lie nearest 
the ecliptic, be exactly observed, when they are first touched by the true sha- 
dow, and again when they are just completely entered into it ; and also in the 
decrease of the eclipse, when they are first fully clear from the true shadow; 
for the accurate determinations of which moments of time, let there be taken 
altitudes of remarkable fixed stars, on this side of the line, of such as lie be- 
tween the equator and tropic of Cancer, but beyond the line, of such as are si- 
tuated towards the other tropic ; and in all places of such as at the time of ob- 
servation are about four hours distant from the meridian. 

Halos about the Moon. By the Earl of Sandjvich. N" 22, p. 390. 

December 25, old style, l666, in the evening there appeared at Madrid a 
great halo about the moon, the semidiameter whereof was about 23 deg. 30m. 
Aldebaran was exactly in the north-east part of the circle, and the two horns of 
Aries were enclosed by the south-west of it, the moon being in the centre. 
About five or six years ago, viz. November 21, l66l, an hour after sun-set, I 
saw a great halo about the moon of the same semidiameter, at Tangier, the 
moon being very near the same place where she was at the other observation. 

Toads and Spiders intioxious. By Dr. N. Fairfax. N° 22, p. 391. 

The ingenious author of this letter having taken notice of what was pub- 
lished in Number g, viz. that creatures reputed venomous are indeed no poisons 
when swallowed, though they may prove so when put into wounds ; he, for 
confirmation thereof, alleges examples of several persons well known to him, 
who have frequently swallowed spiders,* even of the rankest kind, without any 
more harm than happens to hens, red-breasts, and other birds, who make spi- 

* It is certain that the generality of common spiders maybe swallowed with perfect impunity, the 
extremely small quantity of the poisonous fluid with which their fangs are provided, being incapable 
of injuring the larger animals. Several persons have been in the habit of making this idle experi- 
ment : among others the famous Anna Maria Schurman is said to have had a propensity of this 



VOL. l.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 147 

ders their daily food. And he mentions some men Avho ate even toads without 
receiving any hurt. 

The same gentleman relates, that once seeing a spider bruised into a small 
glass of water, it tinged it somewhat of a sky colour ; and he was told that a 
dozen of them being put in they would dye it almost a full azure. Indeed it 
seems not more incredible that this creature should yield a sky colour when put 
in water, than that cochineal, which also is but an insect, should give a fine 
red when steeped in the same liquor. 

He also gives an instance of a boy, who, by bruising a toad, and receiving 
some of the noxious juice upon his lips, had them swollen to an enormous size, 
which swelling continued during his life.* 

An Account of some Boohs. N° 22, p. 392. 

I. Le Tome troisieme et dernier des Lettres de M. Descartes.*}- 
As the first two tomes of M. Descartes's letters contain questions for the 
most part of a moral and physiological nature, proposed to and answered by 
him ; so this consists of the contests he had upon several subjects with divers 
men eminent in his time. 

Besides other particulars treated of in this tome, there occur many pretty 
questions concerning numbers, the cycloid, the manner of working glasses for 
telescopes, the way of weighing air, and many other curiosities, mathematical 
and physical. 

nature; jocularly excusing herself by saying she was bom under the sign Scorpio. Several other in- 
stances of a similar nature may be found in the work of Rosel. Mouffet, in his history of insects, re- 
lates a story of a profligate quack, who was employed by a rich London matron to cure her of a tym- 
pany, which he had the audacity to attempt by giving her several spiders to swallow in tlie disguise 
of pills J stipulating that half tlie proposed reward should be immediately paid, and the remainder 
when the cure was completed. He then absconded ; not doubting that he had poisoned her : but 
hearing some time afterwards that the lady was perfectly recovered, he immediately waited upon his 
rich patient, and apologizing for his long absence, received the remainder of his reward, with many 
praises for the efficacy of his medicine, 

• With respect to the noxious quality of the fluid here said to have been received from the toad on 
tlie boy's lips, the account seems by far too exaggerated to deserve any credit j a slight temporary 
swelling being the utmost that can be supposed to have happened in such a case, even from those 
species of toad which secrete tlae most acrimonious fluid from their skin, as the Ra/ia alliacea, 
mcphitica, SfC. 

f Rene Descartes, a very celebrated French philosopher and mathematician, was bom at la Haye 
in Turenne, in the year 1 596", and died at Stockholm in Sweden (whither he had been invited by 
queen Christina), in l650, in the 54th year of his age. Descartes was a man of a fine genius, 
which he had cultivated by a life spent in intense application to study. The result was a great num- 
ber of ingenious and learned works, on geometry, dioptrics, philosophy, music, &c. &c. the two 

T 2 



148 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

II. Astronomia Reformata, Auctore Johanne Bapt. Riccioli,* Soc. Jesu. 
The design of Riccioli in this work, is to examine the different hypotheses of 

several astronomers, as to the system of the world ; in which he finds great 
difficulty to conclude any thing certain. He expected to reform what he 
esteemed the errors which some astronomers had fallen into ; but unfortunately 
takes a wrong direction, and becomes a strenuous advocate for the immobility 
of the earth. 

III. Anatome Medullas Spinalis, et Nervorum inde proventium, Gerardi 
Blasii, M. D. The Anatomy of the Spinal Marrow, and of the Nerves that 
arise therefrom. By Dr. Gerard Blasius.-f- 

The author shows in this little tract a way of taking the entire medulla 
spinalis or marrow of the back out of its theca or boney receptacle, without 
laceration, which else happens frequently both to the nerves proceeding 
from it and to the coats investing it ; not to name other parts of the same. 
This he affirms to have been put in practice by himself, by a fine saw and 
wedge; which are to be dexterously used: and he produces accordingly in ex- 
cellent cuts the representations of the structure of the said medulla thus taken 
out, and the nerves thence proceeding; and that of several animals, dogs, 
swine, sheep. 

He intermixes several observations, touching the singleness of this medulla 
against Lindanus and others; its original, viz. Whether it be the root of the 
brain, or the brain the root of it : its diff^erence of softness and hardness in se- 
veral animals ; where he notes, that in swine it is much softer than in dogs, &c. 

former of these being the most useful and truly scientific of the whole^ His taste in the mathema- 
tics was genuine and correct^ making considerable improvements in algebra, geometry, dioptrics, 
and in mechanics. But in philosophy he failed, his genius taking a wrong turn through tlie brilliancy 
of his imagination, which led him to invent systems of nature, instead of investigating her laws by 
means of judicious experiments^ painfully and patiently pursued. 

Descartes's chief work in pure mathematics, was his application of algebra to the geometry of 
curve lines ; making those two sciences mutually subservient to each other, to the improvement of both. 

He conducted, during the greatest part of his life, considerable, not to say violent controversies 
with his contemporary philosophers ; most of which are extant in the several volumes of letters which 
have been published with the collections of his works. 

* John Baptist Riccioli, a learned Jesuit, was bom at Ferrara in 1598, and died in 1671, at 73 
years of age. He was author of several considerable works, as, 1 . Almagestum Novum ; in which, 
after the manner of Ptolemy, he collected every thing relating to astronomy, ancient and modern, 
2. Astronomia Reformata, above-mentioned. 3. Chronologia Reformata. Riccioli took great 
pains in collecting information, and employing it to the best purpose. But it would seem that the 
prejudices of his order had induced him to adopt an erroneous hypothesis as to the system of the world. 

■f Gerard Blasius was professor of physic at Amsterdam in the latter part of the 17th century. 
He was author of several Latin tracts on medical, chemical and anatomical subjects j among the most 
celebrated of which may be numbered his Anatome Animalium, 



VOL. I.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 140 

He exhibits also the arteries, nerves, and veins, dispersed through this 
medulla, and inquires. Whether the nerves proceed from the medulla itself or 
its meninx ? and discourses also of the principle and distribution of the nerves ; 
referring for ampler information, in this and the other particulars, to that ex- 
cellent book of the learned Dr. Willis, De Anatome Cerebri. 

END OP VOLUME FIRST OP THE ORIGINAL. 



Of a considerable Loadstone dug out of the Ground in Devonshire^ 
By Dr. Edw. Cotton. iV''23, p. 423. Vol. ii. 

This stone weighs 6o pounds ; and though it takes up no great weight, yet 
it moves a needle about nine feet distant. A part which had been broken off he 
has sent up also, because when put in its proper place, it adds much strength 
to it, but without that addition it moves not much more than at seven feet 
distance. 

Remarks on Load-stones and Sea Compasses. By Mr. Oldenburg, 

N' 23, p. 423. 

A noble person, on a late occasion, affirmed that a needle of a sea compass, 
put in a good iron mine, which yielded 23 pounds of metal out of 120 
pounds of ore, was not sensibly moved by it. 

Another honourable person desired it might be observed whether touched 
needles move otherwise, when the veins of iron do not lie north and south, 
than when they do ? 

It being inquired from abroad, whether sea compasses in England were 
brought to greater perfection than in other countries ? Answer was made by 
intelligent persons here, that all the perfection of our sea compasses as yet 
consisted in this, that the needles be touched by good load-stones and 
well balanced, and that the variation be truly placed : though it was suggested, 
that for the greater perfection of such sea compasses, a way was contriving to 
show the variation to minutes and seconds. 

It was also proposed, that it might be inquired into, 

1 . Whether a needle may be so touched on any magnet, as not to point 
to the true north and south, to be tried in such places where there is no vari- 
ation known ? 

2. Whether different load-stones will give different directions ? And whether 
fainter or stronger touches on one and the same magnet will cause any varia- 
tion in the directions ? For which purpose as many load-stones should be pro- 



150 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1607. 

cured as could be had, and a good number of needles exactly made, of the 
same metal, largeness, and figure ? 

Proposals to try the Effects of the Pneumatick Engine [Air-pump'] 

exhausted, on Plants, Seeds, and Eggs of Silhworms. By Dr. 

Be ALE. N" 23, p. 424.. 

Dr. Beale formerly suggested as follows : — 

It would be very well worth the trial, to see what effects would be produced 
on plants put into the pneumatic engine of Mr. Boyle, with the earth about 
their roots and flourishing ; whether they would not suddenly wither if the air 
were totally taken from them. And particularly to try in the season cherry- 
blossoms when partly opened, partly not opened upon a branch ; to wit, whe- 
ther the air may be so attenuat'cd as to blast them. 

Mr. Boyle suggests, that it may be tried, 

1 . Whether seeds (especially such as are of a hasty growth, viz. orpin, let- 
tice, garden cress seeds, &c.) will germinate and thrive in the exhausted re- 
ceiver of the said engine ? 

2. Whether the exclusion of air from the sensitive plant would be hurtful 
to it? 

3. Wliether the grafting of pears upon spina cervina will produce the effect 
of communicating to the fruit its purging quality or not ? 

4. Whether silkworms' eggs will be hatched in such an exhausted receiver, 
in the season proper for hatching ? 

The experiment heretofore made of this kind, was, that some lettice-seed 
being sown upon some earth in the open air, and some of the same seed at the 
same time upon other earth in a glass receiver of the above-mentioned engine, 
afterwards exhausted of air ; the seed exposed to the air was grown up an inch 
and a half high within eight days ; but that in the exhausted receiver not at 
all. And air being again admitted into the said emptied receiver, to see whe- 
ther any of the seed would then come up ; it was found that in the space of one 
week it was grown up to the height of two or three inches. 

Observations on Ants. By Dr. Edmund King. iV^S, p. 425. 

1 . There have occurred to my observation but three sorts of ants, commonly 
without wings ; viz. very black, dark brown, and the third sort of nearly the 
colour usually called feuillemort. 

2. Each kind have distinct habitations in their several banks, two sorts sel- 
dom or never being found together ; and if either of the other two sorts be 
put into the black ants' bank, it is worth observing what enmity there is 



▼OL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 151 

between these little creatures, and with what violence the black ones will 
seize on the red, pinching them on the head with forceps or claws, till they 
have killed them, which done, they will carry them out of the field from their 
bank. But if you put black ants into a bank of the red, the black seem to be 
so sensible of the strangeness of the place they are in, that there they will not 
meddle with the red, but as if they were frightened, and concerned for nothing 
but self-preservation, run away. 

3. Upon opening these banks, I observe first a white substance, which to 
the bare eye looks like the scatterings of fine white sugar or salt, but very soft 
and tender ; and if you take a bit of it, as big perhaps as a mustard seed, and 
lay it on the object plate of a good microscope, you may, by opening it with 
the point of a needle, discern many pure white and clear appearances in dis- 
tinct membranes, all figured like the lesser sort of birds' eggs, and as clear as 
a fish's bladder. This same substance I find in the ants themselves, which I 
take to be the true ants' eggs ; it being obvious that wherever this is uncover- 
ed, they make it their business to carry it away in their mouths to secure it, 
and will, after you have scattered it, lay it on a heap again with what speed 
they can. 

4. I observe they lie in multitudes upon this spawn ; and after a little time, 
every one of these small adherents is turned into a little vermicle, as small as a 
mite, hardly discerned to stir ; but after a few days more you may perceive a 
feeble motion of flexion and extension, and they begin to look yellowish and 
hairy, shaped very like a small maggot ; and so keeping that shape grow almost 
as large as an ant, and have every one a black spot on them. 

5. Then they get a film over them, whitish and of an oval shape, for 
which reason I suppose they are commonly called ants' eggs, which yet, pro- 
perly speaking, they are not. [These are the chrysalids.] 

6. I have, to prevent mistakes, opened many of these vulgarly called ants* 
eggs, I mean the lesser sort (for there are some as big as a wheat com, others 
less than a rye corn) and in some I find only a maggot, to appearance just such 
as was described before : in others I find a maggot beginning to put on the 
shape of an ant about the head, with two little yellowish specks where the eyes 
are designed : in others a further progress, and furnished with every thing to 
complete the shape of an ant, but wholly transparent, the eyes only excepted, 
which are then as black as black bugles. 

7. But when they have newly put on this shape, I could never discern the 
least motion in any part of the little creature, the reason of which may perhaps 
be the weakness of their fibres ; for after a little more time, when they begin 
to be brownish, they have strength to stir all their parts. 

8. At last I met with some of these reputed eggs, which having carefully 



152 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

opened, I took out of several of them every way perfect and complete ants, 
which immediately crept about among the rest, no way differing from many 
other ants, but by a more feeble motion of their limbs. And this I took for a 
clear demonstration of what I wished to know, that the film covers the maggot 
only while she is transforming into an ant, and till fit to shift for herself. 

9. The black speck that is at one end of every such reputed ant's egg, I 
suppose to be cast out of the maggot in her transformation ; since after it puts 
on the shape of an ant the speck is quite gone, and the whole body of the ant 
clear ; since also this speck at the end of the said egg lies always close to the 
anus of the inclosed ant. 

10. As to their care for their young (by which I mean all the sorts and de- 
grees aforesaid, from the spawn to the vulgarly called eggs, in every one of 
which you will find a young ant) it is observable, how upon the breaking up 
of their banks they make it their business immediately to carry their young out 
of sight again, laying the several sorts of them in several places and heaps ; 
which if you mingle again or scatter, you shall, laying but some bits of slate or the 
like in any place they may come to and get under, after a few hours see all the 
vermicles and vulgarly called eggs laid in their several and distinst parcels un- 
der such pieces of slate, &c. provided the place be not so cold as to chill their 
limbs ; which if it be, by being brought to the fire they will soon recover their 
strength, and fall to their business again of securing their little ones. 

1 1 . I have observed in summer, that in the morning they bring up those of 
their young (which are vulgarly called ants' eggs) towards the top of the 
bank ; so that you may from ten in the morning until five or six in the after- 
noon find them near the top ; especially about one, two, or three o'clock and 
later, if the weather be hot, when for the most part they are found on the 
south side of the bank, so that towards seven or eight at night, if it be cool 
or likely to rain, you may dig a foot deep before you can find them. 

They know all the sorts of their young so well, that you cannot deceive 
them ; though you may with fine sugar, salt, or the crums of very white stale 
bread scattered in the mould where their first true eggs are (as I call them) 
be mistaken yourself, yet the ants will not, nor touch a bit of what is not their 
own offspring. 

An Account of a French Book, entitled, Histoire des Joyaux, et 
des Principales Richesses de V Orient et de V Occident, par le Sig, 
Chapuzeau. N' 23, p. 429- 

This history treats of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, pearls, coral, bezoar, 
yellow amber, ambergris, indigo, &c. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 15$ 

The Directions for Seamen explained. N" 24, p. 433. 

The particulars themselves follow : 

1 . To observe the variation of the compass or needle. 

At land, where by the help of good fixed dials and other fit instruments, the 
precise meridian of the place may be known, it is easy to find the variation of 
the needle divers ways : As by applying the needle, &c. to the shadow of a 
thread hanging perpendicular, when the sun is in the meridian ; or to the meri- 
dian line or to the side of a fixed horizontal dial, &c. 

But at sea, as the meridian is not so easy to be found to any tolerable exact- 
ness, to know the variation of the needle is much more laborious and difficult. 
The height of the pole and the sun's declination being known, a large ring- 
dial, having a compass or needle fixed to its meridian below, may go near to 
show the variation required. For when it is set to the exact hour and minute of 
the day, its meridian stands just in its due place ; and so shows how far the 
needle varies from it. But because these dials are rarely just, they are not to 
be relied on. The following method may therefore be employed. Find the' 
sun's azimuthal distance from the meridian, some hours before or after noon ; 
and then its magnetical azimuth or distance from the meridian pointed at by the 
needle there, the difference of these two distances is the variation of the 
needle. 

To find the sun's true azimuth, or by how many degrees, &c. of the horizon 
it is distant from the meridian : its declination, its altitude, and the elevation of 
the pole must all three be known. 

To do which accurately, constitute a spherical oblique angled triangle of the 
three complements of the sun's declination of his altitude, and of the height of 
the pole ; the measures of all the sides whereof are known ; one from the 
zenith to the pole; another from the pole to the point of the sun's altitude; 
and the third from that point to the zenith. From these find the angle at the 
zenith, which subtract from 1 80, and the remainder is the sun's true azimuth 
or distance from the meridian of the place. 

The true azimuth of the sun being thus found, and the magnetical azimuth, 
according to your needle observed, subtract the less number from the greater,' 
and the remainder is the variation of the needle. If the magnetical azimuth be" 
less than the other, then the variation is on the same side of the meridian 
with the sun ; if greater, on the other side. 

To find this variation by the stars is no more requisite than to find out the 
true north, that is the meridian, and compare the needle's position with it. 
By this means the variation may be had well enough to degrees, half degrees, 

VOL. I. U 



154 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

and some smaller parts ; and if carefully and curiously prosecuted, even to mi- 
nutes too. But it will not be amiss to do it both by the sun and stars, for the 
greater certainty. 

2. The dipping needle is to be used at least as often as the former experi- 
ment is made. All that need be said of the manner is, that when the dipping 
of the needle is to be examined, the circle in which it moves is to be hung per- 
pendicular, and turned till it be just in the magnetical meridian, where it dips 
the most, and the degree of its depression under the horizon is to be noted in a 
table. See fig. 2, pi. 4. 

3. The chief particulars of the tides to be regarded are, the precise times of 
the beginnings of the flood and ebb : which way currents run in all places, with 
their times, changes, &c. The perpendicular heights and depths of the tide, and 
lowest of the ebb : what day of the moon's age, and what times of the year, 
the highest and lowest tides fall out. 

4. To sound the depth of the sea without a line. 

To perform this take a globe of fir or maple, or other light wood, as fig. 3, 
pi. 4, let it be well secured by varnish, pitch, or otherwise, from imbibing 
water ; then take a piece of lead or stone D, considerably heavier than will sink 
the globe : Let there be a long wire staple B, in the ball A, and a springing 
wire C, with a bended end F, and into the said staple press, with your fingers, 
the springing wire on the bended end, and on it hang the weight D, by its 
hook E ; and so let globe and all sink gently into the water, in the posture re- 
presented in the said figure, to the bottom, where the weight D touching first 
is thereby stopped ; but the ball, by the impetus it acquired in descending, being 
carried downwards a little after the weight is stopped, suffers the springing wire 
to fly back, and thereby sets itself at liberty to re-ascend. Then, by observing 
the time of the ball's stay under water, either by a watch having minutes and 
seconds, or by a good minute-glass, or best of all by aj)endulum vibrating 
seconds, with the help of some tables, the depth of the sea will be known. 

In some of the trials already made with this instrument, the globe being of 
maple wood, well covered with pitch to prevent its saturation, was 5-l-| inches 
in diameter, and weighed 2^ pounds; the lead of 4-i- pounds weight, was of a 
conical, but is now used of a globular figure, 1 1 inches long, with the sharper 
end downwards, 1-^%- in diameter at the bottom. And in those experiments 
made in the Thames, in the depth of 1 9 feet water, there passed between the 
immersion and emersion of the globe six seconds ; and in the depth of ten feet 
water, there passed 3^ seconds. From many of such experiments it will not 
be difficult to find out a method to calculate what depth is to be concluded from 
any time of the globe's stay under water : As for instance, if in the depth of 20 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 156 

fathoms measured by the Hne, the globe stay under water 15 seconds; then if 
the ball stay 700 seconds, the depth of the sea is 933 fathoms and two feet, if 
the ball be found to move equal spaces in equal time. 

In the same trials made with this instrument in the Thames, it has been 
found that there was no difference in time between the submersions of the ball 
at the greatest depth, when it rose several yards from the place where it was let 
fall, being carried by the current of the tide, and when it rose only a yard or 
so from the same place where it was let down. 

And if it be alleged that it must be known, when a light body ascends from 
the bottom of the water to the top, in what proportion of time it rises ; it may 
be considered that in this experiment the times of the descent and ascent are 
both taken and computed together; so that for this purpose there needs not the 
nicety which is alleged. 

Of other experiments of this way of sounding without a line, made by the 
noble Lord Viscount Brounker, Sir Robert Moray, Knight, and Mr. Hook, in 
the channel at Sheerness, the following account was given, viz. 

Weighed Oz. Gr. 

A wooden ball (A) 32^ O 

Another wooden ball (B) .30 22 

A lead (A) 30 O 

Another lead (B) 30^ O 

The ball (B) and the lead (B) were let down at l6 fathoms; and the ball 
returned in 48 single strokes of a pendulum, held in the hand, vibrating 58 
single strokes in a minute. 

A second time repeated with the same success ; therefore the motion was four 
feet every second. 

Again the ball (A) and the lead (B), the nail of which was bent into a sharper 
angle, the ball returned in 39 strokes. A second time repeated with the same 
success, at the same depth. 

Ball (B), lead (B), in which trial the line, not being clear, stopped a little the 
motion, the ball returned in 47 at the same depth. 

Ball (A) lead (A) at eight fathoms and one foot, returned at 20. 

Repeated at eight fathoms, returned at 19. 

Tried the third time at ten fathoms and four feet, returned at 28. 

A fourth trial, at the same depth, just the same. 

A fifth at ten fathoms five feet, returned in 27. 

A sixth trial, just the same. 

A seventh at twelve fathoms five feet, in 37. 

An eighth trial, just the same. 

U 2 



156 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667 . 

Another day, near the same place, when the pendulum was adjusted, and 
made a little shorter, there having been but 58 vibrations in a minute the for- 
mer day. 

Ball (A) lead (B) at 14 fathoms, returned in 324-. 

A second trial a little after in the same place returned in 33. In making of 
which trial the vibrations were told aloud, and the lead having been let down 
by a line, was found to touch the bottom in just half the time, the ball staid 
under water. By a second trial the ascending and descending were found to be 
in equal times. And by a third trial with another lead, the very same was 
found, viz. 164- descending, and 1 64- ascending. This lead and ball let down 
without a line, the ball returned in 1 3 vibrations ; a sign it went not to the 
bottom. 

A trial made with a lead, the iron crook being fastened at the top of it, like 
that in fig. 4, succeeded very well, and the ball returned in 34^. But by reason 
of the current, the experimenters could not perceive when the lead touched the 
bottom. This lead being let down without a line, the ball returned in 32-i-. 
The depth of the water was now found by the ship's lead to be 14 fathoms. 

Another trial was made with a line, bowing the point of the lead, like that 
in fig. 5, and the ball returned in 34. The same let down without a line, the 
ball returned in 6 or 7 vibrations ; a sign again, it went not to the bottom. 

In a trial with another lead, the ball returned in 34. 

Repeated again with the same success. 

In a trial with a lead having the nail set awry, like that of fig. 6, the ball 
returned in 34. After which trial, the depth was found to be just 14 fathoms. 

The last lead and ball being let down without a line, the ball returned at 35. 

In another trial with a lead that never failed, the ball returned in 34, and the 
lead touched the bottom at 1 7 . 

By a trial with another lead, the same time was found exactly. 

By a third trial with this last, the very same. 

These trials were made near about high-water, at the depth of 14 fathoms 
exactly : and in them the motions seem to be 5 feet every second. 

In all these trials, the greatest difficulty was in the use of conical figures, 
with iron crooks, to bend the iron that it might be sure to carry down the ball 
with it to the bottom, and when come thither to let it go: for almost every one 
of these leads failed in one of these requisites, till by several trials they had been 
adjusted. 

It is not to be omitted, that the last trials being made near high water, the 
ball was found to rise (by the boat being permitted to drive) far off upon one 
side out of the way, that any light thing suffered to swim on the water would 



TOI^. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 15/ 

be carried ; which seemed to argue a motion of the under parts of the water, 
differing from that of the upper ; a thing which is said to be at certain times of 
the tides, both at the mouth of the Sound and of the Straits ; which deserves to 
be further inquired into. Tiie angle made by these different motions seemed 
to be about 40 degrees. 

5. The strength of the winds is measured by an instrument, such as is repre- 
sented by fig. 7 ; which being exposed to the wind so as the flat side may be 
right against it, the number of degrees on the limb A B, to which the wind 
blows up, or raises that flat side C D, shows the force or strength of the wind, 
in proportion to the resistance of the flat side of the instrument. 

6. The glass phial for measuring the different gravities of salt water is to be 
made with a very narrow neck, and when it is almost full water is to be dropped 
into it, drop by drop, till it can hold no more, drying well the phial before it be 
weighed, having taken first the weight of the empty phial. Then by evaporating 
gently the water till the salt be left dry on the bottom, the proportion the salt 
of each water holds to its weight may be known. 

Mr. Boyle describes a glass tube, as is represented by fig. 8, blown at a lamp, 
and poised in good common water, by putting quicksilver into it, till it sink so 
low that nothing but the top appears above the water ; which done, it is to be 
sealed up and graduated on its side into what parts you please ; which may be 
done with a diamond. And then being put into any water to be weighed, it will 
by its sinking more or less show the difference of the water's gravity. 

7. To fetch up water from any depth of the sea. 

Let there be made a square wooden bucket, fig. Q, whose bottoms E E are to 
be so contrived, that as the weight A sinks the iron B, (to which the bucket C 
is fastened by two handles D D, on the ends of which are the moveable bottoms 
or valves EE,) and thereby draws down the bucket, the resistance of the water 
keeps up the bucket in the position C, by which the water has a clear thorough 
passage all the while it is descending; but as soon as the bucket is pulled up- 
wards by the cord F, the resistance of the water to that motion beats the bucket 
downward, and keeps it in the position G ; whereby the included water is kept 
from going out, and the ambient water from getting in. 

By the vessel we may know the degrees of saltness of sea water, according to * 
its nearness to the top or bottom ; or rather the nature of the sea water in 
several depths of several climates : And whether in some places of the sea there 
be any sweet water at the bottom ; as is affirmed in the East Indian voyages of 
Van Linschoten, viz. that in the Persian gulph, about the isle of Baharem, sweet 
water is fetched up from the depth of four or five fathoms. 



158 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/. 



All Account of an easier and safer Way of Transfusing Blood out of 
one Animal into another, viz. hy the Veins, without opening any 
Artery of either. By Dr. Edmund King. iV" 25, p. 449- 

1 . I took a calf and a sheep, both of the larger sort, and having prepared a 
jugular vein in each, I planted my pipes and quills as is usual, both in the jugular 
vein of the calf designed to be the emittent, and in that of the sheep intended 
for the recipient. Then I took out of the sheep 49 ounces avoirdupois of bloody 
before any other blood was let in ; about which time the company concluding 
the sheep to be very faint, and finding the blood to run very slowly, I stopped 
the vein of the sheep, and unstopped the pipe in the calf, letting run out 10 
ounces into a porringer, which was done in about 40 seconds. Then I con- 
veyed pipes from the emittent calf s vein into the recipient sheep's vein, and 
there ran a good free stream of blood for the space of five minutes, though per- 
haps less swift than the first ten ounces. And not to be deceived in the run- 
ning, I often struck with my finger the upper part of the emitting vein, and 
thereby easily felt every stroke answered on the recipient vein, just like a pulse. 
And now supposing that by this time (the lapse of five minutes) the sheep had 
received as much if not more blood than it had lost, we stopped the current of 
blood from the calf, and closed also the vein of the sheep ; and then having 
untied her and set her down in the room, she went about, and appeared to have 
as much strength as she had before the loss of her own blood. Then resolving 
to bleed the sheep to death, we bound her the second time, and opened the 
emittent part of the vein again ; whereupon having bled about 60 ounces, she 
fell into convulsions; and after the loss of about five ounces more, she died 
upon the spot : and being dressed by the butcher, there did not in all the usual 
places appear above three ounces of blood ; and the whole sheep looked of a 
lovely white ; and the meat of it (to the taste of those that eat of it) was very 
sweet. 

The sheep being dead, we resolved likewise to see the calf bleed to death ; 
but he having bled ten ounces, and then for the space of five minutes more into 
the sheep, and rested a good while, the blood by that time began to coagulate 
in the vein ; which made me open the carotid artery, letting thence run out 
about 25 ounces of blood of a very vivid colour, vastly excelling therein the 
blood of the vein. The calf when dressed had by the information of the butcher 
as little blood as the sheep ; and we saw him look whiter than they usually do 
in the ordinary way of killing. 

2. I took more than 43 ounces of blood out of the jugular vein of a sheep. 



VOL, II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 15g 

of a less size than the former ; by which time the spectators as well as myself 
found her exceeding f^nt, and some thought her past recovery, without a sup- 
ply of blood. Then I conveyed blood from the jugular vein of a calf into that 
of the sheep, for the space of seven minutes, when we did believe by the con- 
tinuance of a good stream from the calf, that the sheep had already received 
more blood than she had lost. Whereupon we set her free, and she had no sooner 
got her liberty, but seeing a dog near her, a spaniel that had formerly suffered 
the transmission of sheep's blood into him, she butted with great violence at 
him three or four times, not appearing at all concerned at what she had endured 
in the experiment. We keep this sheep alive, she being sent to grass again, 
and seeming hitherto very strong and lusty. 

The calf was much larger than the sheep. We bled the calf to death, and 
received from him six porringers full of blood after the sheep had been supplied, 
each porringer containing IJ-i- ounces of water. The sheep lost four of the 
same measures full of blood ; which being supplied by that of the calf, we 
reckon that the calf lost ten such measures in all. 

y4?i Account of another Experiment of Transfusion, in Bleeding a 
Mangy into a Sound Dog. By Mr. Thomas Coxe. N° 25, p. 451. 

The object of this experiment was to ascertain whether the sound dog would 
become infected by having the blood of the mangy dog transfused into his 
veins. The result was, that no alteration whatever was produced in the sound 
dog by this operation ; but in about ten days or a fortnight the mangy dog was 
perfectly cured, in consequence, it is supposed, of the quantity of blood which 
he lost on this occasion. 

Extract of a Letter from M. Denis, Professor of Philosophy and 
Mathematics, touching the Transfusion of Blood, dated April 2, 
1667. N' 25, p. 453. 

Since the experiments, of which I wrote to you the Qth of March, we have 
transfused the blood of three calves into three dogs, to assure ourselves what 
the mixture of two such different sorts of blood might produce. I shall here- 
after acquaint you at large with the particulars ; at present I shall only inform 
you, that the animals into which the blood had been transmitted do all of them 
eat as well as before, and that one of these three dogs, from whom the day be- 
fore so much blood had been drawn that he could hardly stir any more, hav- 
ing been supplied the next morning with the blood of a calf, recovered in- 
stantly his strength, and showed a surprising vigour. 



l60 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667, 

We have found new ways of making this transfusion with so much facility, 
that M. Emmerez undertakes to perform it without any ligature, only by punc- 
ture, like that which is used in letting of blood. 

The re-uniting of the separated Bark of Trees. By Dr. Merret. 

N" 25, p. 453. 

In the middle of March I made a section of the rinds of ash, and of the 
tree falsely called sycamore. The first section of each of the rinds was square, 
whereof three sides were cut, the fourth uncut. The success was, that the 
whole bark united by binding it with pack-thread, leaving a scar in each of the 
cut sides. 

Then I cut off, and separated entirely from the tree, several parts of the bark, 
some shallower, leaving part of the bark on ; others to the very wood itself, 
both in the trunk and branches ; from an inch square to less dimensions ; and 
some of them I bound close with pack-thread : all which were separated, a new 
rind succeeding in their place. Some I covered over l^eyond the place of inci- 
sion with diachylon plaster, and tied them fast with pack-thread. All which, 
thus bound and plastered, in the space of three weeks firmly united to the tree. 

But trying the same about Michaelmas and in the winter season, at neither of 
these times could any union be made of the bark to the tree. I suppose it was 
because the sap mounted not so vigorously and in such plenty as in the spring 
season. 

lb recover Cherries almost withered. By Dr. Merret. iV" 25, p. 455, 

Anno 1665, I made the following experiment with three May cherry-trees, 
planted in a rich mould, which lay to a south wall, shaded from the sun by a 
high building-, till the beginning of March, when being high, and shining 
strongly on them, the fruit constantly withered for some years before. But this 
year, the season being very hot and dry, I bared the roots of one of them by 
making a hole abaut it, and watered it every morning and evening with about 
a gallon of water, for about a fortnight before the cherries came to redness ; and 
the fruit was full and good. The other two trees, left without this ordering, 
had most of their fruit withered, having only skin and stones. Now to try this 
experiment farther, I made a hole round about one of the other trees, and fed 
it with water daily, as the former; in a week's time those that were quite wi- 
thered fell off, and the rest that were not so, grew and increased exceedingly: 
the other tree, that was not used after this manner, had not any of its fruit 
come to perfection. 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. 1^1 

The Ameiican Aloe, with indented Leaves. By Dr. Merret. 

N' 25, p. 455. 

August 4, 1656, this aloe weighed 21 ounces 6 drams 2 grains. Its colour 
was of a pale green, consisting of 1 1 leaves ; it was bound about with a red dry 
cloth, and was hung up without oil, as is usual, in the kitchen. 

In a year it lost 2 ounces 3 drams 24 grains. The succeeding year, being 
drier and hotter, it lost 3 ounces 2^i- scruples; and more than double in the six 
colder than the six hotter months. I kept it about five years, and it decreased 
in nearly the same proportion. In the year l66o, hanging it in a colder garret, 
it perished. 

I observed that every year two of the greater leaves first changed colour then 
withered, and in the spring there succeeded two fresh and green ones, but never 
amounting to the size of any of the preceding ; so that I had always the same 
number of leaves. These new leaves were more fresh and green, and not ser- 
rated, and were thicker also in proportion to their other dimensions. From the 
growth of these latter leaves perhaps it may be inferred that there is a circula- 
tion of the nutritious juice in this plant. For how is it possible that the roots, 
continuing as firm and solid as at first, should supply so much nourishment as 
to procreate new leaves, unless it were from the return of the said juice from 
the old and decaying leaves into the root, and there protruded for the produc- 
tion of new ones ? 

On Mr. Gascoigne's Microjneter. By Mr, Rd. Toivnley. 

N" 25, p. 457. 

Observing in No. 21 of the Phil. Trans, how much M. Auzout esteems his 
invention of dividing a foot into near 30,000 parts, and thence taking angles 
to very great exactness ; I think it right to inform the world that I have found, 
by some scattered papers of one Mr. Gascoigne, that, before the late civil wars, 
he had not only devised an instrument of as great a power as M. Auzout's, but 
had also for some years made use of it, not only for taking the diameters of the 
planets and distances upon land, but had farther endeavoured to gather many 
certainties in the heavens ; amongst which I shall only mention one, viz. The 
finding the moon's distance, from two observations of her horizontal and meri- 
dional diameters : which I the rather mention, because the French astronomer 
esteems himself the first who in that way undertook to settle the moon's paral- 
lax. The very instrument he first made I have now by me, and two others 
more perfected by him ; which doubtless he would have greatly improved, had 

VOL. I. X 



l62 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

he not been unfortunately slain in his late majesty's service. He had a treatise 
on optics ready for the press, but though I have used my utmost endeavour to 
retrieve it, it has not been with success. The instrument is small, not exceed- 
ing in weight, nor much in bigness, an ordinary pocket watch, exactly marking 
above 40,000 divisions in a foot, by the help of two indexes ; the one showing 
hundreds of divisions, the other divisions of the hundred ; every last division 
in my small one containing -r-V of an inch ; and that so precisely, that as I use 
it there goes above 24- divisions to a second. Yet I have taken land angles 
several times to one division, though it be very hard to come to that exactness 
in the heavens, because of the swift motion of the planets. Yet to remedy 
that, I have devised a rest, easy to be made and used. 

Mr. Hook also announces (p. 459), that he has two or three ways of mea- 
suring the diameters of the planets to the exactness of a second, by the help of 
a telescope ; and of taking the position and distances of the fixed stars from 
each other, when this does not exceed two or three degrees. 

Of the Nehulosa in the Girdle of Andromeda ; and the extraordinary 
Star in the Nech of the Whale. By M. Bulliald. N" 25, p. 459. 

January 1667, the nehulosa in Andromeda's girdle, which may be seen by 
the bare eye, appeared much more obscure than the year before. In the 
months of February and March I did not see it. 

January 20, 1667, at night, 6 h. 30 m. the sky being pretty serene, the 
star in the neck of the Whale approached to the size of a star of the sixth 
magnitude, and grew afterwards larger. For, Feb. 12, 6 h. 30 m. it equalled a 
star of the fourth magnitude at least. And Feb. 24, 7 h. was equal to one of 
the third magnitude, shining very bright. 

Feb. 26 and 27 it appeared still to increase. 

M. Hevelius also observes concerning this star ; viz. Jan. 23, I found a 
little star of the sixth or seventh magnitude, about the same place where the 
said new star used to appear. But it then seemed to me not the genuine new 
star, but another preceding the new ; the longitude of which has been defined 
by me in Mercurius in Sole visus, Aries 25° 43' 3''', and the latitude 14° 4l' 
32'^, south. Anno 1660, Feb. 2, it appeared very bright, and when the 
moon shone, of the size of that in the mouth of the Whale ; from which time 
I always observed it to grow larger. March 13, I still found it extremely 
bright, but could not accurately determine its magnitude by my naked eye, 
because of the vivid crepuscle, and the lowness of the star. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. J 63 

Extract of a Letter from M. Pecquet,''^ concerning a 7iew Discovert/ of 
the Communication of the Ductus Thoracicus with the Emulgent Vein. 
N' 25, p. 461. 

This letter gives an account of a supposed discovery of a communication be- 
tween the thoracic duct and the emulgent vein of the left kidney. The subject 
was a woman who had died some days after she had been brought to bed. 
M. Gayant (who assisted M. Pecquet in this dissection) having discovered the 
ductus thoracicus upon the 7 th and 8th of the vertebrae descending from the 
back, inserted a quill into the said duct, and having tied it upon the quill, he 
blew into it : whereupon the duct was filled with wind from the quill unto the 
subclavian vein. This wind issued at the ascending cava, which had been cut, 
when he, to whom the corpse belonged, had lifted up the heart to make the 
demonstration of it. M. Gayant would tie this cava, but it was cut so short, 
that the ligature could not hinder the wind from issuing out of it ; which was the 
cause that it could not be thrust as far as the breasts. I would supply this de- 
fect by compressing with my finger that place of the vein at which the wind 
came out (which was at about the third vertebra descending from the back) 
and M. Gayant having blown afresh into it, I compressed with my fingers the 
vena cava and the ductus thoracicus together ; but the wind that was thrust 
into this channel showed us that it had another way to escape. And indeed 
we saw as often as we did blow, that the emulgent vein on the left side was 
filled with wind, and that thereupon the body of the vena cava also filled itself 
from the emulgent unto the iliacs. This wind seemed to us to come from the 
left kidney, and to insinuate itself into the emulgent vein, and thence into the 
cava. The right kidney had been removed, so that we could say nothing of its 
communication with the said duct. 

The question was made, whether the wind that seemed to enter into the 
emulgent and the cava did enter there indeed ; or, whether it did not slide 
between the proper coat of this vein and that common one which comes to it 

* Tliis celebrated French anatomist was bom at Dieppe, and flourished about the middle of the 
17 th century. In l651 he discovered the duct which conveys the chyle to the subclavian vein, and 
which has been called, after his name, Receptaculum Chyli Pecquetianura. This duct he traced and 
described not only in the human body but in brute subjects also. See his Experimenta nova Anato- 
mica, of which tlie best edition is that which was printed at Paris, 4to. l65-t. He died in l6'74, hav- 
ing shortened his days by the abuse of spirituous liquors, which, by a strange infatuation, he believed to 
be extremely nourishing. His discoveries involved him in a controversy with Riolan and other con-. 
temporary anatomists, whom, however, he very successfUly reflated in his Dissertatio de Thoracicis 
Lacteis, published in iCGl. 

< X2 



l64 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/. 

from the peritoneum ? This question obliged us to slit the cava at the place of 
the emulgent ; and then blowing into the ductus thoracicus, we saw that the 
wind which had swelled the emulgent did escape at the opening just now made 
in the cava. 

This experiment made us judge there was a communication of the ductus 
thoracicus with the left kidney, or at least with the emulgent vein, in the body 
of this woman.* 

A Description of several Kinds of Granaries, as those of London, of 
Dantzick, and in Muscovy, N" 25, p. 4,64:. 

These granaries were at the Bridgehouse, Southwark, where by frequent 
turning, airing and drying, corn has sometimes been preserved for 32 years. 

Dr. Pell mentioned, at a meeting of the Royal Society, that they keep corn 
at Zurich in Helvetia 80 years. 

As for the granaries of Dantzick and Moscovy, some observing merchants 
and travellers give this short account of them. 

First, That those of Dantzick are generally seven stories high, some nine 
stories ; having each of them a funnel, to let the corn run down from one 
floor to another; thereby chiefly saving the labour and charges of carrying it 
down. And then that those in that town are quite surrounded with water, 
whereby the ships have the conveniency of lying close to them, to take in their 
lading. No houses suffered to be built near them, to be thereby secured from 
the casualties of fire. 

Secondly, That those of Muscovy are made under ground, by digging a deep 
pit of almost the figure of a sugar loaf, broad below and narrow at the top ; the 
sides well plastered round about, and the top very closely covered with stone. 
The people of that country are so very careful to have the corn well dried, be- 
fore they put it into those subterraneous granaries, that when the weather of 
that northern climate serves not to dry it sufliciently, they heat their barns by 
means of great ovens, and thereby very well drying their corn, supply the de - 
ficiency of their short summer. 

Inqidries for Hungary, Transylvania, Egypt, and Guinea, 

N" 25, p. 467, ^c. 
These inquiries are too long and not sufliciently interesting to be inserted. 

* It is unnecessary to notice the other experiments made by M. Pecquet upon the body of tlais 
woman, for the purpose of proving the above stated communication of the thoracic duct with the 
emulgent vein ; since, as Dr. Needham has remarked in a subsequent volume of tlie Transactions, 
j(Vol. vii. No. 85) this supposed discovery was merely a lusus natum. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. l6(i 

Experiments for Iinproving the Art of Gunnery. By Sir Robert 

Moray. N" 26, p. 473. 

I. To know how far a gun shoots point blank, that is, near the level of the 
cylinder of the piece. On a fit platform, place and point the gun at a mark, as 
large as the bullet, at 50, 6o, or more yards distant, so as the under side of the 
mark may be in the same level or line with the under side of the cylinder of the 
piece. Then between the gun and the mark, at several distances, place pieces 
of canvas, sheets of paper pasted together, or the like, on stakes fixed in the 
ground, so that the under side being level with the horizon, may just touch 
the visual line passing from the eye to the upper side of the mark, when the 
eye is in the line drawn from it to the upper side of the cylinder of the gun ; 
the canvas being so broad and long that if the bullet pass through it two or 
three feet higher than the level of the mark or of either hand, the hole it makes 
may show how much it flies higher than the level of that place. If the bullet falls 
lower than the mark and touch not the canvas, the gun may be next time raised 
a little, and so on till the bullet hit the mark, or as high as it : And if at first it 
fall as high as the mark and cut the canvas, the mark and canvas may be 
brought nearer the gun : Afterwards the mark may be removed to greater and 
greater distances, till, to hit the mark, it fly higher than some or all the inter- 
posed canvases: And thus the experiment is to be repeated and varied at 
pleasure. 

II. To know what quantity of powder is the just charge for any piece, so as 
it makes the farthest shot, and the powder all fires. 

1 . Elevate the gun to a mean random, as of 20 or 25 degrees, and fire it with 
the ordinary charge of powder, in some convenient ground where the fall of the 
bullet may be easily seen, and measure the distance to the hole made by the 
bullet. 2. Then, instead of a full charge of powder used in the first shot, take 
-jig- part less, or some such proportion, for the next trial. 3. For a third, 
fourth, or more trials, diminish still the quantity of powder by ^i^ at a time^ 
till the range be considerably shorter than at first. 4. Then take -j^ more 
than the first charge, and do all things else as before, and so continue more 
trials, increasing always the quantity of powder in the same proportion every 
new trial, till you find the increase of the charge does not make the piece carry 
further. 5. The right charge being found, the greatest random is to be sought 
by trying all randoms, elevating the gun more and more, by degrees at a time. 

III. To know what gun shoots farthest : 

1, A gun to be prepared of much more than the ordinary length, and to be 



l66 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

placed as in the former experiments, and charged with the ordinary charge of 
powder, or rather with that quantity which by the former experiments shall be 
found the best ; and being discharged, the fall of the bullet is to be marked, 
and the distance measured as has been before suggested. 

2. Then try her with less and more powder as before. 

3. Then cut off two inches of the muzzle with a saw, and try as before, do- 
ing every thing in the same manner : And so cut off still for new trials, till the 
shot begin to fall shorter than before. 

4. The same may done with guns of different bores. And every experiment 
to be repeated three or four times, in order always to take a medium among 
them.* 

Magnetical Experiments. By Mr. Sellers. N" 26, p. 478. 

Mr. Sellers states, that he had often made trial with many needles, touching 
them on each hemisphere of the stone, in all variety of ways he could imagine, 
to find if it were possible, by that means, to cause any of these needles to vary 
in its direction: but that he always found the contrary, all of them conforming 
to the magnetical meridian, and standing north and south, as other needles that 
were touched on the very pole of the stone. He adds, ■ that some of these 
experiments he tried in London, when there was no variation known. 

That on frequent trials of touching needles with different load-stones of seve- 
ral magnitudes, as also of different virtue; the needles touched gave all of them 
the same directions. This he thinks is confirmed by all the needles and sea com- 
passes made in several parts of the world, and consequently touched on several 
stones of different countries, yet all agreeing in this magnetical harmony, that 
they all give the same directions. That having sometimes drawn a needle only 
over the pole of the stone, within the sphere of its virtue, without touching the 
stone, it has received the same directive quality from the stone as if it had been 
really touched on the stone itself, though not altogether so strong as if it had 
touched the stone. Again, that having touched needles on the stone with 
faint strokes, and other needles with stronger, all these needles received the 
same effect from the stone, both for strength and direction ; he conceiving that 
it is not the fainter or stronger touches on the stone, nor the multiplicity of 
strokes, that varies the needle's strength or direction, but that the nature of 
the steel whereof the needle is made, and the temper that is given thereunto, 

* A much better way of making all such gunnery experiments, is by means of tlie ballistic pen- 
dulum, invented by Mr. Robins } of which an account will be given in tlie proper place in lliese 
Transactions. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. l^^ 

cause different effects as to the strength it receives from the stone; himself 
having tried all sorts of steel that he could possibly procure, and all the different 
tempers he could imagine, for the most powerful receiving and retaining the 
virtue from the load-stone; he also affirms that he has fully satisfied himself 
that he can infuse such virtue into a piece of steel, that it shall take up a piece 
of iron of two ounces weight or more; and give also to a needle the virtue of 
conforming to the magnetical meridian, without the help of a load-stone or any 
thing else that has received virtue therefrom.* 

Extract of a Letter from Paris y containing an Account of some Effects 
of the Vransfiision of Blood; and of tivo Monstrous Births. Ano^ 
nymous. N'* 26, p. 479- 

The blood of a young dog being transfused into the veins of one that was 
almost blind from age, and could scarcely stir, the latter was obser\'ed two hours 
after the operation to leap and frisk about. 

Of the two monsters mentioned in this letter, one resembled an ape, having 
all over its shoulders, almost to its middle, a mass of flesh, that came from the 
hind part of its head, and hung down in the form of a little cloak. The report 
was, that the woman that brought it forth had seen on a stage when she was 
five months gone with child, an ape so cloathed. The aforesaid mass of flesh 
was divided into four parts, corresponding to the coat the ape had on. This 
phenomenon was ascribed to the power of imagination. The other monster was 
a foetus come to maturity, having, instead of a head and brain, a mass of flesh 
like a liver. It lived four days. There came a letter from Florence, written by 
Steno, stating that a tortoise was found to move its foot three days after its 
head had been cut off. 

An Account of two Monstrous Births, not long since produced in De- 
vonshire. By M. CoLEPRESSE. N" 26, p. 480. 

One of these monsters was a lamb with one head, but two distinct bodies, 
and eight legs; the bodies were joined in the neck. It had two eyes and as 
many ears, in the usual places, and one extraordinary eye in the niddock, with 
a single ear about an inch behind the eye. The other monster was a lamb with 
two distinct heads and necks joined at the shoulders, but only one body, and 
that well formed, yet having double entrails throughout. 

* This seems to be the first notice of making artificial magnets, viz. by this Mr. Sellers, who was 
probably the same person as the author of the Practical Navigation, first printed in 1669. 



l68 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 



Some Observations made both in Mines and at Sea. iV" 26, p. 481. 

Mr. Colepress relates, that discoursing with one John Gill, a man well expe- 
rienced in mineral affairs, he affirmed, that if in digging deep under ground, 
the work-men meet with water, they never want air or wind ; but if they miss 
water, as sometimes it happens, even at 12 or l6 fathoms depth, they are 
destitute of convenient air, either to breathe in or to make their candles burn. 
And that when there happens to be a great quantity of a winter's standing 
water in a deep mine, they commonly bring or drive up an adit for drawing 
away such water; but as soon as that part of the level is made, that any of the 
standing water begins to run off, the men must secure themselves from dan- 
ger of being dashed in pieces against the sides of the adit ; for the inclosed air 
or wind in the standing water breaks forth with such a terrible noise, like that 
of a piece of ordnance, and with such violence as to carry all before it, loosen- 
ing the very rocks, though at some distance in the work or adit. 

He observed also on several occasions, in sailing between London and Ply- 
mouth, that in a calm, the way in which the sea began to loom or move, the 
next day the wind was sure to blow from that point of the compass. 

Hail Stones of an unusual Size, By Br, Natii. Fairfax. N" 26, />. 481 . 

July 17, l666, about 10 in the forenoon, there fell a violent storm of hail 
about the coast towns of SuffiDlk. The hail was small near Yarmouth ; but at 
Seckford-Hall, one hail-stone was found by measure to be g inches about ; 
one at Melton 8 inches about ; at Snape-bridge 1 2 inches round. A lady of 
Friston Hall, putting one of them into a balance, found it weigh 12 s. 6d. 
Several persons of good credit in Aldborough affirmed that some hail-stones 
were fiill as large as turkeys' eggs. A carter had his head broken by them 
through a stiff country felt ; in some places his head bled, in others bumps 
arose ; the horses were so pelted that they hurried away his cart beyond all com - 
mand. The hail-stones seemed all white, smooth without, shining within. 

Account (f a great Number of Stones found in one Bladder. By Dr. 

Fairfax. N' 26, p. 482. 

Mr. Goodrick, surgeon at Bury St. Edmunds, affirmed to me, that himself 
cutting a lad of the stone (for which he has a great name) took out thence at 
one time q6 small stones, all of them of unlike shape, size, corners, sides ; 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. J (Jq 

some of which were so bestowed as to slide upon others, and had thereby 
worn their flats to a wonderful sleekness. He assured me also, that in the same 
place, another when dead had a stone taken from him, almost as large as a 
new-born child's head, and much of that shape. 

A Well and Earth in Lancashire tahng Fire at a Candle. By Tno. 
Shirley, Esq. N''26, p. 482. 

About a mile from Wigan in Lancashire is a spring, the water of which is 
supposed to burn like oil. It is true that when we came to the spring, and 
applied a lighted candle to the surface of the water, there was suddenly a large 
flame produced, which burned vigorously. Having taken up a dishful of water 
at the flaming place, and held the lighted candle to it, the flame went out. 
Yet I observed that the water at the burning place boiled and rose up like 
water in a pot upon the fire, though my hand put into it felt no warmth. 

This boiling I conceived to proceed from the eruption of some bituminous or 
sulphurous fumes ; considering this place was not above 30 or 40 yards distant 
from the mouth of a coal pit there. And indeed Wigan, Ashton, and the whole 
country for many miles compass, is underlaid with coal. Then applying my 
hand to the surface of the burning place of the water, I found a strong breath 
like a wind bear against my hand. Upon making a dam, and hindering the 
recourse of fresh water to the burning place, I caused that which was already 
there to be drained away, and then applying the burning candle to the surface 
of the dry earth at the same point, where the water before burned ; the fumes 
took fire and burned very bright and vigorous. The cone of the flame ascend- 
ed a foot and a half from the surface of the earth. The basis of it was of the 
compass of a man's hat about the brim. I then caused a bucket full of water 
to be poured on the fire, by which it was presently quenched. I did not per- 
ceive the flame to be discoloured like that of sulphurous bodies, nor to have 
any manifest smell with it. The fumes when they broke out of the earth and 
pressed against my hand, were not to my best remembrance at all hot.* 

Account of Athanasii Kircheri China Illustrata. N" 26, p. 484. 

This book is esteemed one of the most curious of the many productions of 
the industrious, but credulous Kircher. It contains a vast mass of extraor- 
dinary particulars relating to the population, revenue, mountains, isles, lakes, 

* The fumes here mentioned were inflammable air or hydrogen gas, of which the rapid ascent 
through the water gave it the appearance of boiling. 
VOL. I. Y 



170 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

rivers, canals, plants, animals, fossils, architecture, towns, walls, turrets, 
bells, printing, artillery, gunpowder, &c. &c. — Of their bells, one at Pekin 
is said to weigh 120 thousand pounds. — Of their stupendous bridges, one is 
360 perches long, and a perch and half broad : it is without any arch, standing 
on 300 pillars, supporting very long and large stones laid over the tops of them. 
Another is built from one mountain to another, of one vast arch only ; being 
400 cubits long, and 500 cubits high from the surface of the river running 
under it. The description and figure of this bridge are given by Perhault, as 
well as in this place, as exhibited in our plate 5, fig. 1 . — The Chinese wall, said 
to be built 215 years before Christ, is described as of 300 German miles in 
length, 30 cubits high, and from 12 to 15 cubits in breadth ; so that several 
horses could go abreast upon it. A part of it is exhibited pi. 5, fig. 2. 

An Advertiseinent concerning the Invention of the Transfusion of Blood. 
By Mr. Oldenburg. N' 27, p. 489- 

The purport of this advertisement is to show that the transfusion of blood 
originated in the suggestions of some ingenious members of the Royal Society, 
several years before it was tried in foreign countries ; and that in England it 
was first put in practice by Dr. Lower, and afterwards by Dr. King. 

An Account of some Experiments of injecting Liquors into the Veins of 
Animals. By Signior Fracassati, Professor of Anatomy at Pisa. 
N" 27, p' 490. 

1 . Having infused into the jugular and crural vein of a dog some aquafortis 
diluted, the animal died presently ; and being opened, all the blood in the 
vessels was coagulated. The great vessels were burst. 

2. Into the veins of another dog some spirit of vitriol was infused, which 
had not so immediate an effect, for the animal suffered a great while, and 
foamed like epileptics, having its respiration very thick. After death, his blood 
was found coagulated and grumous, resembling soot. 

3. Into the veins of another dog was injected some oil of sulphur; but he 
did not die, though this infusion was several times tried upon him. The wound 
being closed and the dog let go, he fell to gnawing some bones which he 
found, with great avidity, as if this liquor had caused in him a great appetite. 

4. Another dog, into whose veins some oil of tartar was injected,- did not 
escape so well : for he suffered much, and after being greatly swoln died. 
Being opened, the spectators were surprised • to find his blood not curdled ; 
but on the contrary more thin and fluid than ordinary. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 17 1 



An Account of some Discoveries concerning the Brain and the 
Tongue, made hy Signior Malpigiu,^ Professor of Physic in Sicily. 

1 . This anatomist states that he has discovered, that the exterior and softer 
part of the brain does not cover only the corpus callosum, as has been believed 
hitherto, but is also inserted into it in many places. He has also observed, 
that the corpus callosum is nothing but a contexture of small fibres, issuing 
from the medulla spinalis, and terminating in the said exterior part of the brain. 
And these fibres, he says, are so manifest in the ventricles of fishes' brains, 
that when they are looked through, they represent the figure of an ivory 
comb. 

2. The use which he ascribes to the brain is different, he says, from what 
has been assigned to it hitherto. He pretends that as half, or at least a third 
of the blood of an animal is conveyed into the brain, where yet it cannot be 
consumed, the finest semm of this blood is filtrated through the exterior part, 
and then entering into the fibres of the brain, is thence conveyed into the 
nerves, "f- which he afi&rms to be the reason that the head is so often found full 

• Marcellus Malpighi was born in the year l628, in tlie neighbourhood of Bologna, where he 
studied and took his degree of doctor of physic in l653. He was elected to tlie professorship of the 
theory of medicine in that university in 1656, but soon afterwards accepted of a similar appointment 
at Pisa, which situation he resigned at the end of three years, as the air of that place was prejudicial 
to his health. In l662 he succeeded Castelli in the professorship of physic at Messina, where he re- 
mained four years, and then returned again to Bologna. Here he continued as a teacher of medicine 
in the highest repute from l666 to 1691, when he was invited to Rome and appointed chief physi- 
cian to Pope Innocent XII. He died at Rome of an apoplexy, in 1694. Malpighi's labours have 
thrown great light upon the structure and physiology of the human, brute, and vegetable creation ; 
as may be seen by consulting his Anatome Plantarum, his Epistolae Anatomicae, his Exercitationes 
Anatomicae, his Dissertationes de Utero, de Formatione pulli in ovo, de bombyce, &c. &c. These 
tracts were collected into two folio vols, printed in London in l6'86, under the title of Malpighii 
Opera Physica et Medica. And in 1097 a third folio voluine appeared, containing his Opera Post- 
hvima. The first of tliese collections of his works was re-printed at Amsterdam, and the second at 
Leyden, each in one volume 4to. He wrote memoirs of his own life, dedicated to the Royal Society 
of London, of which he was a member. In his anatomical investigations he resorted to what in those 
days were new methods ; viz. to maceration of the parts, injection of the vessels with coloured liquors, 
and the employment of magnifying glasses. By such means he was very successful in developing 
the intricate structure of some of the viscera in man and quadrupeds, as well as the minute fabric of 
insects and vegetables. He appears to have been the first who used the microscope for examining the 
circulation of the blood. 

t This idea of the nerves being filled with serum^ and thence producing hydrocephalus, is ex- 
tremely erroneous. 

Y 2 



172 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1667- 

of water when the brain has received a wound or an alteration by some dis- 
temper. 

3. He has taken a particular care of examining the optic nerve in divers ani- 
mals, it being one of the most admirable productions in the brain. Having 
therefore, among other fishes, dissected the head of a xiphias or swordfish, which 
has a very large eye, he has not observed any considerable cavity in the optic 
nerve, nor any nervous fibres ; but found that the middle of this nerve is 
nothing else but a large membrane folded according to its length in many 
doubles almost like a fan, and invested by the dura mater. Eustachius, a 
celebrated anatomist, had written something of this before, but obscurely, and 
without mentioning the animal wherein he had made this observation. 

4. He thought he should have met with the same thing in terrestrial animals, 
but he found that fishes alone have such a structure of the optic nerve : for that 
of an ox, pig, and other such animals is nothing but a heap of many small 
fibres of the same substance with the brain, wrapped about with the dura 
mater, and accompanied with many little blood-vessels. Hence he decides that 
great question among anatomists, whether the optic nerve be hollow or not ? 
For, says he, it cannot be otherwise but there must be many cavities in this 
nerve, forasmuch as the small filaments of which it is composed cannot be so 
closely joined that there should not be some void space between them. 

5. Concerning the tongue, the same author has discovered in it many little 
eminences, which he calls papillary, and believes to be the principal organ of 
taste. 

[See Number 2,0 of the Transactions, page 135, where a full account is 
given of this last discovery, from the treatise of Bellini de Organo Gust{is.] 

A71 Experiment of Sig. Fracassati upon Blood grown Cold, 

N' 27, p- 493. 
When blood is suffered to become cold in a dish, that part which is beneath 
the superficies appears much blacker than that on the top; and it is vulgarly 
said, that this black part of the blood is melancholy blood, and men are wont to 
make use of this example to show, that the melancholy humour, as it is called, 
enters with the three others into the composition of the blood. But Signior 
Fracassati maintains that this blackish colour comes from hence, that the blood 
which is underneath is not exposed to the air, and not from a mixture of 
melancholy : to prove which he assures, that upon its being exposed to the air 
it changes colour and becomes of a florid red.* 

* This observation, made so many years ago by Fracassati, contains the germ of the modern 
theory of the oxygenation of the blood in the lungs. 



TOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TBANSACTIONS. 173 

Quicksilver found at the Roots of Plants, and Shells on Inland Mountains. 
By Sig. Manfredi Septali. N" 27, p- 493. 

In the valley of Lancy, which runs between the mountains of Turin, grows a 
plant like the doronicum, near the roots whereof is found pure quicksilver 
running in small grains like pearls. Tlie juice of the plant being expressed and 
exposed to the air of a clear night, there is to be found as much mercury as it 
lost of juice.* 

In a voyage he made a few years since to Genoa, when passing over some 
mountains he found great store of different shells, as the turbinets, echini, and 
some pearl shells, whereof one had a fair pearl in it, which he says he put into 
his repository. 

Observations made in a Voyage from Engla7id to the Caribbee Islands. 

N" 27, p. 494. 

This observer having noticed at Deal the great difference in the rusting of 
iron in such houses as front the sea, in comparison of that effect in the street 
immediately placed behind the former, he was told that it rusted more at high 
floods than at neap tides ; the height of the beach hindering the saline exhala- 
tions. This remark reminded him of the vanity of the argument of M. Ligons 
and others, viz. That the air of the West Indies was hot and moist, because of 
the rusting of the iron ; whereas it proceeds from some other principle in the 
air ; for at the point of Cagua in Jamaica, where it scarcely rains 40 showers in 
a year, iron rusts as much or more than any where else : in Jamaica it rusts 
least in rainy weather. 

The steams of the sea are of such a nature, that the sweet meats rotted ; 
sugar of roses and other lozenges grew moist, though there was no rainy wea- 
ther. And those pyes and gammons of bacon which had kept well before, after 
they had been once exposed to the open air, spoiled more in a day or two than 
in six weeks before. 

At the point Cagua the iron guns of the fort were so corroded that some 
were become almost useless, being perforated like honeycombs ; and some 
pounds of rusty iron broken off with a hammer. But the guns which lay in the 
salt water were not much damaged by rust. 

Many other things receive damage by the air : not only iron rusts, but even 
linen rots, and silks once exposed to the air rot, without losing their colour. If 
a lancet be once exposed to the air it will rust, though you presently put it up 
again ; but if it be never exposed to the air it will hardly rust. 

* This assertion is erroneous} if this plant had not grown in that place, quicksilver would still have 
been found there. No attraction could subsist between them. 



174 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667 » 

To preserve ale, he was directed to put to every rundlet of five gallons, after 
it is placed in the ship, two new laid eggs whole, and to remain in it: 
that in a fortnight's time, or little more, the whole egg shells would be dis- 
solved, and the eggs become like wind eggs, inclosed only in a thin skin ; that 
after this the whole white would disappear, but the yolk would remain unaltered. 
By this means the ale kept all the way to Jamaica, and it was much better than 
at Deal. That if eggs be thus put into March beer after it has done working, 
they preserve it from ever growing harsh. 

Concerning the Thames water, it is not only observable, that in eight months 
time it acquires a spirituous quality, so as to burn like spirit of wine ; and some 
East India ships it is said, have been in danger of firing, by holding a candle 
near the bung-hole at the first opening of the cask. If you take the bung 
out of any cask that stinks, it will in 24 hours become sweet again ; and if you 
take a broom stick and stir it about well, it will become sweet in four or five 
hours, depositing a black lee to the bottom, which re-mixes with it, and so oc- 
casions a third or fourth fermentation and stench, after which it stinks no more. 
But though Thames water on stinking do not putrify, yet other waters become 
irrecoverable upon stinking, and dangerous to drink. 

I observed at sea the fallacy of Glauber's opinion, that the water as it grows 
Salter becomes greener. For after we were out of the Narrow, the sea grew 
darkish, and after perfect azure, yet was it much more salt the further we went, 
as I found by a waterpoise of glass, with quicksilver at the one end. It rose 
about half an inch above the sea water in the Downs ; and at 24 degrees more, 
two inches ; but after that I never observed any difference all the way to 
Jamaica ; which is contrary to another observation, that the nearer the tropics 
and the line the Salter the sea. 

As to the burning of the sea, he could never observe so great a light as to 
perceive fishes in it, though the light was sometimes great. At Deal it shone 
more the night before we set sail than ever after in the voyage : all the water 
ran off the oars almost like liquid fire ; the wind was then south-east ; and it is 
observed that at east and south winds it shines most. 

It sometimes happens that two contrary winds poise each other, and make a 
calm in the midst, ships at a distance sailing with contrary gales at the same 
time. 

It is observable, that in the Indies such places as have any high mountains 
have every night a wind that blows from the land. And in Jamaica every night 
it blows off the island every way at once, so that no ship can any where come 
in by night, nor go out but early in the morning before the sea breeze come on. 
As the sun declines, the clouds gather, and shape according to the mountains. 



VOL. II.] fHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 175 

SO that old seamen will tell you each island in the afternoon towards evening by 
the shape of the cloud over it. And not only mountains, but other high parts, 
such as trees, will also cause a collection of the clouds ; so that if you destroy 
the woods, you abate or prevent the rains. So Barbadoes has not now half the 
rains that it had when more wooded. In Jamaica likewise the rain is diminished 
as the plantations are extended. In the harbour of Jamaica there are many 
rocks, shaped like bucks' and stags' horns : there grow also several sea plants, 
whose roots are stony ; of which some are insipid, but others perfectly nitrous. 
On these plants there gathers a limestone, which fixes not upon other sea fans 
growing near them. It is observable also, that a Monchinel apple falling into 
the sea, and lying in the water, will contract a lanugo or down of saltpetre. 

It is commonly affirmed, that the seasons of the year between the tropics are 
divided by the rains and fair weather, allotting six months to each season. But 
this observation holds not generally true : For at the Point in Jamaica it hardly 
rains forty showers in a year, as before observed, beginning in August to 
October inclusively. From the Point you may look towards Port Morant, and so 
along to Ligonee, six miles from the Point, and you will scarcely see for eight or 
nine months, beginning from April, an afternoon in which it rains not. At the 
Spanish Town it rains only for three months in the year, and then not much. 
At the time it rains at Mevis, it rains not at Barbadoes. And at Cignateo, 
otherwise called Eleutheria, in the Gulph of Bahama, it rains not sometimes in 
two or three years, so that the island has been twice deserted for want of rain 
to plant in. 

At the Point of Jamaica, wherever you dig five or six feet deep, water will 
appear, which ebbs and flows with the tide. It is not salt but brackish, is un- 
wholesome for men, but good for hogs. At the Caymans there is no water but 
what is brackish also ; yet is that wholesome for men, insomuch that many are 
recovered there, by feeding on tortoises, and yet drink no other water. 

The blood of tortoises is colder than any water there ; yet is the beating of 
the heart as vigorous as that of any animal, and their arteries as firm. I'heir 
lungs lie in their belly, below the diaphragm, extending to the end of their 
shell. Their spleen is triangular, and of a firm flesh, and floridly red. Their 
liver is of a dark green, inclining to black. In the oesophagus or gullet are a 
sort of teeth, with which they chew the grass they eat in the meadows grow ing 
at the bottom of the sea. 

All the tortoises from the Caribbees to the Bay of Mexico and Honduras, re- 
pair in summer to the Cayman Islands, to lay their eggs and to hatch there. 
They coot for fourteen days together, then lay in one night about three hun- 
tlred eggs, with white and yolk, but no shells : then they coot again, and lay in 



176 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNI^O I667 , 

the sand, and so on thrice : after which the male is reduced to a kind of gelly, 
becomes blind, and is so carried home by the female. Their fat is green, but 
not offensive to the stomach. The urine of those that eat it is oily, and looks 
of a yellowish green colour. 

There is no manner of earth but sand at the Point ; yet melons, musk, and 
water melons thrive well there. A great many trees also grow there, especially 
mangranes and prickle pears. In other parts one may ride through woods that 
are full of very large timber, and yet have nothing of earth, only firm rock to 
grow in. 

In some ground that is full of saltpetre, and where tobacco grows wild, it 
flashes in smoaking. 

The fruit trees there of the same kind ripen not all at one time, some are 
observed in flower, others with ripe, others with green fruit, and others done 
bearing at the same time. The sower-sop, a pleasant fruit there, has a flower 
with three leaves ; when these open they give so great a crack, that the ob- 
server has more than once run from under the tree, thinking it was tumbling 
down. 

There is a bird called a pelican, but is a kind of cormorant, of a fishy taste, 
but when buried in the ground for two hours, it loses that taste. 

In analysing some bodies, by letting ants eat them, he found that they 
would eat brown sugar till it became white, and at last reduce it to an insipid 
powder. So they reduced a pound of sallet oil to two drams of powder. 

At first coming to Jamaica, people sweat continually in great drops for three 
quarters of a year, and then it ceases. During that space they are not more 
dry, more costive, or make less urine than in England. Neither does all that 
sweat make one faintish. If one be dry, it is a thirst generally arising from 
the heat of the lungs, and affecting the mouth, which is best cooled by a little 
brandy. 

Most animals drink little or nothing there, as hogs, even horses in Gua- 
naboa never drink, nor cows in some places of the island for six months ; goats 
drink but once perhaps in a week ; parrots never drink, nor parrokets, nor 
civet-cats, but once a month. 

The hottest time of the day is about eight in the morning, when there is no 
breeze. On placing a weather-glass in the window, it did not rise considerably 
at that time, but by two o'clock it rose two inches. 

Venice treacle became so dry in a gally-pot as to be friable ; and then it pro- 
duced a fly called a weevil, and a sort of white worm. The pilulae de tribus 
also produce a weevil. 

There is in the midst of the island a plain, called Magotti Savanna, where 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 177 

when it rains, the drops, as they settle on the seams of any garment, turn in 
half an hour to maggots. 

Magnetical Experime?its ; also, an excellent Liquor. By Mr. Colepress. 

N' 27, p- 502. 

I took an unpolished loadstone, which attracted but weakly ; and heated 
a lath nail glowing hot, nimbly applying the north-pole of the said magnet to 
it, which quickly took it up and held it suspended a great while. I took the 
same stone and cast it into the fire, letting it remain there till it was thorough 
hot ; I applied the north-pole to another lath nail cold and untouched before, 
which it took up, but faintly, yet held it suspended for some time. Two or 
three days after, I took the same loadstone, and found that it attracted then 
as strongly as before it was cast into the fire. Whence I inferred, that the fire 
somewhat lessened its attractive faculty, but did not deprive the stone of it. 

The liquor announced is a composition of the juices of good cyder apples 
and mulberries, producing the best tasted and most curiously coloured liquor. 

jdn Account of some Books. N° 27, p- 503. 

I. The History of the Royal Society of London, for the advancement of 
Experimental Philosophy, by Tho. Sprat. 

II. Disquisitio Anatomica de Formato Foetu ; authore G. Needham, M. D. 
London, 8vo. An Anatomical Inquiry into the Formation of the Embr)-o or 
Foetus ; by Walther Needham,* M. D. 

This disquisition consists of seven chapters. 

In the first he inquires into the passages by which the nourishing juice is 
conveyed to the womb of the animal ; where he examines the assertion of 
Everhard, importing that some of the lacteal vessels carry the said juice to the 
uterus ; which vessels are pretended to have been seen by himself in the dis- 
section of rabbits. Which engaged our author to take up again the anatomical 
knife, and to dissect with all possible accuracy not only some of the larger 
animals, as cows and mares, but some of the smaller kind also, such as rabbits, 
which are instanced by Everhard. 

But having spent all his labour and care herein in vain, and besides evinced 
by ligatures, that the pretended vessels are neither those that are described by 
Bartholin, under the name of lymphatic, nor others presumed to be known 

• "W. Needham was an excellent English anatomist, and distinguished himself greatly by tlie work 
of which an account is here given. Further particulars respecting this author's anatomical discoveries 
may be seen in the 3d vol. of Birch's History of the Royal Society. 
VOL. I. Z 



178 PfiiLdS6PHlCAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

by Everhafd alorie, as immediately carrying the chyle out of its receptacle to 
the womb and breasts ; he imputes the cause of this mistake to the trunk of 
the lymphatics running over the vena cava into the receptacle near the emul- 
gents, which duct he affirms to have often found filled with chyle from the in- 
testinum rectum, or the ileum, or cascum (a dog having no colon ;) but main- 
tains withal, that by ligatures it is manifest that that duct goes to the recepta- 
cle, and there deposits its liquor ; which he proves to be alike true of all the 
milky vessels, so that they carry nothing back, and consequently are unfit to 
convey any thing to the womb. This he illustrates by a noble experiment of 
that learned and expert anatomist Dr. Lower, using to open sometimes the 
right side of the thorax, and with his fingers to break the receptacle ; and 
sometimes on the left side, the ductus thoracicus a little under the subclavian ; 
whereby it has come to pass that dogs, well fed all the while, have thrown out 
all the chyle into the opened part of the thorax, and though plentifully fed, 
were starved' within three days : there appearing mean time in the veins 
opened a crass blood, destitute of serum, but not any mixture of transmitted 
chyle. 

Having rejected the lacteal and lymphatic vessels from this office, he de- 
clares, that we must rest in the ancient doctrine, which lays the task of con- 
veying the succus nutritius to the breasts and womb upon the arteries ; unless 
the nerves be called in for aid, for conveying some of the spirituous juice, to 
be mixed with the nutritious to give life and vigour ; and having proved this, 
he takes notice of the multitude of anastomoses, remarkable in the womb of 
pregnant creatures ; and subjoins a discussion of the way how the alimentary 
juice is in the womb severed from the mass of the blood : whether by mere 
percolation, or by some ferment working upon the blood, and thence precipi- 
tating what is proper for the use of that part. 

In the second chapter he treats of the placentas and glandules, and shows 
how many ways the juice is derived from the womb to the foetus : First, sim- 
ply from the membrane of the uterus to the membrane of the foetus ; as in all 
oviparous creatures ; and among viviparous, in a sow all the time of her bear- 
ing ; in a mare for half the time; and in a woman the first month only. Se- 
condly, By a mass of flesh filtering the juice ; as in all cake-bearing (called in 
Latin placentifera) and in all kernel-bearing (called glandulifera) or ruminating 
animals. Where he gives a particular account of the double placenta or cake 
to be found in rabbits, hares, mice, moles, &c. and examines the learned Dr. 
Wharton's doctrine, assigning a double placenta to at least all viviparous ani- 
mals, so as one half of it belongs to the uterus, the other to the chorion ; 
showing how far this is true, and declaring the variety of these phaenomena. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 1 79 

together with a very ingenious assignation of the cause of that variety. Where 
do occur many uncommon observations concerning the difference of milk in 
ruminating and other animals ; the various degrees of thickness of the uterine 
liquor in oviparous and viviparous creatures ; the property of the humour, turn- 
ing into eggs, with a hint of the cause of their being excluded, and not 
quickened and formed within ; as also, of the cause of moles in the womb, 
and of many kernelly and fleshy substances in other parts of the body ; where 
he takes notice of a concretion seen by himself grown to the cone of the heart, 
of nine ounces weight, in a healthy body, that died of a violent death ; and of 
the like adhering to the spleen, kidneys, and liver, without any perceived trou- 
ble to the animal ; yea of some found within the heart itself. 

He adds the number, shape and use of these placentas ; and first observes, 
that those that are kernel-bearing (glandulifera) animals, or chewing the cud, 
have many ; and those that are cake-bearing (placentifera) have for the most 
part one cake for each foetus ; but a woman commonly but one, though she 
happen to have many embryos. 

He annexes a particular description of the placenta of a woman, as the most 
considerable, and teaches how it may be most conveniently severed from the 
vessels to render them conspicuous, which are a numerous offspring of arteries, 
veins and fibres ; of the last whereof he inquires whether they be the capillaries 
of the arteries and veins, or nervous. 

The shape of that in a woman is orbicular, about a foot large, and two 
inches thick ; one of its superficies convex, but uneven, the other concave, 
and every where sticking close to the chorion. 

The use of the placentas is known to be, to serve for conveying the aliment 
to the foetus. The difficulty is only about the manner. Here are examined 
three opinions of Curvey, Everhard and Harvey. The two former do hold, 
that the foetus is nourished only from the amnion by the mouth ; y^t with this 
difference, that Curvey will have it fed by the mouth when it is perfect, but 
whilst it is yet imperfect by filtration only through the pores of the body, and 
by a kind of juxta-position ; but Everhard, supposing a simultaneous forma- 
tion of all the instruments of nutrition together at first, and esteeming the 
mass of blood by reason of its asperity and eagerness unfit for nutrition, and 
rather apt to prey upon, than feed the parts, maintains that the liquor is sucked 
out of the amnion by the mouth, concocted in the stomach, and thence passed 
into the milky vessels, even from the beginning. Meantime they both agree 
in this, that the embryo doth breathe, but not feed through the umbilical 
vessels. 

This our author undertakes to disprove ; and having asserted the mildness of 

z 2 



J 80 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNQ I667 . 

at least many parts of the blood, and consequently their fitness for nutrition, he 
defends the Harveian doctrine of the colliquation of the nourishing juice by the 
arteries, and its conveyance to the foetus by the veins. 

In the third chapter, the membranes and humours of embryos are considered. 
The membranes are in some three, in others four, in an egg six. All placenti- 
ferous animals (if I may assume this word) he affirms to have three membranes, 
and sows, mares, and women also ; but only two humours. Again, bitches, 
cats, and conies four membranes, and three humours ; so that the number 
of the membranes has been hitherto observed always to exceed that of the 
humours. 

Giving the history of both, he begins from sheep, cows, and other ruminat- 
ing animals, describing first the chorion, assigning its use, and comparing it 
with that in deer, sows, mares, women, rabbits, bitches and cats, when with 
young. Then he proceeds to the description of the allantoides (the membrane 
immediately encompassing that skin wherein the foetus is wrapped) and thence 
to that of the amnion, wherein the embryo itself lies swimming in its alimental 
liquor ; and lastly to that which is observed to be in bitches, cats and rabbits, 
and contains a very good and nourishing juice ; which how it comes thither, 
is a difficult inquiry, as well as that other, how the liquor gets into the amnion. 
To resolve both which our author, having disproved the filtration of the liquor 
held by Curvey and Everhard out of the chorion into the amnion, and evinced 
that the liquor in the allantoides, inteijected between those two, is urinous, he 
concludes, that the alimentary juice passes through the umbilical vessels, by 
a proper artery, depositing it in those membranes we speak of, and reserving it 
there for the use of the foetus. 

Concerning the humours he affirms, that all of them in all animals are nu- 
tritive, except that in the allantoides. He observ^es also, that most ovipar- 
ous fishes have eggs or spawn, as to sense of one only colour, and but one 
humour ; yet that the spawn of a skate has a white and a yolk. Birds have 
mostly three nutritious substances that are visible, viz. a yolk and a double 
white ; to which upon incubation comes a fourth, colliquated out of the former; 
the tender embryo feeding upon the two whites, till they being consumed, 
the yolk of the chick now to be hatched is shut up in the abdomen, and 
thence by a peculiar duct conveyed into the guts ; and so serves the young bird 
for breasts it is fed by until the twentieth day. 

In viviparous creatures are found sometimes two, sometimes three humours, 
and in bitches, cats, and rabbits four ; which perplexes the author as to the 
giving a reason for it. These humours, he says, he has examined, by con- 
creting, distilling, and coagulating them ; where he furnishes the reader with 



TOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 181 

no vulgar observations. He concludes this chapter by observing, that there 
is also air in the said membranes ; which, besides other arguments, he proves 
from the crying of infants in the womb (of which he alleges a memorable and 
well attested example in a child of an English lady in Cheshire, the child being 
yet alive and in good health ;) and from chickens often heard to pip in the 
eggf both before the breaking of the shells, and after the membranes being yet 
entire ; ascribing the production of this air to the spirituous liquor in the 
membrane, apt to ferment, and thereby causing store of exhalations. 

The fourth chapter discourses of the umbilical vessels ; and observes first, 
that they differ in different animals, and hold proportion to the membranes and 
liquors, so as those that have two liquors have four membranes, and three li- 
quors have six : the oviparous also being furnished with a duct, passing to the 
guts, because they want breasts, and their yolk is shut up in the belly. 

The umbilical arteries belonging to the placenta, and commonly said to be 
derived from the crurals, are by him affirmed to proceed from the end of the 
aorta. They are here described, and their several portions distributed for the 
chorion and amnion. Then an account is given of the hepatic vein, corres- 
ponding to the arteries. It is in viviparous animals inserted into the vena porta, 
passing again with the remaining blood through the canalis venosus into the 
cava without percolation made in the liver. In birds it enters not into the liver, 
but passes over its convexity into the cava. A description also is made of the 
urachus, found in all viviparous creatures, though by many writers denied to 
be in man, who notwithstanding has need as well as other such animals some- 
where to lodge his urine. The oviparous want this umbilical cord, but yet are 
furnished with fit sanguineous vessels, which here also are explained ; especi- 
ally the ductus intestinalis, said to be omitted by Dr. Harvey, and to have been 
known to the author long before Mr. Steno claimed the discovery of it ; for 
which he appeals to the testimony of Mr. Boyle, and three worthy physicians, 
Willis, Millington and Lower ; as also to that of two ingenious Frenchmen, 
Guison and Fiard, to whom our author affirms to have showed. An. 1659, when 
they were going over into Holland, not only this duct, but also the ductus 
salivales, and the passages of the nostrils, published afterwards by the said 
Steno. 

The use of this ductus intestinalis is esteemed to be the conveying of the yolk 
into the guts for a second coction, there made by the pancreatic juice, ac- 
kLnowledged to be excellently handled by the learned Sylvius, and his ingenious 
scholar De GraefF, from the former of whom our author yet dissents about, 
the mixture of the gall with the said juice in the heart, refuting it by several 
experiments. 



Ifi^ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONg. [aNNO I667, 

The fifth explains the communion of vessels in embryos ; in whom he says, 
three anastomoses are usually observed, which as soon as the foetus is born are 
closed. They are called foramen ovale, canalis arteriosus, and venosus. The 
two former to be met with about the heart ; the last in the liver. All three 
here described by the author, who also compares, as Harvey does, the foetus yet 
in the womb with the manner of operation of those animals that are provided 
but with one cavity in the heart and with no lungs ; the blood of the foetus, as 
long as it is unborn, passing neither through the parenchyma of the lungs, nor 
that of the liver. Lastly, The necessity of respiration is explicated, and how 
the defect of lungs, and of one of the ventricles of the heart, is supplied in 
fishes, viz. by comminuting and mixing the blood in the gills. To which is 
annexed the manner of respiration in amphibia which are furnished with lungs 
and two ventricles of the heart, and yet, if Bartholin misinforms us not, keep 
the foramen ovale all their lifetime open ; which yet our author calls in ques- 
tion, alleging to have seen no diving animals which had not the said fora-r 
men closed after their being born. 

The sixth makes a digression, to discourse of the biolychnium, and the in-r 
gress of the air into the blood, for the generation of spirits, and the pretended 
kindling of a vital flame. But our author can see nothing that may prove 
either the existence or the necessity of such a flame. He does not question 
whether air is received into the mass of blood, but only doubts whether through 
the lungs there be a high way for the air to the blood. 

After this our author gives his thoughts both of the true use of the lungs 
and of sanguification. 

The lungs, he says, serve chiefly, by their constant agitation, to comminute 
the blood, and so to render it fit for a due circulation ; which office he thinks 
to be performed in fishes by the continual motion of their gills, a succedaneum 
to lungs. 

Sanguification, according to him, is chiefly performed and perfected by the 
frequent pulsions of the heart, and the repeated contractions of its left ventri- 
cle at the passing of the sanguineous liquor from thence into the aorta. 

The seventh and last chapter contains a direction for the younger anatomists, 
of what is to be observed in the dissection of divers animals with young : and 
first, of what is common to all the viviparous ; then, what is peculiar to several 
of them, as a sow, mare, cow, ewe, she-goat, doe, rabbit, bitch, and a wo- 
man: lastly, what is observable in an eel, skate, salmon, frog, &c. Tha 
whole is illustrated by many accurate engravings. 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. |§S 

An Account of more Trials of Transfusion, with some Considerations 
thereon, chiefly in reference to its circumspect Practice on Man; 
together ivith a farther Vindication of this Invention from Usurpers. 
By Mr. Oldenburg. N"" 28, p. 51J. 

In this paper Mr. Oldenburg states, that as the experiment of transfusion has 
caused disputes among the curious both in England and other countries, so it 
has put some upon suggesting such measures and cautions as may render it safe 
and beneficial. Of the latter number is Mons. Gasper de Gurie de Montpoly, 
who, while he admits the invention to be ingenious, and such a one as pro- 
mises to be useful, is nevertheless of opinion that it requires to be practised 
with much circumspection, otherwise it may be productive of mischief. No 
considerate person, he observes, will venture upon a total transfusion, though 
he thinks a partial one may be serviceable in some cases. To this purpose he 
remarks, that he was pleased to learn that a moderate intromission of blood had 
(according to his conjecture) succeeded well in the human subject, as appears 
from a letter of Mons. Denis. The success of a larger transfusion in another 
instance he ascribes to the healthy and robust constitution of the individual, 
a labouring man. But to these instanced he subjoins two others, where the 
event was unfavourable. One of these instances occurred in Baron Bond, son 
to the first minister of state of the King of Sweden, who underwent the ope- 
ration twice, and appeared to be strengthened by it the first time ; but died soon 
after the second operation. His disease was a mortification of the intestines, 
and he is thought to have been an unfit subject for the experiment. The other 
instance was that of a dog, in a trial made by Mons. Gay en. He drew three 
great dishes of blood from the dog that was to receive, and weighed the other 
dog that was to furnish. When the operation was over he weighed the latter 
again, and found his weight less by two pounds : of which, after abating an 
Ounce more or less for the urine the dog made, and an ounce or two more for 
the blood spilt in the operation, there remained at least Hlb. of blood 
that was transfused. But the recipient dog, though well dressed and fed, died 
five days after, the emittent dog being then alive. Lest an inference prejudicial 
to the cause of transfusion should be drawn from the preceding observations, 
Mr. Oldenburg remarks, that although considerable caution may be requisite, 
yet several large transfusions have been successfully made in London, of which 
a very remarkable instance was afforded in a bitch, which lost in the operation 
near 30 ounces of blood, and was recruited accordingly. The animal not only 
Survived to the date hereof, but afterwards underwent a more severe experiment^ 



184 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

in which her spleen was cut out, without tying up the vessels whence that viscus 
was separated. Since which time (even before the wound was healed up) she 
took dog, was with puppy, brought forth whelps, and remains well and jocund. 
Some reasons are then assigned why philosophers in England were backward in 
performing the experiment of transfusion upon men, upon whom Mons. Denis 
of Paris was the first to make the trial ; a circumstance of great exultation to 
the French. Mr. Oldenburg observes that the English are more tender in ha- 
zarding the life of a fellow creature, and that the law also among us is more^ 
strict and jealous in cases of this nature. Yet, he adds, it was a matter that' 
had been in preparation several months since, and that the following method of 
operating was agreed upon, as suggested by Dr. Edmund King, and described 
by him in the following letter. 

Sir, 

The method of transfusing blood you have seen practised, with facility 
enough, from beast to beast; and we have things in readiness to transfuse 
blood from the artery of a lamb, kid, or what other animal may be thought 
proper, into the vein of a man. We have been ready for this experiment these 
six months, and wait for nothing but good opportunities, and the removal of 
some considerations of a moral nature. I gave you a view, you may remember, 
a good while ago, of the instruments which I think very proper for the experi- 
ment, which are only a silver tube, with a silver stopper somewhat blunted at 
one end, and flatted at the other, for conveniency of handling, used already 
upon beasts with good success. The way in short is this : After the artery is 
prepared in the lamb, kid, &c. let a ligature be made upon the arm, &c. of a 
man (hard enough to render the vein turgid) in the place you intend to insert 
the lesser end of the silver pipe, which is so fitted, that the silver stopper thrust 
into the tube reaches somewhat by its blunt end beyond one of the ends of that 
tube. This done, divide the skin of the part in the same manner that is used 
in cutting an issue, just over the vein to be opened. Then with a fine lance 
open the vein ; or, if you please, in case the vein lie fair and high (especially if 
the skin be fine) you may open both together, according to the usual way of 
letting blood. Which .done, let an assistant clap his finger, or a little bol- 
ster prepared beforehand, or the like, upon the vein, a little below the orifice, 
to hinder the blood from ascending. Keeping that position, insert the blunt- 
ended tube upwards into the vein ; when it is in, hold it and the skin close to- 
gether between your finger and thumb. Then pull out of the tube the stopper, 
and insert the pipe by which the arterial blood is to be infused from the emit* 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 18i» 

tent animal ; managing the remainder according to the known method of this 
experiment. 

Mr. Oldenburg concludes this account with references to facts and observa- 
tions given in former Numbers of these Transactions, in proof that the trans- 
fusion of blood originated in England ; though some of the French journals 
(he complains) have assigned the merit of this invention to their country- 
men.* 

* In a note at p. 131, we hinted that the notions which philosophers once entertained respecting 
the possibility of removing disease and prolonging life by the transfusion of blood, were extravagant 
and ill-founded. Nor will tlie justness of tliis remark be disputed, as applied to tlie generality of those 
morbid affections against which it was at first proposed as a remedy, and as applied also to the project 
of procuring indefinite longevity. It must be confessed, however, that the accurate and well-contrived, 
experiments of Professor Harwood place it beyond a doubt, that in cases of sudden and profuse eva- 
cuations of blood, tlie fatal consequences, which would otlierwise ensue, may in the brute creation be 
prevented by the immediate introduction of a proportionate quantity of fresh blood from another ani- 
mal in a healthy state j a fact which seems convertible to medical use in certain cases of haemorrhage 
occurring in the human subject. On this occasion we are happy to have it in our power to lay before 
the public an account of the above-mentioned professor's interesting experiments and observations 
hereon. 

Dr. Harw^ood, the present professor of anatomy in the university of Cambridge, having perused the 
accounts of Lower and others concerning the transfusion of the blood, and being equally dissatisfied 
witli the mode in which former experiments had been conducted, and tlie superstition and prejudice 
which occasioned the subsequent relinquishment of the practice; was induced in the year 1785 to 
make it the subject of his Thesis, preparator)-^ to taking his M. B. degree in that year. Upon thig 
occasion the professor made a number of very interesting experiments, which he has since repeated 
in a great variety of forms, some of them having been privately conducted, and others publicly ex- 
hibited at his lectures on comparative anatomy in the schools of the university. From a great num- 
ber of very curious experiments, the following have been selected, and we have the professor's per- 
mission to lay them before the public. 

Experiment 1 . A dog of middling size, from whose jugular vein eight ounces of blood had been 
previously evacuated, was supplied with -an equal quantity from the carotid artery of a sheep. Dur- 
ing tlie operation the dog showed evident marks of uneasiness, but was little affected in any other 
way, till about twenty-four hours after the operation, when he had a shivering fit, succeeded by a 
considerable degree of heat, thirst, and tlie usual symptoms of fever, all of which disappeared in the 
course of the next day, and the dog remained afterwards in perfect health. This experiment being 
several times repeated, and tlie quantity of transfused blood being occasionally increased or diminished, 
the feverish symptoms were observed to be more or less violent in proportion to the quantity of arte- 
rial blood introduced into the vein of the recipient animal. It now occurred to Dr. H. that the unea- 
siness of tlie animal during the operation, and the febrile disease with which he was attacked 
some hours afterwards, might probably arise from the preternatural degree of stimulus occasioned by 
the introduction of the highly oxygenated arterial blood into the right side of the heart. 

Experiment 2. The experiment was therefore repeated, with this difference, that the blood was 
conducted through the tube from the jugular vein of the sheep, instead of an artery. The result was 
exactly what the operator expected it to be, the animal was perfectly composed during the operation, 
and did not suffer the smallest inconvenience at any time afterwards, 

VOL. I. A A 



186 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO I667. 

On the Mendip Lead Mines. By Mr. Joseph Gl anvil. 

N' 28, p. 525. 

In answer to former queries concerning mines, this gentleman replies. That 
Mendip is all mountainous. That it is barren and cold, and in some places 
rocky. That the ridges run confusedly, but mostly east and west. Its surface 
is heathy, ferny and furzy. 

Experiment 3. Two pounds of blood were taken from a large pointer who had been previously 
weighed^ and three pounds of sheep's blood from the jugular vein introduced. Dr. Harwood had been 
in the habit of letting out the superabundant blood when any of the animals had received too much, 
but in this experiment, it was suggested by the Rev. Mr. Midcalf, then fellow of Christ's College, 
that it would be curious to observe the effect which would follow such an extraordinary degree of ar- 
tificial plethora as the introduction of an additional pound of blood (into the circulating system of an 
animal who had naturally not more than five) must necessarily occasion. The vein was accordingly 
secured in the usual way, and the dog being released ran into the court, and immediately attempted 
to relieve himself from this unusual plenitude by every possible evacuation. His efforts to accomplish 
this purpose not proving successful, he became still more uneasy and restless, and afterwards drowsy 
and stupid. These symptoms were succeeded or rather accompanied by a considerable degree of fever, 
which terminated in a copious evacuation of blood by stool, by urine, and by vomiting. He took no 
nourishment for three days after the operation, except pure water, and was more reduced than Dr. 
H. ever saw an animal in that space of time. He now drank a little milk, and afterwards some broth, 
from which time he gradually recovered his appetite and strength, and remained in good health for 
several years. 

Experiment 4. All the blood of a pointer was let out (as far as it was possible to evacuate it) till 
the animal was in convulsions on the table, and apparently expiring. The blood was then transfused 
from the jugular of a sheep into the correspondent vein of the dog, and in less than half a minute 
after the introduction of the tube, he began to respire, and as soon as he had received a quantity of 
sheep's blood equal to what he had lost of his own, he leaped from the table and walked home, with- 
out experiencing any apparent inconvenience eitlier then or at any subsequent period. This experi- 
ment was performed before a very crouded meeting at the public schools in the Botanic garden of tlie 
university. It has been frequently repeated since, and a variety of otlier animals have been subjected 
to the same experiments, and with equal success. 

As the nature of our design will not admit of our relating a greater number of Professor Harwood's 
experiments, we shall close this article witli a few patliological remarks from that gentleman. 

From all the numerous experiments which have been lately made upon this subject, one important 
fact seems to be fully established, that the blood of an herbivorous animal may be substituted for that 
of a carnivorous animal, and vice versa, without danger, or even inconvenience to the animal who re- 
ceives it. In cases therefore of such copious evacuations of blood as to threaten the death of the pa- 
tient, would not transfusion be expedient? and if death should be inevitable without it, does it not 
become a duty to make the trial ? 

Professor Harwood is at present engaged in a course of experiments to ascertain whether diseases 
may be communicated, or medicines conveyed into the system, by the transfusion of diseased or me- 
dicated blood from one animal to another} which he will probably publish at some fiiture time, toge- 
ther with a description of the easiest mode of performing the operation, and answers to all the objec- 
tions which have hitherto been urged against the application of it on the human subject. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 187 

That the natives and inhabitants are healthy, and live to the ordinary age, 
except such as are employed in melting the lead at the mines ; who, if they 
work in the smoak, are subject to a disease that kills them, and the cattle like- 
wise that feed thereabouts. From the bottom of the hills there are many 
springs both to the north, south, and west ; and those waters are very whole- 
some, and produce rivers after they have run to some distance from thence. 
The air is moist, cold, foggy, thick, and heavy. The soil near the surface is 
red and stony ; and the stones are either fire-stones or lime-stones ; but there is 
no clay, marl or chalk. 

That the trees have their tops burnt, and their leaves and outsides dis- 
coloured and scorched with the wind, and grow to no size or height. The 
stones and pebbles that are washed by the brooks and springs are of a reddish 
colour and ponderous. Snow, frost, and dew remain longer on Mendip than on 
any of the neighbouring grounds. 

That Mendip is unusually subject to thunder and lightning, storms, noctur- 
nal lights and fiery meteors. There are no certain signs above ground that 
afford any probability of a mine to my knowledge. 

The ore lies in veins as a wall ; and is perfect lead, only on the outside covered 
with reddish earth. 

The ore is beaten small ; then washed clean in a running stream ; then sifted 
in iion rudders ; the hearth or furnace is 'made of clay or lire-stone, set in the 
ground, on which is built the fire, and lighted with charcoal, and continued with 
young oaken branches, blown with bellows by men's treading on them. — After 
the fire is lighted and the fire place hot, they throw the lead ore upon the wood, 
which melts down into the furnace ; then with an iron ladle they take it out^ 
cast it upon sand, and into what form they please. 

Magnetical Variations. By M. Petit, N" 28, p. 527. 

Nothing can be more agreeable to me than to discourse on this subject, 
especially with the philosophers of England, whence the philosophy of the 
magnet had its rise, and whence also the principal observations of the change 
of its declination are come to us; so that it is just that the observations made 
elsewhere concerning the same should return thither as to its source. 

After I had made the experiments that are in Gilbert* and others, I made 
that of the needle's declination on three different meridian lines, which I traced, 

* An English physician, who published a learned work. Anno 160O, on the load-stone. He \»as 
bom at Colchester Ij-iOj became a physician in ordinary to queen Elizabeth, and died in 1663, at 
63 years of age. 

A A 2 



188 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO I667. 

Anno 1 630, in several places of Paris, and found that the needle declined 44- 
degr. north-east : this I made known here to the curious and to artists, some of 
whom counted nine or 10 degrees, according to the tradition and writings of 
Orontius Fmeus and Castelfranc ; others 114^ degrees, following Sennertus and 
OfRisius. 

You know that Gilbert, though the first who has written rationally on the 
magnet, asserts towards the end of his book, that if a magnet altogether round 
were placed on a meridian, and its poles so placed as to answer to the poles of 
the world, and consequently its axis to the axis of the world, the stone would 
continually of itself turn round in 24 hours. Whence he infers that the whole 
earth, as a great magnet, turns also round about its axis in the same space of time. 

To try the truth of this proposition, I caused a magnet to be turned with the 
powder of emery of a spherical form, with all possible exactness, of l-i- inch in 
diameter; which, on account of its compact and uniform composition, had its 
three centres of magnitude, gravity, and magnetism all the same, with so much 
justness, that after I had exactly found the two poles of this stone, I caused two 
«mall holes to be made therein, to support it by two points of needles, as by two 
pivots : which having put in a meridian of brass, and suspended the ball between 
them like a little globe, it was so easily moveable that I made it turn every way 
with a blast only of my mouth, and it stopped indifferently, now in one, then in 
another place, not any side of it prevailing by its gravity, nor descending as it 
would have done, if any of them had been heavier than another. 

This stone thus prepared, without any defect in virtue or figure, uniform, 
homogeneous, equilibrated, being adjusted on its meridian, and a horizon so 
placed on its meridian line, that the poles answered to the poles of the heavens, 
the result was that it had not any motion, and a small white mark I had made 
upon this stone remained still in the same place where I had put it without 
turning at all : whence I thought the proposition of Gilbert sufficiently re- 
futed. 

This stone, together with a greater one, served also to find out whether the 
needles touched in different places, nearer to or further from the poles, had 
different declinations. Which having tried frequently with these, and with 
other stones, I found no difference at all in the declination of the needles, 
which in all of them was 4-1- degrees from the north-eastward. And as I did not 
suspect that this declination would have changed, having found it to be the 
same in many places, from Brest in Brittany to the Valtaline among the Alps, 
I believed the ancients had ill observed, and that the want of their exactness in 
respect either of the meridian line or the fabric of their needles, or the division 
of their circles, was the cause of this defect. But I was soon undeceived of my 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ISQ 

own error, when I learned a little while after, by letters from England, that 
Mr. Burrows,* Anno 1580, had near London observed the declination of the 
needle to be 11° 11 m. as well as OfFusius and Sennertus : And that. An. l6l2, 
Mr. Gunter,-}- professor of the mathematics, had in the same place found the 
declination much diminished, having then found it but six degrees : And lastly, 
that. Anno l633, Mr. GellibrandJ had found it but four degrees north-east, 
conformable to my observations. Which did assure me, that those declinations 
were not constant but had varied. 

And that I might be convinced by myself, I made from time to time experi- 
ments in divers places, and found still more and more diminution ; so that. 
Anno l66o, in June, after I had very exactly traced a meridian by many 
azimuths, before and after noon, with a brass quadrant of six feet diameter, 
and applied good needles upon it, the one of seven, the other of ten inches long, 
I found that they declined but one degree or thereabout: And the last year, 1665, 
I found no more than ten minutes on the same meridian. Upon which having 
lately applied, since the receipt of the letter, the same two needles, it seems the 
declination is yet less than the last year. But this I can assure you, that the 
declination is yet some minutes towards the east, at least at Paris. So that you 
may upon my word doubt || of the observation of your friend, whom perhaps 
the meridian or the needle, or the construction and division of his compass, may 
have deceived to a degree and a half north-west, which he at the present assigns 
to the declination. But I doubt not but in 12 or 15 years it will be found true 
what he affirms, as I have prognosticated by my hypothesis, which makes the 
declination to vary a degree every seven or eight years. ^ 

* \Vm. Burrowes published, l6l4, " The New Attractive, and the Variation of the Compass." 
-f- Edmund Gunter, an excellent mathematician, was bom 1581. He was author of many inge- 
nious books and instruments. The land-surveying chain, and the logarithmic lines placed on rules 
and scales, are called by his name to this day. He became professor of astronomy in Gresham Col- 
lege, London, where he died in I626, being only 45 years of age. 

I Mr. Henry Gellibrand succeeded Mr. Gunter as professor of astronomy in Gresham College, 
where he died in 1 636, at 39 years of age. He was strongly attached to the old or Ptolemaic astro- 
nomy. He wrote, however, some useful books on navigation ; and after the death of Mr. Briggs he 
had the care of publishing the Trigonometria Britannica of that author. 

II By the favour of the author, it is not conclusive, that because the declination is yet somewhat 
towards the east at Paris, it must therefore be so at London; since it is known here, that even 
the variation of "Whitehall differs from that of Limehouse; which two places are but about four Eng- 
lish miles distant from each other. 

§ According to Henry Bond, the variation " was first found to decrease by Mr. John Mair; se- 
condly, by Mr. Edmund Gunter j thirdly, by Mr. Henry Gellibrand j fourthly, by himself in 16*40; 
and lastly, by Mr. Robert Hooke, and others, in l665." This change in tlie variation is continual 
and universal, but different in all different places and at all times. We shall hereafter have occasion 



IQO PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/. 



An Account of some Booh. A""" 28, p. 532. 

I. Free Considerations about Subordinate Forms ; by the Honourable Robert 
Boyle. 

This tract is an appendix to the noble author's Examen of Substantial 
Forms. 

II. Joh. Swammerdam, M. D. de Respiratione et Usu Pulmonum. John 
Swammerdam,=* M. D. on Respiration and the Use of the Lungs. 

This author is of opinion, that all those philosophers who have hitherto in- 
quired into the nature and use of respiration have only caught the shadow of 
it, nothing of the substance. And he gives this for the chief reason, because 
they have been too negligent in considering the first manifest motion of the 
breast and lungs in a foetus ; which particular being understood, he thinks it 
very easy to judge of the respiration of born animals. He scruples not to re- 
prehend the immortal Doctor Harvey, for having excluded from the office of 

to relate in this work several other writings on this curious subject by Dr. Hook, Dr. Halley, and 
other persons. And it is to be lamented that all philosophical societies, in all countries, do not ob- 
serve and publish in their Transactions, at least annually, the state of the magnetic direction, in tlieir 
respective situations. 

* This celebrated anatomist and natural historian was born at Amsterdam in l637. His falher was 
an apothecary in that city, and possessed a small cabinet of natural curiosities, by the frequent sur- 
vey of which his son acquired a taste for those pursuits, by which he afterwards rendered himself so 
conspicuous. He studied at Leyden, where he took his degree of doctor in medicine in 1667, but 
never engaged in the practice of physic, devoting himself wholly to anatomical and physiological in- 
quiries, and to collecting and examining insects. Of this class of animated beings he investigated tlie? 
generation, structure, and metamorphoses, with astonishing patience and assiduity, and described and 
elucidated the same in his admirable work entitled, A General History of Insects, first published in the 
Dutch language in 1669, and afterwards translated into Latin. His Historia Ephemerae appeared in 
1675. These and other observations, relative to the natural history of insects, were collected into a 
folio vol. (Dutch and Latin) printed at Leyden in 1737:, under tlie title of Biblia Naturae sive Histo- 
ria Insectorum. This edition was superintended by Boerhaave, who wrote tlie biographical memoirs 
which are prefixed to it ; but the Latin translation was by Gaubius. Besides tlie tract on respiration, 
of which an account is given in the present Number of the Transactions, Swammerdam wrote another 
anatomical work, entitled, Miraculum Naturae seu Uteri Muliebris Fabrica, published in 1672. He 
appears to have been the first who practised the art of injecting tlie blood-vessels with wax; for his 
countryman and contemporary Ruysch learned this method of him. Having neglected to improve his 
finances by the exercise of his profession as a physician, he was much straitened in his circumstances; 
and some years before his death, which happened in l6S0, he became a prey to melancholy and su- 
perstition. His collection of insects and other objects belonging to natural history, for which the 
Grand Duke of Florence once offered him 1 2,000 florins, was sold for a very inconsiderable sum. 
We shall have occasion to notice one or two communications of his in the subsequent volumes of the 
Transactions. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. IQ\ 

the lungs the use of refrigeration ; which he pretends to have asserted himself 
by most evident experiments and uncontrolable reasons. 

To represent distinctly what he undertakes to make out in this tract, we 
may take notice of these particulars : 

1. He takes pains to refute the doctrine of attraction, and to substitute in its 
place the doctrine of pulsion or intrusion of air into the lungs. 

2. He endeavours to assert that the lungs do not fall down, but are by the 
breast contracted. 

3. He affirms to have clearly shown what is the proper function and work 
of the diaphragm and other muscles serving for respiration. 

4. He pretends to have experimentally evinced the genuine use of respira- 
tion, and the benefit thence resulting to the animal life. 

In short, he makes respiration to be a motion of the thorax and lungs, 
whereby the air is sometimes impelled by the nose, mouth, and wind-pipe into 
the lungs, and thence again expelled, farther to elaborate the blood, by re- 
frigerating it and by separating its fuliginous steams, and to raise it to its ulti- 
mate and highest perfection for the conservation of the life of animals.* 

III. Observations faites sur un Grand Poisson et un Lion, disseques dans la 
Bibliotheque du Roy a Paris, Juin 1667. Observations made upon a large 
Fish and a Lion, dissected in the King's Library at Paris, in June .1667. 

The large fish dissected at Paris as above-mentioned, was a vulpecula marina 
or sea-fox ;-|~ concerning which it was observed: 

1 . The length of his tail equalled very near the whole length of the rest of 
his body, (the whole fish being 8^ feet long) and fashioned after the manner 
of a scythe, bowed and turned up toward the belly. 

2. That his mouth was armed with two sorts of teeth ; one sort in the upper 
jaw, being pointed, hard and firm, and of one only bone in the manner of a 
saw : the other sort found in the rest of the upper and in the whole under jaw 
were moveable, and fastened by fleshy membranes. 

3. That his tongue did altogether adhere to the lower jaw, and its skin was 
hard and covered with little shining points, which rendered it very rough and 
scabrous one way. The points, viewed with a microscope, appeared transparent 
like crystal. 

4. That his throat was very large, and the oesophagus as large as his maw ; 
concerning which authors say, that he has the dexterity of disengaging himself 

* The process of respiration is better understood in these days, as we shall have an opportunity of 
noticing in a future volume, 
f Chimaera monstrosa, Linn. 



192 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

from the swallowed hook, by casting it up together with his maw, the inside 
of it turned out. They found in his maw the sea-herb varec, 5 inches long, 
and a fish of the like length without head, scales, skin and guts, all being 
wasted but the musculous flesh, which remained entire. 

5. That the superior part of his great gut had this peculiar, that instead of 
the usual circumvolutions of guts, the cavity of this was divided transversely by 
many partitions, consisting of the membranes of the gut turned inwards, and 
in the figure of a vice, like snail-shells or winding stairs. 

6. That his spleen was double ; his liver divided into two lobes ; the gall 
found to have more of bitter than sour ; the heart without a pericardium, as 
large as a hen's egg ; the head almost nothing but a mass of flesh, very little 
brains in it, and those having very few meanders or windings ; the eyes larger 
than those of an ox, only half spherical, fiat before ; the sclerotica formed like 
a cup, very thin, but very hard ; the cornea very tender and soft ; the crys- 
talline perfectly spherical ; the uvea grayish ; the choroides of the same colour, 
and pierced for the production of the retina, by a very large hole ; the bottom 
of this choroides had that lustre of mother of pearl which is found in ter- 
restrial animals, but wath less vivid colours ; and the retina was also streaked 
with very apparent sanguineous vessels. 

Concerning the lion it was observed. 

That in its outward shape, and in the constitution of many parts, this animal 
resembles very much a cat.* 

That there was an admirable structure of his claws ; a peculiar shape and po- 
sition of his teeth ; a very stiff neck ; a rough and sharp tongue, having points 
like claws both in hardness and shape. Eyes very clear and bright, even after 
death, which without closing the eye-lids, lions can cover with a thick and 
blackish membrane,-|- placed towards the great angle, which by raising itself 
and reaching towards the small angle, can extend itself over the whole cornea, 
as in birds, and especially in cats ; the reverse of the anterior uvea, where it 
lies over the crystalline, is altogether black ; the crystalline very fiat, and its 
greatest convexity, which is not usual, in its anterior part, as in cats; the 
aqueous humour very plentiful, equalling almost the sixth part of the vitreous, 
which plenty was judged to be the cause of the brightness that remains in the 
eyes after death. 

His throat was not above an inch and a half large : the stomach 6 inches 
wide, and 18 inches long; all the guts 25 feet long; the liver divided into 7 

* Hence in the Linnaean system the lion and the cat are congeneric species. 
t Membrana nictitans. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 1^3 

lobes, as in cats ; its cavity under the bladder of gall was full of gall, shed abroad 
in the substance of the liver, and of the neighbouring parts; which was sus- 
pected, by the physicians administering this operation, to have been the cause of 
this lion's death; the bladder of gall was seven inches long, and 1-^ inch wide, 
of a peculiar structure; the spleen a foot long, 2 inches broad, and half an inch 
thick ; the kidney weighed somewhat above 7 ounces ; the genitals of a pecu- 
liar conformation, causing this animal to cast his urine backwards, and to cou- 
ple like camels and hares. 

His lungs had six lobes on the right side, and three on the left; the wind- 
pipe had its annular cartilages entire, excepting two or three; it was above four 
inches in compass, being very firm, and by this largeness and firmness enabling 
a lion strongly to push air enough through it for his dreadful roaring. 

His heart was dry, and without water in the pericardium, much greater in pro- 
portion than of any other animal, being six inches long, and four inches thick 
towards the basis, and terminating in a sharp point. It had very little flesh, 
and was all hollow ; the ventricles very large ; the auricles very small ; the pro- 
portion of the branches which the ascending aorta casts out was such, that the 
carotids were as large as the left subclavian branch, and as the rest of the right 
subclavian whence they issue, which is considerable, seeing the brain is so small ; 
for the brain was but two inches big, the rest of the head being very fleshy, 
and consisting of very firm bones. By comparing the little quantity of the 
lion's brain with the plenty of that of a calf, it was judged, that the having but 
little brain is rather a mark and a cause of a fierce and cruel temper than want 
of wit. Which conjecture was strengthened by the observation formerly made 
in the sea-fox, in whom almost no brain was found, though it be thought that 
his craft and address have occasioned men to give him that name. 

IV. Historia Ambras, Authore Justo Klobio, D. in Academ. Wittebergensi. 
This author reckons up 18 opinions concerning ambergris; and having exa- 
mined every one of them, he embraces that which states it to be the dung of 
a bird, called in the Madagascar tongue Aschibobuch : of which he gives the 
description out of Odoardus Barbosa and others ; who affirm it to be of the size 
of a goose, curiously feathered, with a large head well tufted. These birds 
being found in great numbers in Madagascar, the Maldives, and other parts of 
the East Indies, are affirmed by authors to flock together in great numbers, as 
cranes ; and frequenting high cliffs near the sea side, and there voiding their 
excrement, the sea washes it thence, if it fall not of itself into it. 

There is another opinion among the said 18, for which the author has a good 
inclination, but yet dares not embrace it, viz. that it is the excrement of a 
certain kind of whales. If this amber were but in those other places where 
VOL. I. Bb 



194 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166/, 

there is good store of such whales, it seems that would make the author re- 
linquish the former opinion. 

An Account of an Experiment, made hy Mr. Hook, of preserv- 
ing Animals alive hy blowing into their Lungs with Bellows. 
N' 28, p, 539. 

I did heretofore give this illustrious Society an account of an experiment I 
formerly tried of keeping a dog alive after his thorax was all displayed by the 
cutting away of the ribs and diaphragm ; and after the pericardium of the heart 
also was taken off. But divers persons seeming to doubt of the certainty of the 
experiment (by reason that some trials of this matter made by some other hands 
failed of success) I caused at the last meeting the same experiment to be shown 
in the presence of this noble company, and that with the same success as it had 
been made by me at first ; the dog being kept alive by the reciprocal blowing up 
of his lungs with bellows, and then suffered to subside, for the space of an hour 
or more, after his thorax had been so displayed, and his aspera arteria cut off 
just below the epiglottis, and bound on upon the nose of the bellows. 

And because some eminent physicians had afHrmed, that the motion of the 
]ungs was necessary to life, upon the account of promoting the circulation of the 
blood, and that it was conceived the animal would immediately be suffocated as 
soon as the lungs should cease to be moved, I did (the better to fortify my own 
hypothesis of this matter, and to be the better able to judge of several others) 
make the following additional experiment, viz. 

The dog having been kept alive, (as I have now mentioned) for above An 
hour, in which time the trial had been often repeated, in suffering the dog to 
fall into convulsive motions by ceasing to blow the bellows, and permitting the 
lungs to subside and lie still, and of suddenly reviving him again by renewing 
the blast, and consequently the motion of the lungs : This, I say, having been 
done, and the judicious spectators fully satisfied of the reality of the former 
experiment, I caused another pair of bellows to be immediately joined to the 
first, by a contrivance I had prepared, and pricking all the outer coat of the 
lungs with the slender point of a very sharp penknife, this second pair of bel- 
lows was moved very quick, whereby the first pair was always kept full and 
always blowing into the lungs ; by which means the lungs also were always kept 
very full, and without any motion ; there being a continual blast of air forced 
into the lungs by the first pair of bellows, supplying it as fast as it could find its 
way quite through the coat of the lungs by the small holes pricked in it, as was 
said before. This being continued for a good while, the dog, as I expected. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ]Q5 

lay still as before, his eyes being all the time very quick, and his heart beating 
very regularly : But upon ceasing this blast, and suffering the lungs to fall and 
lie still, the dog would immediately fall into dying convulsive fits; but he as 
soon revived again by the renewing the fulness of his lungs with the constant 
blast of fresh air. 

Towards the latter end of this experiment a piece of the lungs was cut quite 
off; where it was observable that the blood did freely circulate and pass through 
the lungs, not only when the lungs were kept thus constantly extended, but 
also when they were suffered to subside and lie still. Which seem to be argu- 
ments, that as the bare motion of the lungs without fresh air contributes no- 
thing to the life of the animal, he being found to survive as well when they were 
not moved as when they were ; so it was not the subsiding or movelessness of 
the lungs that was the immediate cause of death, or the stopping the circula- 
tion of the blood through the lungs, but the want of a sufficient supply of fresh 
air. 

I shall shortly further try whether the suffering the blood to circulate 
through a vessel, so as it may be openly exposed to the fresh air, will not suffice 
for the life of an animal ; and make some other experiments, which I hope will 
thoroughly discover the genuine use of respiration ; and afterwards consider of 
what benefit this may be to mankind.* 

Description of Mr. Gascoigne s Micrometer .-^ By Mr. Hook. 

iV^ 29, p. 541. 

In pi. 6, the fig. 1, 2, 3, represent the several parts of this instrument; 
fig. 4, part of the telescope with the instrument applied to it, and 5 the rest 
on which the whole is supported. 

Fig. 1 represents the brass box with the whole instrument, except only the 
moveable cover, and the screws by which it is fixed to the telescope. In this 
fig. aaaa, is a small oblong brass box, serving both to contain the screws, and 
their sockets or female screws, and also to cause all the several moveable parts 
of the instrument to move very true, smooth, and in a simple direct motion. 
To one end is screwed on a round plate of brass, hhb h, about three inches over; 
the extreme limb of its outside being divided into 100 equal parts, and num- 

* The fact established by this experiment is of the utmost importance in physiology and the 
practice of physic, viz, that the mere mechanical action of tlie lungs is not sufficient for the support 
of life ; which ceases unless these organs (the lungs) be duly supplied Wiih. fresh air. On a know- 
ledge of this fact is founded the treatment of apparent deatli in new-born infants and in drowned 
persons. 

t This instrument was before mentioned in No. 25, p. 1^1. 

B B 2 



19^ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [ANNOI667. 

bered by 10, 20, 30, &c. Through the middle of this plate, and the middle 
of the box a a ay is placed a very curiously wrought screw, about the size of a 
goose quill, and of the length of the box, the head of which is, by a fixed ring 
or shoulder on the inside, and a small springing plate dd on the outside, so 
adapted to the plate that it is not in the least subject to shake. The other end 
of this screw is, by another little screw (whose small point fills the centre or 
hole made in the end of the longer screw for this pui-pose) rendered so fixed 
and steady in the box, that there appears not the least danger of shaking. On 
the head of this screw, without the springing plate, is put on a small index e e, 
and above that a handle m m, to turn the screw round as often as there shall 
be occasion, without at all endangering the displacing of the index ; it being 
put on very stiff on a cylindrical part of the head, and the handle on a square. 
The screw has that third part of it which is next the plate larger than the other 
two thirds of it, by at least as much as the depth of the small screw made on 
it : the thread of the screw of the larger third is as small again as that of the screw 
of the other two thirds. To the thicker screw is adapted a socket y, fastened to 
along bar or bolt g g, on which is fastened the moveable sight h, so that every 
turn of the screw moves the sight h either a thread nearer or a thread farther 
off from the fixed sight i. The bar jg" ^ is made exactly equal, and fitted into 
two small staples k k, which will not admit of any shaking. There are 6o of 
these threads, and answerable thereto are made 6o divisions on the edge of the 
bolt or ruler g g ; and a small index /, fixed to the box a a a, denotes how many 
threads the edges of the two sights h and / are distant ; and the index e e shows, 
on the circular plate, what part of a revolution there is more ; every revolution, 
.as was said before, being divided into 100 parts. At the same time that the move- 
able sight h is moved forwards or backwards, or more threads of the coarser 
■screw, is the plate pj&, in fig. 2, by the means of the socket q, to which it is 
screwed, moved forward or backward, or more threads of the finer screw : so 
that this plate being fixed to the telescope by the screws r r in fig. 2, so as the 
middle between the sights may lie in the axis of the glass, however the screw 
be turned, the midst between the sights will always be in the axis, and the 
sights will equally either open from it or shut towards it. 

Fig. 2 represents the moveable cover containing the screws to be fitly placed 
on fig. 1 ; according to the taking off, as it were, or folding up of this cover, 
the inward contrivance of the screws and sights may appear. 

And because it is conceived by some ingenious men, that it will be more 
convenient, instead of the edges of the two sights h and /, to employ two 
sights fitted with hairs, therefore is added fig. 3, representing the two sights 



TOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. I97 

r and s, so fitted with threads t and u, that they may be conveniently used in- 
stead of the solid edges of the sights k and i. 

The 4th figure represents how the screws are to be put on. The tube A D 
is divided into three lengths ; of which B C is to lengthen or contract as the 
object requires ; but A B is here added, that at A there may be put on such 
eye-glasses as shall be thought most convenient, and, to set them always at the 
distance most proper for them, indexes or pointers, which here are supposed to 
be at B ; which length alters also in respect of divers persons' eyes. E is a 
screw by which the great tube can be fixed so as by the help of the figures 
any smaller part of it can immediately be found, measuring only or knowing 
the divisions on B C, the distance of the object glass from the pointers. F is 
the angular piece of wood that lies on the upper screw of the stand,* which is 
represented by figure 5. 

For a description of the uses of this ingeniously contrived and very curious 
engine, see No. 25, p. l6l. 

An Account of making a Dog draw his Breath exactly like a Wind- 
broken Horse. By Dr. Richard Lower. '\ N" 29, p. 544. 

After I had often considered the manner and way of respiration, and by many 
observations been induced to believe that the diaphragm is its chief organ, I 
thought there could be no better way to try it, than by dividing the nerves, by 
which its motion is performed ; which may be easily done after the following 
manner : 

First, pierce the side of the animal between the 6th and 7 th rib in the mid- 
dle of the thorax, just opposite the region of the heart, with a small incision- 

* This rest (by Mr. Hook's suggestion) may be rendered more convenient, if, instead of placing 
the screw horizontal, it be so contrived that it may be laid parallel to the equinoctial, or to the diur- 
nal motion of the earth. For by that means the same thing may be performed by the single motion 
of one screw, which in the other way cannot be done but by the turning of both screws. 

f Richard Lower was one of the best anatomists of the 17 th century. He was educated at Oxford, 
took his degree of M. D. in that university, and exercised his profession there for some years; but at 
length removed to London, where he got into extensive practice. He and Dr. King appear to have 
been the first who performed the experiment of the transfusion of blood. Besides several papers in- 
serted in the Phil. Trans, he wrote a treatise, which procured him a great and deserved renown, De 
Corde, item de motu et Colore Sanguinis et Chyli in eum transitu, 1669. Among other things in 
this treatise, he pointed out the difference between arterial and venous blood, proving that tlie florid 
colour of the arterial blood is derived from the air. Lower was very warm in his attachments, and 
when his friend Willis's Theory of Fevers was attacked by De Meara, he wrote a Latin treatise in de- 
fence of it. In the latter part of his life he sided with the political party in opposition to the court ; 
a line of conduct which proved detrimental to his professional interests. 



108 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

knife, passing the knife but just into the cavity of the breast (which you may 
know by finding no resistance to the point of it ;) then take it out, and put in 
a director or a small quill made like it, and thrust it in about an inch, directing 
the end of it toward the sternum close to the inside of the breast. Then cut 
upon it about an inch on the intercostal muscles ; by which you may be secured 
from touching the lungs with the poitit or edge of your knife. This done, put 
in your finger, and with your nail separate the nerve which passes along the 
side of the pericardium toward the diaphragm. Then put in a probe, a little 
inverted at the end like a hook, and lay hold of the nerve and pull it to the 
orifice of the breast, and cut it oW, and sew the hole vip very close. Do the 
same on the other side, and presently let the dog loose, and you will plainly 
see him draw his breath exactly like a wind-broken horse. Which yet you will 
see plainer if you run him a little in a string after he is cut. But that any one 
may perform this experiment the easier, let him first take notice how the nerves 
of the diaphragm pass along on each side of the pericardium in a dead animal, 
before the trial be attempted in a living one. 

The most obvious remarks upon this experiment are : 

1. That the whole manner of respiration is quite altered. For, as in a sound 
Animal, in inspiration the belly swells by the lifting up the bowels by the con- 
traction of the diaphragm ; and in exspiration the belly falls by the relaxing of 
the same : in a wind-broken dog or horse it is quite contrary ; for in them it 
is to be seen plainly, that when they draw their breath, their belly is drawn 
in very lank and small, and when they breathe up, their belly is relaxed and 
swells again. 

2. It being certain that the lungs do not move of themselves at all, but 
wholly depend upon the expansion of the thorax by the intercostal muscles and 
the diaphragm ; by this experiment it appears how much the single motion of 
either of them particularly contributes to respiration. For all inspiration being 
made by the dilatation of the thorax, and that dilatation being caused partly by 
the intercostal muscles drawing up the ribs, and partly at the same time the 
diaphragm by its contraction drawing downward the lower small ribs, to which 
it is joined, and also lifting up the viscera of the lowxr belly, by which they 
jointly make all the space they can, for the air to come in and distend the 
lungs : it must hence necessarily follow, that the intercostal muscles and the 
diaphragm being constituted for two distinct employments (though both to the 
same end) and neither being able to perform the other's office, where one 
ceases from its work, the other for the exigence of nature must take more 
pains to supply the defect of the former. Which is very evident to be seen; for 
the diaphragm being made useless by losing its nerves, the intercostal muscles 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. IQQ 

dilate the ribs much more than formerly, even to the utmost distance they can 
when there is need of it ; as appears when you make the dog run a little after 
he is cut, or when you gallop a wind-broken horse. 

3. The manner of respiration being the same in a dog, whose diaphragma- 
tic nerves are cut, and in a wind-broken horse, it is more than probable, that 
the cause may be as nearly the same, and that, though there may be other 
faults found in the lungs of such creatures, yet it is very likely they may be 
induced from the weakness of respiration, but that they had their occasion 
from the relaxation or rupture of the nerves of the diaphragm at first : which 
will seem more credible, if we remember, that by the straining the midriff too 
much (by which the nerves may be quite broken or stretched beyond their pro- 
per tone) most commonly that accident happens. 

Anatomical Observations on a human Body, dead of odd Diseases. 
By Dr. Nathaniel Fairfax. N" 29, p. 546. 

A young woman, after experiencing repeated attacks of pulmonary and febrile 
complaints, died in the 24th year of her age. Two or three years before her 
death she " heard a frightful jolting in her breast," [chest] whence it was sus- 
pected there was a collection of water in that cavity. She had great dyspnoea, 
and never could lie on her left side. Several remedies were tried, but without 
relief. The winter in which she died she caught a fresh cold, and had symp- 
toms of pneumonia, which terminated fatally in a few days. On opening the 
thorax. Dr. Fairfax was surprised to see (as he thought) almost its whole cavity 
empty above (as the body lay supine) and filled with nothing but a thick milky 
fluid beneath ; but searching farther, he found there was only all the right side 
of the chest, and about a third part of the left in that condition. It took up 
in the part toward the neck a hand-breadth, and ran three fingers thickness to 
the left of the mediastinum. The liquor was like cream, or rather like a size 
of a Spanish white, having a cast of yellow like beestings. For, putting a spoon 
into it, from the bottom he took up a thick clammy matter just like that Spanish 
white that sinks to the bottom of its size. In quantity it might be about three 
pints, contained in a bag which was capable to hold as much more and better. 
The bag ran along from the left shoulder to the extremity of the right side of the 
midriff: not straight along nor stiffly stretched; but about a hand-breadth from 
its rise it went directly down to the midriff, with which it closed all along. Its 
skin or coat was thicker than that of the stomach, as well as its capacity larger, 
inasmuch as the flexures of the ribs joined with it, and made up above half the 
compass. Where it adhered to the midriff it was near a finger thick; and in 



200 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667 . 

one place, where he endeav^oured to separate it from the midrifF, he hit upon a 
thinner bag, whence issued out two or three spoonfuls of clear water. The 
mediastinum was either wholly wasted or else woven into the thickness of the 
bag, as was also the pleura, as far as the bag reached. It lay loose and flapping 
from the left axilla to the chest, having been before filled and distended either 
with lenid or the liquor. All the hollow was wet with the liquor, as that lobe 
of the lungs which should have been on the right side was gone, and that on 
the left wasted to near a third part. In the lower belly all was well.* 

Ttvo other Anatomical Observations, By the same Author. 

In the first of these observations it is stated, that a servant-man, of a dull 
melancholy disposition, who died at the age of 27, after having been in a drop- 
sical state the four preceding years, was found, on opening the body, to have 
the left lobe of the lungs almost quite wasted, but without any ulcer. The lobe 
of the liver which rests on the diaphragm was black outwardly for about a hand's 
breadth, and a thumb's breadth within the parenchyma. Other parts sound. 

The second observation mentions, that in the body of a felon, he noticed 
that the right vas prseparans (arteria spermatica) sprang clearly from the right 
emulgent ; whereas ordinarily the vas praeparans arises on the right side out of 
the aorta, as on the left out of the emulgent. 

Divers Instances of Peculiarities of Nature, both in Men and Brutes. 
By the same. N" 29, />. 549- 

1 . An asthmatic patient being advised to take a spoonful of honey, was im- 
mediately affected with an universal swelling, as if he had swallowed poison. It 
being suspected that something hurtful might have been mixed with the honey, 
a fresh quantity was procured from another place, which however on being 
swallowed produced the very same effect. 

2. A clergyman of Metigham in Suffolk, about 40 years of age, who was 
accustomed to drink warm or rather hot beer, riding out in Midsummer, stopped 
at a house at some distance from home, and was offered a cup of cold beer, 
which he drank; and then got on his horse and rode on; but soon fell sick, and 
afterwards vomited. By the time he got to his journey's end, his vomiting in- 

* This appears to have been a large abscess formed between the pleura and the ribs, and between 
the pleura and the muscular substance^ of the diaphragm. The bag or cyst was the pleura itself, 
which invests these and other parts of the cavity of the chest. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 201 

creased, and he was obliged to go to bed. The next day he grew worse, could 
find no help from physic, and died the following morning. 

3. This observation merely contains an instance of great timidity in a female 
mind. A lady had a great dread of wasps, and confined herself to her room 
*' whilst their season of swarming about in houses lasted." 

4. In another lady, the dread excited by thunder operated so powerfully as to 
produce fainting, vomiting and diarrhoea, in short all the symptoms of cholera. 

5. A woman affected with chlorosis had a longing to suck the wind out of 
bellows, which, as often as she could, she received with open mouth, forcing the 
air in by blowing with her own hands the bellows inverted. — Another was fond 
of crackling cinders under her feet. 

6. Somewhat like this is to be found in brutes. In May last a greyhound 
bitch at Brightwell-Hall, about five or six days before she cast her whelps, had 
such a wild kind of hunger (though she was fed sufficiently every day with usual 
food) that finding another bitch's whelps, she devoured them all (four or five 
as I remember) and fell next upon the bitch herself, who made a shift to get 
from her as well as she could, being helped. From this, and from sows devour- 
ing whole litters of pigs, I am prone to think other^vise of the longings of 
pregnant women than is the comition opinion. 

A Confirmation of the Experiments me7itio?ied in iV** 27, (p. IJOof this 
Abridgement) to have been made by Sig. Fracassati in Italy, by in- 
jecting Acid [and other] Liquors into the Blood. By the Hon. 
BoBERT Boyle, in a Letter to Mr. Oldenburo, dated Oxford, 
Oct. 19, 1667. N'' 29, p. 551. 

Sir, 
I hinted to you in my last something about the original of the experiments 
made in Italy, by injecting acid liquors into blood : To explain which, I shall 
now tell you, that about this time three years I mentioned at Gresham College 
to the Royal Society an odd experiment I had formerly made upon blood yet 
warm, as it came from the animal, viz. That by putting into it a little aqua- 
fortis or oil of vitriol, or spirit of salt, the blood not only would presently lose 
its pure colour and become of a dirty one, but instantly be also coagulated ; 
whereas if some fine urinous spirit, abounding in volatile salt, such as the spirit 
of sal ammoniac, were mingled with the warm blood, it would not only not curdle 
it, or imbase its colour, but make it look rather more florid than before, and 
both keep it fluid and preserve it from putrefaction for a long time. 

This experiment I devised, among other things, to show the amicableness of 

VOL. I. C c 



202 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNOI 667. 

volatile spirits to the blood. And I remember it was so much taken notice of 
that some very inquisitive members of the Society came presently to me, and 
desired me to acquaint them more particularly with it; which I readily did, 
though afterwards I made some further observations about the same experiment 
that I had no occasion to relate. 

This having been so publicly done, though I shall not say that Siguier 
Fracassati may not have hit as well as I upon the experiments published in his 
name, yet there is so little difference between the warm blood of an animal out 
of his veins and in them, that it is not very improbable that he may have had 
some imperfect rumour of our experiment without knowing whence it came, and 
so may, without any disingenuity, have thence taken a hint to make and publish 
what now appears in the Transactions. If it be thought fit that any mention 
be made of what I related so long since, I think I can send you some other cir- 
cumstances belonging to it. For I remember I tried it with other liquors (as 
spirit of wine, oil of tartar, oil of turpentine,) and I think also I can send you 
some remarks upon the colour of the upper part of the blood. 

An Observation concerning the Epiploo??, or Double Membrane, ivhicli 
covers the Entrails of Animals, and is filled with Fat.* By Malpighi. 
N" 29, p' 553. 

The epiploon, looked at through a good microscope, is like a great sack, 
full of abundance of other small sacks, which inclose gatherings of grease 
or fat. There are many vessels, which may be called adipous or fatty, which, 
issuing out of this membrane, and spreading themselves all over the body, 
convey fat to it, just as the arteries carry the blood all over the same.-j- Where- 
ever is fat or grease there is found store of these little sacks, wherein that is 
inclosed, whence it is, that in lean and emaciated bodies, instead of fat you find 
nothing but skins. 

The structure of these small sacks and of the adipous vessels sufficiently 
shows that the fat is not formed accidentally out of the thick vapours of the 
blood, as is the common belief. Nor is its chief use to foment the natural 
heat, but it seems rather to conduce to the allaying of the acrimony of the salts 

• This observation should have been added to those inserted in No. 27 of this Abridgement, since 
it is contained in tlae Exercitatio de Omento annexed to the Tetras Anatom. Epist. M. Malpighi. 

■\ What are here termed adipous vessels issuing out of the substance of the omentum, and termi- 
nating in the sacks or cells wherein the fat is lodged, are nothing more than arterial ramuli, from the 
extremities of which it would appear that the fat is deposited by transudation; for anatomists have 
never detected a truly glandular apparatus for the secretion of the adipous fluid. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 203 

that are in the blood and the serosities. And indeed lean persons, and those 
whose epiploon has been cut, are more subject than others to rheumatisms, lien- 
teries, and the like diseases that are caused by the sharpness of the humours. 
And those that are fat are not so easily seized on by them, because the acrimony 
of the serosities is corrected by the mixture of the fat, just as the sharpest 
lixivium will lose its force if oil be mingled therewith.* 

An Account of the Experiment of Transfusion, performed in London 
Nov. 23, 1667, upon the Person of Arthur Coga^ at Arundel House, 
in the Presence of many considerable and intelligent Spectators, 
under the Management of Dr. Richard Lojfer and Dr. Ed- 
MUND King ; by the latter of whom the Relation was drawn up. 
N' 30, p. 557. 

The experiment of transfusion of blood into a human vein was made by us 
in this manner : Having prepared the carotid artery in a young sheep, we in- 
serted a silver pipe into the quills to let the blood run through it into a porrin- 
ger, and in the space of almost a minute about 12 ounces of the sheep's blood 
ran through the pipe into the porringer, which was somewhat to direct us in the 
quantity of blood now to be transfused into the man. Which done, when we 
came to prepare the vein in the man's arm, the vein seemed too small for that 
pipe which we intended to insert into it ; so that we employed another about 
one third part less at the little end. Then we made an incision in the vein, 
after the method formerly published. No. 28, which method we observed with- 
out any other alteration, but in the shape of one of our pipes, which we found 
more convenient for our purpose. And having opened the vein in the man's 
arm with as much ease as in the common way of venesection, we let thence 
run out six or seven ounces of blood. Then we planted our silver pipe into the 
said incision, and inserted quills between the two pipes already advanced in the 
two subjects, to convey the arterial blood from the sheep into the vein of the 
man. But this blood was near a minute before it had passed through the pipes 
and quills into the arm ; and then it ran freely into the man's vein for the space 
of two minutes at least ; so that we could feel a pulse in the said vein just be- 
yond the end of the silver pipe; though the patient said he did not feel the 

♦ In many species of cachexy there is a rapid absorption and consumption of fat, whereby the acri- 
mony existing in the fluids is considerably blunted, and tlie irritation on the nen'ous and arterial sys- 
tems is proportionably lessened. 

CC2 



204 . PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667. 

blood hot (as was reported of the subject in the French experiment) which may 
very well be imputed to the length of the pipes through which the blood 
passed, losing thereby so much of its heat, as to come in a temper very agree- 
able to venal blood. And as to the quantity of blood received into the man's 
vein we judge there was about nine or ten ounces : For, allowing this pipe -i- less 
than that through which 1 2 ounces passed in one minute before, we may very 
well suppose it might in two minutes convey as much blood into the vein as the 
other did into the porringer, in one minute, granting withal that the blood did 
not run so vigorously the second minute as the first, nor the third as the se- 
cond, &c. But we conceive that the blood ran during the whole of those two 
minutes : First, because we felt a pulse during that time : Secondly, because 
when, upon the man's saying he thought he had enough, we drew the pipe out 
of his vein, the sheep's blood ran through it with a full stream ; which it had 
not done, if there had been any stop before in the space of those two minutes ; 
the blood being so very apt to coagulate in the pipes upon the least stop, 
especially the pipes being so long as three quills. 

The man after this operation, as well as in it, found himself very well, and 
has given in his own narrative under his own hand, enlarging more upon the 
benefit which he thinks he has received by it, than we as yet think fit to own. 
He urged us to have the experiment repeated upon him within three or four 
days after this ; but it was thought advisable to put it off somewhat longer. 
And the next time we hope to be more exact, especially in weighing the emit- 
tent animal before and after the operation, to have a more just account of the 
quantity of blood it shall have lost. 

A Relation of some Trials of Transfusion lately made in France, 
By Mr. Oldenburg. N" 30, p. 559- 

1 . Mr. Denys, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Paris, 
states in a letter to the publisher, that they had lately transfused the blood of 
four wethers into a horse l6 years old, and that this horse had thence received 
much strength, and more than ordinary appetite. 

2. The same person was pleased to send to the same hand a printed letter 
written to the Abbot Bourdelot, by M. Gadroys, being an answer to a paper of 
one M. Lamy. In this answer the author vindicates the experiments of trans- 
fusion from the objections that have been urged against them. 



VOL. n.'] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 205 

Some neiv Experiments of Injecting medicated Liquors into Veins, to- 
gether ivith [an Account o/'] considerable Cures performed thereby. 
Communicated by Dr. Fabritius, of Dantzick. [Translated by Mr. 
Oldenburg from the original Latin.'\ N" 30, p. 564. 

As we had a great desire to try what would be the effect of the surgical 
experiment of injecting liquors into human veins, three fit subjects present- 
ing themselves in out hospital, we thought good to make the trial upon 
them. But seeing little ground to hope for a manifest operation from merely 
altering medicines, we thought the experiment would be more convenient and 
conspicuous from laxatives; which made us inject by a syphon about two drams 
of such a kind of physic into the median vein of the right arm. The patients 
were these : One was a lusty robust soldier dangerously infected with the vene- 
real disease, and suffering grievous exostoses of the bones in his arms. He, 
when the purgative liquor was infused into him, complained of great pains in his 
elbows, and the little valves of his arm swelled so visibly that it was necessary 
by a gentle compression of one's fingers to stroke up that swelling towards the 
patient's shoulders. About four hours after it began to work, not very trouble- 
somely; and so it did the next day, insomuch that the man had five good stools 
after it. Without any other remedies, those protuberances were gone, nor are 
there any traces left of the above-mentioned disease.* 

The two other trials were made upon the other sex. A married woman of 
35, and a servant maid of 20 years of age, had been both of them from their 
birth very grievously afflicted with epileptic fits, so that there were little hopes 
left to cure them. They both underwent this operation, and there was injected 
into their veins a laxative rosin, dissolved in an anti-epileptic spirit. The first 
of these had gentle stools some hours after the injection, the next day the fits 
recurred now and then, but much milder, and are since altogether vanished. 
As for the other, viz. the maid, she went the same day to stool four times, and 
several times the next ; but by going into the air, taking cold, and being care- 
less in her food, she died. 

It is remarkable that all three vomited soon after the injection, and that 
excessively and frequently. 

* That venereal exostoses should be thus removed in the short space of two days, appears a most 
extraordinary fact. Might not the supposed " protuberances of tlie bones" have been tixmors formed 
by obstructions taking place in the lymphatic vessels ? In that case their sudden disappearance after 
the cathartic operation of the injected hquor will cease to excite astonishment. 



%06 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, [aNNO I667 . 

Of the Tides, of IVells, Salt and Fresh IVater ; a7id of the Whale 
Fishing, &c. at Bermudas. By Rd. Norwood."^ N" 30, p. 565. 

Concerning the tides, I have only taken a general notice of them ; as that it 
is high water about 7 o'clock on the change day ; in some creeks an hour or 
two later. The water rises but little, as about 4 feet at a high water ; but at 
the spring- tides it may be a foot more. The tides without, are very various in 
their setting. Sometimes the tide of flood sets to the eastward, sometimes to 
the westward ; but in fair, calm and settled weather, the tide sets from the 
south-east toward the north-west. 

We dig wells of fresh water sometimes within 20 yards of the sea or less, 
which rise and fall with the. tide ; and so do most of the wells in the country, 
though further up, as I am informed. "Wherever they dig wells here, they 
dig till they come almost to a level with the superficies of the sea, and then 
they find either fresh water or salt. If it be fresh, and if they then dig 2 or 3 
feet deeper, and often less, they come to salt water. If it be a sandy ground, 
or a sandy crumbling stone that the water soaks gently through, they find 
usually fresh water ; but if they be hard lime-stone rocks, which the water 
cannot soak through, but passes in chinks or clefts between them, the water 
is salt or brackish. Yet I never saw any sand in the country such as will grind 
glass, or whet knives, &c. as in England, but a substance like sand, though 
much softer ; neither have we any pebble-stones or flint. 

For the killing of whales, it has been formerly attempted in vain, but within 
these two or three years in the spring time and fair weather they take some- 
times one, or two, or three in a day. They are smaller it seems than those in 
Greenland, but more quick and lively, so that if they be struck in deep water, 
they presently plunge with such violence, that the boat is in danger of being 
hauled down after them, if they cut not the rope in time. Therefore they 
usually strike them in shoal water. They have very good boats for that pur- 
pose, manned with six oars, such as they can row forwards or backwards as 
occasion requires. They row up gently to the whale so as he can scarcely 
avoid thepi ; and when the harpooner, standing ready fitted, sees his opportuni- 
ty, he strikes his harping iron into the whale, about or before the fins, rather than 

* Mr. Norwood was a teacher of mathematics, particularly navigation, in which it seems he had 
some practice. He published several books ; as. The Epitome and Doctrine of Triangles j Trigono- 
metry j and the Seaman's Practice, where is found that for which he has been mostly noted, viz. 
his determination of tlie magnitude of the eartli, and the degrees of tlie meridian, by means of the 
distance measured between London and York. 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 207 

t 

toward the tail. The harping irons are like those which are usual in England 
in striking porpoises, but of excellent metal that will not break, but bend 
about a man's hand. To the harping iron is made fast a strong flexible rope, 
and into the socket of that iron is put a staff, which, when the whale is struck, 
comes out of the socket ; and when the whale is something quiet, 4;hey haul 
up to him by the rope, and so strike into him another harping iron, or lance 
him with lances in staves till they have killed him. I hear not that they have 
found any spermaceti in any of these whales ; but I have heard from credible 
persons, that there is a kind of such as have the sperma at Eleutheria, and 
others of the Bahama Islands, where also they often find quantities of amber- 
gris, and that those have great teeth, which ours have not, and are very 
sinewy. 

To find the Numher of the Julian Period, by M. de Billy's Method ; 
with the Demonstration of that Method. By Mr. John Collins,* 
F. R. S. iY" 30, p. 568. 
This method was given in these Transactions, No. 18, and is thus : 

{Solar 1 p , 1 7 /'4845x 

Lunar -> ^^ [ by -l 4200 I Then divide 
Indiction 3 ^6qi6J 

the sum of the products by 7980, the Julian period; the remainder of the 
division, without having regard to the quotient, will be the year required. 
Concerning the demonstration, Mr. John Collins, now a member of the Royal 
Society, communicated what follows, viz. 

That the Julian period is a basis whereon to found chronology not liable to 
controversy, as the age of the world is ; and it is the number abovesaid, to wit 
7980, which is the product of the 28th solar cycle, 19th lunar, 15 th indiction. 
The problem may be thus proposed generally : 

Any number of divisors, with their remainders after division, being pro- 
posed, to find the dividend. 

This is thus proposed in this general manner, but is no new problem, and was 

* An eminent accountant and mathematician, bom near Oxford in l624. Besides many papers 
in the Phil. Trans, he pubUshed a number of useful works on a variety of subjects, mathematics, 
navigation, astronomy, trade, commerce, &c. also editing the works of many otlier authors, 
which he procured to be printed, as those of Barrow, Brouncker, Pell, &c. Mr. Collins was also very 
.useful to the Royal Society, &c. in conducting a literary correspondence witli the most learned men 
of those times, both at home and abroad, as Barrow, Newton, Wallis, Leibnitz, &cc. particularly 
in the famous dispute concerning the invention of Fluxions between Newton and Leibnitz, the let- 
ters passing chiefly through Collins's hands, and published in his name in 1712, under tlie title of 
Commercium Epistolicum. He died in l683, at 59 years of age. 



208 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1667. 

resolved long since by John Geysius, by the help of particular multipliers, such 
as those above mentioned, and published by Alsted in his Encyclopaedia, 
An. ] 630, and by Van Schooten in his Miscellanies. 

We shall clear up what authors have omitted concerning the definition and 
demonsti^tion of such fixed multipliers, &c. And therefore say, that each 
multiplier is relative to the divisor to which it belongs, and thus define it : 

It is such a number as, divided by the rest of the divisors or their pro- 
duct, the remainder is O, but, divided by its own divisor, the remainder is 
an unit. 

We required the divisors proposed to be primitive to each other, /. e. that 
no two or more of them can be reduced to less terms by any common divisor. 
For if so, the question may be possible in itself, but not resolvable by help of 
such multipliers, such being impossible to be found. The reason is, because 
the product of an odd and an even number is always even, and that divided by 
an even number, leaves either nothing or an even number. 

28. r4845 

Divisors 1 9 > The multipliers relative to them are < 4200 
13J '^6916 

The difinition affords light enough for the discovery of these numbers. To 
instance in the first ; the product of 19 and 15 is 285, which multiply by all 
numbers successively, and divide by 28 till you find the remainder required. 
Thus twice 285 is 570, which divided by 28, the remainder is 10 ; also thrice 
285 is 855, which divided by 28, the remainder is 15. Thus if you try on 
successively, you will find that 17 times 285, which is 4845, is the number 
required, which divided by 28, the remainder is an unit. Hence then we shall 
find that 

4845^1 rl9, 15, 17- 

4200 > is equal to the solid or product of < 28, 15, 10. 
6916^ ^28, 19, 13. 

More easy ways of performing this postulatum are to be found in Van 
Schooten's Miscellanies, and Tacquet's Arithmetic. 

For illustration of the rule proposed, take this example. 

Products. 

J , Solar cycle 25•^ 4845-j 121125 

,f{^^ F^^ Lunar cycle \6 >The multipliers 4200 > 67200 

1008, the jndiction 6^ 6916'' 41 496 

The sum of the products 22982 1 
which divided by 7980, the remainder is 6381, for the year of the Julian 
period ; from which subtracting 709, there remains 5672 for the age of the 
world, according to archbishop Usher. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 20Q 

For demonstration of this rule we argue thus : 

1. Each multiplier multiplied by its remainder, is measured or divided by its 
own divisor, leaving such a remainder as is proposed. For each multiplier was 
defined above to be a multiple of its own divisor, plus an unit. Therefore 
multiplying it by any remainder, it only renders it a greater multiple in the said 
divisor, plus an unit, multiplied by the remainder ; which is no other than the 
remainder itself; but if remains that product is destroyed. 

2. The sum of the products divided by each respective divisor, leaves the re- 
mainder assigned. For concerning the first product, it is by the first section 
measured by its own divisor, leaving the remainder proposed ; and if we add 
the rest of the products, we only add a multiple of its own divisor, which in 
division enlarges the quotient, but not the remainder. In particular the second 
multiplier is 28 X 15 X 10 X remainder, all which is but a multiple of 28. 
And so the third product is 28 X IQ X 13 X remainder. 

And what has been said concerning the sum of the products, being divided 
by the first divisor, and leaving the remainder thereto assigned, may be said of 
each respectively. 

3. The sum of the products divided by the solid of the three divisors, leaves 
a remainder so qualified as the said sum. For that sum, by the 2d article, is 
the first product increased by adding a just multiple of the first divisor, that 
thereby we only enlarge the quotient, not alter the remainder. By the like 
reason, the subtracting a just multiple, only alters the quotient, not the re- 
mainder; but the solid of all three divisors multiplied here by the quotient, as 
there by the remainder, is only a just multiple of the first divisor. Wherefore 
the remainder, after this division is performed, is of the same quality as the sum 
of the products, and divided by the first divisor, leaves the remainder proper 
thereto : and the like may be said concerning each divisor. 

To find the year of the Julian period for any year of our Lord proposed : 
It is necessary to know the sun's cycle, the prime number, and the number of 
the Roman indiction, which Mr. Street performs by the following verse ; 

When 1, 9, 3, to the year have added been. 
Divide by IQ, 28, fifteen. 

The remainders are the numbers sought, or the cycles and indiction re- 
quired ; as we found them for the year l668, in the foregoing example. 

The use of the prime is to find the epact, and thereby the moon's age, the 
time of high water, &c. A farther use of the sun's cycle is, to find the domi- 
nical letter, and thereby to know the day of the week on which any day of any 

VOL. I. Db 



210 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I667, 

month happens. But this is more easily obtained by finding on what day of the 
week the first of March happens for ever, according to such rules and verses as 
I have elsewhere published. 

In brief thus : — To the number 1 add the year of our Lord, suppose 1669, 
and its even fourth part, neglecting what remains, if any, as 417 ; the sum 2088 
divide by 7, noting the remainder, which shows the number of the day of the 
week, accounting Sunday first. If O remain the first of March falls on a Sa- 
turday. In this example there remains 2, showing the first of March to fall 
on a Monday. If it were required To perfonn this for years preceding our 
Saviour's nativity, then take this rule : To the year add its even fourth part, the 
sum divide by 7 ; the remainder shows the day of the week, accounting Sunday 
first, Saturday second, and so backwards. 

To find what day of the month in the first week of each month happens to 
be on the same day of the week as the first of March. Use the following 
verses, in which the 12 words relate to the 12 months of the year, accounting 
March the first : 

Ask endless comfort, God enough bestows. 
From divine axioms faith confirmed grows. 

The alphabetical number of the first letter of the word, proper to the month 
proposed, is the answer : 

For example. — If the month were April, the word proper thereto is endless, 
and E is the fifth letter in the alphabet. Therefore conclude, that the first 
of March and iifth of April do for ever happen on the same day of the 
week. 

To find on what day of the week the first day of each month happens. Suppos- 
ing the first of March known, it might be reckoned from the former problem ; 
but the following verse, beginning with March as the former, is more ready 
for the purpose : 

A dreadful fire, beholders daily gaze. 
Chastised England. Ah cruel fatal blaze ! 

Explication. — In the year 1669, the first of March is Monday; I would 
know on what day of the week the first of October happens. The word pro- 
per to the month is England ; then count alphabetically to E, viz. A Monday, 
B Tuesday, C Wednesday, D Thursday, E Friday, which is the day sought. 
Whence conclude, that the 1st, 8th, 15th, 22d, 29th days of October are 
all Fridays. Thence it is easy to reckon on what day of the week any day 
of that month happened^ and so for all other months. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 21 1 

To find on what day of the month the sun enters into any sign of the Zo- 
diac. For this we give the following verse ; 

Charles brought content, divers effects ensue, 
Envy, fear, dolour, danger, bid adieu. 
Here again, the 12 words relate to the 12 months, March being the first. 
To the number of the letter of the alphabet, the word begins with, add 7. Ex- 
ample. — Fear is the word for October, and F the sixth letter ; therefore the 
suns enters into the 8th sign, to wit Scorpio, on the 13th of October. 

A71 Account oj some Books. N" 30, p. 575. 

I. Petri Lambeci Lib. Primus Prodromi Historiae Literariae, &c. 

II. Thomae Cornelii Consentini Progymnasmata Physica. 

III. Les Essays Physiques du Sieur De Launay, Liv. premier. 

IV. Francisci du Laurens Specimina Mathematica, duobus Libris comprehensa. 

New Experiments concerning the Relation between Light and Air in 
shining JVbod and Fish. By Mr. Boyle. N° 31, p. 581. 

Exper. J . On putting a piece of shining rotten wood, of the size of a groat * 
or less, into the receiver of a pneumatic engine or air-pump, and the pump 
being set to work, we observed not, during the five or six first exsuctions of 
the air, that the splendour of the included wood was lessened, but about the 
seventh suck it seemed to grow a little more dim, and afterwards, losing of its 
light more and more as the air was further pumped out, at length, about the 
tenth exsuction, we could not perceive any light at all to proceed from the 
wood. 

Exper. 2. We let in the air again by degrees, and had the pleasure to see the 
seemingly extinguished light revive, so fast and perfectly, that it looked to us 
all almost like a little flash of lightning, and the splendour of the wood seemed 
Vather greater than before it was put into the receiver. On including the wood 
in a very small receiver of clear glass, it was found that in this the light would 
begin to grow faint at the second or third exsuction of the air, and at the sixth 
or seventh would quite disappear. 

Exper. 3. To discover whether this luminousness of the wood would more 
resemble a coal, or the life of a perfect animal, in being totally and finally ex- 
tinguished in case the air were kept from it a few minutes, or else the life of 
insects, which in the exhausted receiver I had observed to lose all appearance of 
its continuing, and that for a much longer time than a few minutes, and yet 

* A silver coin then in use, rather less than a sixpence. 
DI)2 



212 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

afterwards, upon the restitution of air, to recover presently, and show manifest 
signs of life ; having therefore exhausted the receiver, till the wood quite disap- 
peared, we stayed above a quarter of an hour in the dark, without perceiving 
that the wood had regained any thing of light, though about the end of this 
time we made the place about it as dark as we could ; and then, it being too late 
at night to protract the experiment, we let in the air, and on the admission the 
wood presently recovered light enough to be conspicuous at a distance, though 
it seemed to me somewhat less vivid than before. 

The following night we put in a piece of wood larger than the former, being 
above an inch long, which shone very bright. And having by a few exhaus- 
tions quite deprived it of light, we left it in the exhausted receiver for full half 
an hour, then coming into the dark room again, we found that some small 
portion of air had insinuated itself into the receiver. 

Exper. 4. Having observed that sometimes the operation, which the with- 
drawing the air has upon a body included in the receiver, proves more consi- 
derable some minutes after we have ceased pumping than it is immediately after, 
I imagined that even in such cases where the light is not made wholly to disap- 
pear by the emptying of the pneumatical glass, the suffering the body to re- 
main a while there, though without any pumping, the remaining light of the 
body might probably be further impaired, if not be made quite to vanish. To 
examine this conjecture, we put in a body that was not wood, which had some 
parts much more luminous than the rest ; and having drawn out the air, all the 
others disappeared, and even the formerly brighter ones shone but faintly, when 
the receiver seemed to be exhausted. But keeping the included body a while 
in that situation, we perceived the parts that had retained light to grow more 
and more dim, some of them disappearing, and that which was formerly the 
most conspicuous being now but just visible to an attentive eye. The air being 
let in, the body began to shine again. 

Exper. 5. The rarefaction of the air having so notable an effect on the shin- 
ing wood, I thought it would not be amiss to try what the compression of the 
air would do to it. For which purpose, we included a piece of it in such a lit- 
tle instrument to compress, as that devised and proposed by M. Hook. But 
though we impelled the air forcibly enough into the glass, yet by reason of the 
thickness requisite in such glasses, and the opacity thence arising, we were not 
able then to determine whether or no any change was made in the luminousness 
of the wood. 

Exper. 6. To try whether a small quantity of air, without being renewed, 
might not suffice to maintain this cold fire, though it will not that of a live 
coal, or a piece of match, we caused a piece of shining wood to be hermetically 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 218 

sealed up in a pipe of clear and thin glass; which being carefully done, the 
wood retained its light very well when the operation was over, and shone for a 
long time afterwards. 

Exper. 7. On placing a piece of red-hot iron properly within the receiver, 
and exhausting the air, the operation seemed not to have any effect on it as to 
alter its shining. 

Exper. 8. Having hermetically sealed up a small piece of shining wood in a 
slender pipe, and placed it in a small receiver, made of clear glass, it was ex- 
hausted of air, and afterwards let in again. But by neither of the operations 
could we perceive any sensible decrement or increase of the light of the wood : 
which shows that the motion of such bodies as the particles of light may be 
freely made in vacuo, at least such a vacuum as the engine produces. 

Exper. 9. Taking a cylindrical glass tube sealed at one end, whose bore was 
about half an inch, and its length a foot or more. Into this pipe near the sealed 
end was put a piece of shining wood, wedged in with a piece of cork to keep it 
from falling ; and having inverted the nose of it into another slender glass with 
quicksilver, and put them both into a long receiver; having pumped a while, 
that the air included in the pipe expanding itself depressed the quicksilver, and so 
made escapes into the receiver; we then letting in the outward air, that the 
stagnant quicksilver might be impelled into the cavity of the pipe now freed 
from much of the air, to the height requisite for the purpose. This done, on 
plying the pump again, it was observed that as the air in the pipe, by its own 
spring, expanded itself more and more, and grew thinner and thinner, the 
shining wood grew dimmer and dimmer, till at length it ceased to shine, the in- 
ternal air being then got a good way lower than the surface of the external 
quicksilver : whereupon opening the communication between the cavity of the 
receiver and the atmosphere, the quicksilver was driven up again, and conse- 
quently the air above it was restored to its former density, on which the rotten 
wood also recovered its light. 

Exper. 10. Having taken a stale and shining fish that was almost all over 
luminous, though much more in the belly and some parts of the head than else- 
where, and having suspended him in a conveniently shaped receiver, and hav- 
ing exhausted the receiver as much as usual, it appeared indeed, especially to- 
wards the latter end of the operation, that the absence of the air considerably 
lessened, and in some places eclipsed the light of those parts that shone less 
strongly ; but the belly appeared not much less luminous than before. On re- 
admitting the air, the light was perceived to be as it were revived and increased, 
those parts of the fish that were scarce visible before, or shone but dimly, re- 
ceiving presently their former splendour. 



214 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166&, 

Exper. 1 1 . Having put into the receiver a large piece of wood, whose lumi- 
nous superficies might be perhaps ten or twelve times as great as that which the 
eye saw at once of the surface of such fragments of shining wood as were be- 
fore employed; and though some parts of this large superficies shone vividly, 
yet upon withdrawing the air it was deprived of light as the smaller ones liad 
been formerly, the returning air restoring its light to the one, as it had done to 
the other. 

Exper. 12. Having put into the receiver small pieces of rotten fish, that 
«hone some of them more faintly and some of them more vividly in respect to 
one another, and having in a very small and clear receiver so far drawn off the 
air as to make the included body disappear ; after thus keeping out the air for 
V about twenty-four hours, and then allowing it to re-enter in a dark place and 
late at night, upon its first admittance the fish regained its light. 

Exper. 13. Having put a piece of shining fish into a wide-mouthed glasSj 
about half filled with fair water, and placed this glass in a receiver, the air was 
exhausted for a good while ; it could not be perceived that either the absence 
or return of the air had >any great effect upon the light of the immersed body, 

Exper. 14. Placing a very luminous piece of shining fish in the receiver, after 
exhausting it was kept there 48 hours, in which time its light gradually and 
wholly vanished ; but on restoring the air it recovered its light again, as in the 
former instances. 

All these experiments were made with whitings, being the fittest kind for 
such trials. 

The suddenness with which the included body appeared to be as it were re- 
kindled on the first contact of the air, revived in Mr. Boyle some suspicions he 
had about the possible causes of these short-lived apparitions of light, which, 
disclosing themselves upon men's coming in, and consequently letting in fresh 
air into vaults that had been very long close, did soon after vanish. 

An Account of the Pathologice Cei^ebri & Nervosi Generis Specimen: 
in quo agitur de Morbis Convulsivis et Scorhuto, studio Thomjs 
Willis, M. D* iV" 31, p. 600. 

The author gives here a very good specimen of what he formerly promised 
of the whole pathology of the brain and nerves. The knowledge of the dis- 

* Thomas Willis was bom at Great Bedwin, in Wiltshire, in 1621. He was educated at Oxford, 
and was appointed Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in that university in l660 j in which year 
he also took his degree of doctor of physic, though his original intentions were for the church. Some 
years afterwards he removed to London, became a member of tlie Royal Society, and made himself 
fiirther known by several publications on medical, anatomical, and pharmaceutical subjects) viz. by 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 215 

eases to wliich these parts are liable is esteemed very difficult and intricate, and 
particularly the true causes of convulsions are of a very deep research. With 
a view to the elucidation thereof, this author reasons after this manner : He 
teaches that there are indeed animal spirits, that they constitute the being of the 
corporeal soul, and are also the next and immediate instruments of all animal 
motions, producing them by a kind of explosion or shooting; upon which elas- 
tic or explosive power he establishes his whole doctrine of convulsions. To 
which he annexes a disquisition on the scurvy, as relating to the same doctrine, 
and grounded upon the same hypothesis. 

Comparison between burning Coal and shining Wood. By Mr. Boyle, 

iV" 32, p. 605. 

Their resemblances are as follow. — 1. Both live coals and shining wood are 
luminous by their own light ; for both of them shine the more vividly, by how 
much the place wherein they are put is made the darker by the careful exclu- 
sion of the adventitious light — 2. Both shining wood and burning coal require 
the presence of the air, and that too of a particular density. — 3. Both shining 
wood and a burning coal having been deprived for a time of their light, by the 
withdrawing of the contiguous air, may presently recover it by letting in fresh 
air upon them. — 4. Both live coal and shining wood are easily extinguished by 
water and many other liquors. This is evident as to the coal. And on wetting 
a piece of shining wood with a little common water in a clear glass, it presently 
lost all its light. The event was the same with strong spirit of salt, and also 
with weak spirit of sal ammoniac ; as also with highly rectified spirit of wine, 
and with rectified oil of turpentine. — 5. As a live coal is not extinguished by 
the coldness of the air, so neither is a piece of shining wood. 

Their differences are as follow. — 1. The first difference observed between a 

his treatises de Fermentatione^ de Febribus, de Urinis, de Cerebri Anatome. In the last-mentioned 
treatise, which was his cfief-d'oi/vre, he had the assistance of Lower in tlie anatomical dissections, 
as well as in the Latin composition, and of Sir Christopher Wren, (at tliat time Savillian professor of 
astronomy in the university of Oxford,) in the drawings for tlie plates. These publications were fol- 
lowed by tliework above noticed (Pathologia Cerebri), by his Anima Brutorum, and lastly by his 
Pharmaceutice Rationalis; all of which have been printed togetlier at different times under the title of 
Opera Omnia, in fol. and in 4to, He died in 1675. Dr. Willis was too much addicted to chemical 
theories, on which he endeavoured to establish a pathology incompatible widi the properties of living 
bodies. Nevertheless much ingenuity is displayed in all his writings, and those which relate to anato- 
mical subjects may be consulted with advantage for the descriptions and accompanying plates. Suc- 
ceeding anatomists, however, have remarked that he has not always distinguished betw'een the parts as 
they appear in the human and brute subject; having at times made dissections of the latter subser\ient 
to exemplifying and illustrating tlie structure of the former. 



21 6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

live coal and shining wood is this, that although the light of the former is 
readily extinguishable by compression, the latter is not affected by it. — 2. A 
live coal will in a very few minutes be totally extinguished by withdrawing 
the air ; whereas shining wood immediately recovers its light if the air be 
admitted again, even though excluded for half an hour. — 3. A live coal 
being put into a small close glass, continues to burn only a very few minutes ; 
but a piece of shining wood continues to shine for whole days. — 4. A coal as it 
burns emits a great deal of smoke or exhalations ; but luminous wood does not 
so. — 5. A coal in shining wastes at a great rate ; but shining wood does not. — 
6. Live coal is actually and vehemently hot ; whereas shining wood is not sen- 
sibly lukewarm. 

An Ohservatmi concerning a Blemish in a Horses Eye, not hitherto 
discovered by any Author. By Dr. Rich. Lower. N° 32, p. 613. 

The eyes of horses are peculiarly affected with a disorder which no animal 
besides is troubled with, as far as I have observed ; neither do I remember any 
author hitherto to have taken notice of it. It is a spungy excresence (com- 
monly of a dark musk colour) which grows out of the edge of that coat of the 
eye called the uvea ; which spunge if it grow large or increase in number (as 
frequently happens) it depraves the sight very much, or totally intercepts it. 
But that you may more easily conceive the manner how it is done, you may 
remember that the uvea is a muscular part, the use of it being chiefly to con- 
tract and dilate itself for the admission of objects with as much light as the eye 
can conveniently bear ; so that the brighter and more refulgent the light is to 
which the eye is exposed, that membrane contracts itself into a narrower 
compass ; and the darker the place is the more it dilates itself, as you may see 
most readily in a cat's eye : so that if that spungy substance which grows out 
of the edge of the uvea be so great, or the number of them such as that they 
grow in several places about the pupil of the eye, where it contracts itself, the 
pupil or sight is very much (if not totally) obstructed, and consequently the 
horse sees very little or nothing at all : as I have many times taken exact notice 
in some horses, which being brought into the sun-shine, could not see at all, 
but suffered me to touch the sight of their eye with my finger without the least 
winking ; which horses being led back into the stable, the uvea in that obscure 
place dilating itself, they could see very well again, and would not suffer me to 
show my finger near to the eye without frequent closing their eye-lids and 
tossing their heads. The same horses I understood by the owners were very 
apt to stumble in the day-time if the sun shone, but travelled very well and 
securely in the evening and in dark cloudy weather. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 217 

What the cause may be of that fungous excrescence, or why liorses are ne - 
culiarly obnoxious to it, or what kind of horses most, I have not considered. 
But I cannot think it comes from straining in great draughts, in races, or from 
hard travelling, because I have seen very large spunges (as I may call them) in 
young horses' eyes of two and four years old before they were backed ; which 
after they have been taken up from grass and kept witli dry meat, have very 
much abated, and afterwards being turned again to grass in the spring, have in- 
creased again to the wonted largeness. But whether it were from their moist 
feeding, or holding down their heads to eat (whereby there might be a greater 
deflux of humours to that part) I cannot determine. But as there are few 
horses quite free from this evil, and many rendered very inconsiderable by it, I 
will recount the most remarkable cases which make horses most useless and 
suspected : 

1 . The more and greater those excrescences are, the more the pupil of the 
eye or sight is in danger of being quite obstructed ; which you may farther ex- 
amine by turning the horses' eye to the light, and observing how much of the 
pupil they obstruct. 

2. Spunges on the upper edge of the uvea are apt to grow the largest, and 
hinder the sight most. 

3. That which grows on the middle of the uvea hinders the sight more by 
distracting the object, than that which grows in either comer or angle of it. 

As for the cure, I suppose there can be none expected, but from a drj ing 
kind of diet ; though perhaps outwardly something may be devised to shadow 
the eyes, and keep them from being nakedly exposed to the sun, whereby the 
pupil will not be so closely contracted, and consequently the sight not so much 
obstructed. 

Of Spots seen in Venus. By S. Cassixi. N° 52, p. 613. 

S. Cassini discovered, October 14, l666, at 5 h. 45 m. p. m. near the cen- 
tre of Venus, on the north side, a part brighter than the rest ; and at the same 
time westward two obscure spots, somewhat oblong. Which parts he could not 
well perceive again till April 28, 1667 ; on which day, a quarter of an hour be- 
fore sun rising, he saw again a bright part, situated near the section, and dis- 
tant from the southern horn a little more than 4^ of its diameter ; also near the 
eastern ring he saw a dark and somewhat oblong spot, which was nearer to the 
northern than the southern horn. At sun rising he perceived that this bright 
part was then not so near the southern horn, but distant from it J- of its diame- 
ter, which gave him great satisfaction. But he was surprised at the same time 

VOL. I. E E 



218 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

to find, that the same motion which was made from south to north in the in- 
ferior part of the disk, was on the contrary made from north to south in the 
superior part. The next day at sun rising, the bright part was not far from the 
section, and distant from the southern horn -i- of the diameter. When the sun 
was 4 deg. high, the same was situated near the section, and remote from the 
southern horn ^ of the diameter. The sun being 6^ lO' high, it seemed to 
have passed the centre, and that the section of the disk intersected it. The 
sun being 7 ° high, it appeared yet more advanced northward, together with 
two obscure spots seated between the section and the circumference, and 
equally distant from one another, and from each horn on both sides. And the 
sky being very clear, he observed the motion of the bright part for 1^ hour; 
which then seemed to be exactly made from south to north, without any sen- 
sible inclination east or westward. 

May 10 and 13, before sun rising, he still saw the bright part near the 
centre northward. Lastly, June 5 and 6, before sun rising, he saw the 
same between the northern horn and the centre of the planet, and noted the 
same irregular variation in the obscure spots. But when Venus began to be 
further removed from the earth, it was more difficult to observe these phaeno- 
mena. 

These appearances in Venus being seen for so small a time, makes it very 
difficult to know with certainty when they return to the same place. Yet 
this I can say, supposing that this bright part of Venus which I have observed, 
especially this year 1667, has been always the same ; that in less than one day it 
completes its motion, whether of revolution or libration, so as in near 23 hours 
it returns about the same hour to the same situation in this planet ; but yet not 
without some irregularity.* 

Extract of a Letter written hy Dr. J. Denis t of Paris, touching a late 
Cure of an inveterate Phreiuy hy the Transfusion of Blood ; tran- 
slated from the original French, Addressed to the Editor, Mr. 
Oldenburg. N" 32, p. 6I7. 

You have doubtless heard of a madman that has been lately cured and re- 
stored to his understanding by means of transfusion. Some spread a rumour 
that he died soon after the operation ; others that he was relapsed into a greater 
madness than before ; and in short it has been so differently spoken of that I 

* From these observations, though rather imperfect, Cassini deduced a conclusion pretty near the 
truth 5 more modern and accurate observations having shewn that the period of Venus's rotation is 
completed in 23 h. 22 m. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 2lp 

thought myself obliged, in consequence of many false rumours, to give you a 
faithful and exact account of the condition to which this poor man was reduced 
before the transfusion ; of what passed during that operation ; and of the sur- 
prising effects that have followed upon it hitherto. 

The patient is about 34 years of age. His phrensy began first of all to ap- 
pear seven or eight years ago, and as far as c^n be judged, it was occasioned by 
a disgrace he received a little before in some amours where he hoped to gain a 
very considerable fortune. This first fit of extravagance was very violent, and 
lasted 10 months without any lucid interval ; but returning afterwards by de- 
grees to his wits, and having given all possible marks of a sound understanding, 
he was married to a young gentlewoman, who was persuaded that his madness 
was the relick of a sickness he had before, and that there was no appearance he 
would ever relapse into it. But this was far from proving so, and even the 
first year of his marriage ended not without his returning to his fonner extra- 
vagancies. 

Thus then he relapsed, and has been several times restored within these seven 
or eight years. But what is chiefly to be observed, is, that the fit always lasted 
at least eight or ten months without any respite, notwithstanding all the care 
and means used to relieve him. It is also worthy of notice, that a person of 
quality having determined to attempt his cure by all manner of ways, caused 
him to be bled in his feet, arms, and head, even 18 times, and made him bathe 
himself 40 times, not to mention innumerable applications to his forehead, 
and potions. But instead of amendment, the distemper seemed to be provoked 
by those remedies, and this poor creature fell into such a rage, that it was ne- 
cessary to bind him up from doing mischief. His madness has been always 
periodical, and never abated but by little and little, and that rather at times 
when nothing has been done to him, than when he has been tormented with 
medicines. 

His last relapse was about four months since, in a place twelve leagues from 
Paris; and his wife hearing of it went immediately to him to relieve him. Shfe 
soon shut him up, and was even constrained to tie him for some time, because 
he was in such an extraordinary rage as to beat her. But notwithstanding all 
her care, he once got loose stark naked, and ran away to Paris, though in a 
dark night. His wife had him searched for in all the neighbouring villages, 
whilst he ran up and down the streets of Paris without finding any place to re- 
tire to, as those who at first had the charity to receive him into their houses, 
began to fear the danger they were exposed to. 

He was not less outrageous in this last fit than in the former. He has spent 
three or four months without sleep, and his greatest diversion during that time 

E £ 2 



220 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1663. 

was to tear the clothes that were given him, to run naked abroad, and to burn 
in the houses where he was whatever he could meet with. He moved to com- 
passion all good people that saw him, and especially those in the Marais du 
Temple, where he was most known, and where he had been wont to be seen 
before this distemper as well clothed and fashioned as any one of his condition 
could be. 

Monsieur de Montmor, among others, was the person most touched with it, 
and resolved to employ his interest to procure him a place in one of the hos- 
pitals. But first he thought of transfusion, and believed there would be 
no danger in trying it upon this man, being so persuaded by many experi- 
ments we had already made in his presence. He therefore had him taken up 
for that end, and having sent for me and M. Emmerez to ask our opinion of 
the fitness of trying the transfusion upon this man, we answered, that we could 
indeed give good assurance for his life, and that the operation was in itself in- 
capable of causing the death of any one, if discreetly managed ; but as to the 
cure of such an extravagance as that appeared to us, we had not yet experience 
enough to dare to promise him that, and that our conjectures went no farther 
than to think that the blood of a calf by its mildness and freshness might possi- 
bly allay the heat and ebullition of his blood being mixed therewith. The matter 
having been sufficiently examined, we resolved to carry this man into a private 
house ; and there we appointed for his keeper that porter on whom we had 
already practised the transfusion eight months ago, both that the thing might 
not appear so new to him as to others who never had seen the experiment be- 
fore, and that he might serve to convince our patient and others who should be 
present at the operation, that there was no danger in it at all. 

, December 19, we used what art we could to dispose the fancy of our patient 
to suffer the transfusion, which we resolved should be tried upon him that night 
about six o'clock. Many persons of quality were present, together with several 
physicians and surgeons too intelligent to suspect them of being capable of the 
Ifeast surprise. Mr. Emmerez opened the crural artery of a calf, and did all the 
necessary preparations in their presence ; and after he had drawn from the pa- 
tient about ten ounces of blood out of a vein of the right arm, we could give 
him no more again than about five or six ounces of that of the calf, by reason 
that his constrained posture, and the croud of the spectators interrupted very 
much this operation. 

Meantime he found himself, as he said, very hot all along his arm, and 
under the arm-pits ; and perceiving that he was falling into a swoon, we presently 
stopped the blood running in, and closed up the wound. Yet he supped two 



TOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 221 

hours after, and notwithstanding some dulness and sleepiness, he yet passed 
that night with singing, whistling, and other extravagancies usual with him. 

On the next morning we found him somewhat less extravagant both in his 
actions and words, which induced us to believe, that by repeating the transfusion 
once or twice we might find a more remarkable change in him. We therefore 
prepared ourselves to repeat it upon him the next Wednesday at six o'clock in 
the evening again, in the presence also of several very able physicians, Bour- 
delot, Lallier, Dodar, de Bourges, and Vaillant. But as this man appeared 
very thin, and as it was not at all probable that his blood was peccant in the 
quantity after three or four months continual watching, and after the hunger 
and cold he had suffered in running naked in the streets without finding shel- 
ter at nights, we took but two or three ounces of blood from him, and having 
put him in a more convenient posture, we made this second transfusion into his 
left arm more plentiful than the first. For considering the blood remaining in 
the calf after the operation, the patient must have received more than one 
whole pound. 

As this second transfusion was larger, so were the effects of it quicker and 
more considerable. As soon as the blood began to enter into his veins, he felt 
the like heat along his arm and under his arm-pits which he had felt before. 
His pulse rose presently, and soon after we observed a plentiful sweat over all 
his face. His pulse varied extremely at this instant, and he complained of 
great pains in his kidneys, and that he was not well in his stomach, and that 
he was ready to choke unless they gave him his liberty. 

Presently the pipe was taken out that conveyed the blood into his veins, and 
whilst we were closing the wound, he vomited much bacon and fat which he 
had eaten half an hour before. He found himself urged to urine, and asked to 
go to stool. He was soon made to lie down, and after two good hours strainings 
to void divers liquors which disturbed his stomach, he fell asleep about ten 
o'clock, and slept all that night without waking till next morning about eight 
o'clock. When he awoke, he showed a surprising calmness, and great presence 
of mind, in expressing all the pains, and a general lassitude he felt in all his 
limbs. He made a great glass full of urine, of a colour as black as if it had been 
mixed with the soot of chimnies. 

Hearing of some of the company that we were in a time of jubilee, he asked 
for a confessor, to dispose himself to be made participant of it. And he con- 
fessed himself accordingly to M. de Vean with that exactness, that the con- 
fessor gave him the public testimony of a sound understanding, and even judged 
him capable to receive the Sacrament, if he continued in that state and 
devotion. 



222 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

He remained sleepy all the rest of that day, spoke little, and prayed those 
that came to importune him with interrogatories, to give him rest. And he 
went on to sleep well also the whole night following. Friday morning he filled 
another urinal with his water, almost as black as that of the day before. He 
bled at the nose very plentifully, and therefore we thought it proper to take two 
or three small porringers of blood from him. 

Saturday morning, the last day before Christmas, he desired again to go to 
confess, and so to dispose himself for the Communion. Then one Mr. Bonnet 
examined him in hearing him confess, and after he had found him to have all 
the reason necessary to receive the Sacrament, he presently gave him the Com- 
munion. That same day his urine cleared up, and after that time it resumed 
by little and little its natural colour. 

His wife, mean time, that had sought him from town to town, came to 
Paris, and having found him out, when he saw her he soon expressed much 
joy to see her, and related to her with great presence of mind the several ac- 
cidents that had befallen him, running up and down the streets ; how the watch 
had seized on him one night, and how calf's blood had been transfused into 
his veins. 

This woman confirmed yet more to us the good effects of the transfusion, by 
assuring us that at the present season her husband was used to be outrageous 
against herself, and that instead of the kindness he now showed to her, he 
used to do nothing but swear and beat her. 

It is true that comparing his present calm condition before the transfusion, no 
man scrupled to say that he was perfectly recovered. Yet to speak the plain 
truth, I was not so well satisfied as others seemed to be, and I could not per- 
suade myself that he was in so good a temper as to stop there, but I was in- 
clined to believe by some things I saw, that a third transfusion might be re-* 
quisite to accomplish what the two former had begun. 

Yet in delaying the execution of these thoughts from day to day, we observed 
so great an amendment in his carriage, and his mind so cleared up by little and 
little, that his wife and all his friends having assured us that he was restored to 
the same state he used to be in before his phrenzy, we entirely quitted that re- 
solution. I have seen him almost every day since; he has expressed to me all 
manner of acknowledgment, and been also with M. de Montmor, thanking 
him very civilly for his goodness in recovering him out of that miserable condi- 
tion he was in by a remedy which he should remember as long as he lived. 

He is at present of a very calm spirit, performs all his functions very well, 
and sleeps all night long without interruption, though he says he has now 
and then troublesome dreams. He has carried himself so discreetly in some 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 22$ 

visits he made this week, that divers physicians and other persons worthy of 
credit that have seen him, can render an authentic testimony to all the circum- 
stances here advanced by me.* 

History and Desaiption of an Hcrmaphrod'ite .^ Communicated hy Dr, 
Thomas Allen,' in a Latin Letter. % N" 32, p. 624. 

Inter varios insolentesque naturae lusus, dicam ? an errores, quos apud eos, 
qui de Androgynis egerunt (quorum scripta sedulo deditaque opera perlustravi) 
in lucem productos adhuc videre mihi contigit, vix alium quenquam notatu 
digniorem memini occurrere hoc ipso quern tibi, erudite vir, impraesentiarum 
exhibeo. Neque enim hunc, quem jam descriptum eo, hermaphroditum, aut 
spurcissimis illis foeminis, quae apud Gaecos T^i^»h? audiunt, apud ^gyptios 
vero frequentissime reperiebantur, annumerandum, aut cum descriptione qua- 
cunque hactenus quod sciam evulgata, ullatenus quadrare existimo. Unde nee 
prorsus indignus mihi videtur, qui nativis depictus coloribus, absque omni ver- 
borum fuco, lUustrissimae Lectissimaeque Regiae Societatis et tuis oculis usur- 
pandus veniat. 

Nomen ipsi est Anna Wilde; natus vero est (condonandus enim hermaphro- 
dito solaecismus) mense Februario, ipso Purificationis festo. Anno salutis, 1647, 
in pago non ignobili Agri Hamptoniensis, vulgo Ringwood. Sexto aetatis anno 
inter saltandum colluctandumque cum pueris coaetaneis (quos omnes viribus facile 
superabat) extuberationes duae, Herniarum BaSwvoxnXwv dictarum, primum emi- 
cuere; quibus in ordinem redigendis (id enim illis animi erat) Chirurgi diu 
operam luserunt. Testiculi enim erant, qui jam praegrandes facti, scrotis 
cutaneis corrugatis, pilisque obsitis inclusi, non alio discrimine a Virilibus natu- 
raliter se habentibus distinguuntur, quam quod singuli testes suo proprio divi- 
soque ab invicem hie scroto gaudeant, ita tamen elongato, ut ex utriusque 
productione confingantur labia vulvae. 

In sinu muliebri (ut jam a Mercurio ad Venerem transeamus) nymphae et 
carunculae myrtiformes, integrae satis se produnt : Quin et membranula quadam, 
a perinaeo sursum tendente, media pars vulvae tegitur. Clitoris non apparet. 
Utenis ej usque cervix a communi sequioris sexus lege ne minimum quidem 
recedunt. Usque ad tertium supra decimum aetatis annum pro foemella habitus, 
et foemineo vestitu indutus, munera illi sexui destinata inter foeminas assidue 
obibat. Cum forte vero pani subigendo strenuam navaret operam, en derepente 

* A third transfusion was attempted on this man, of which an account is given in No. 36, where 
we shall offer some remarks on this case, which terminated fatally. 

■f The hermaphrodite was at that time to be seen in London. 

X Accounts of other hermaphrodites are to be found in the xvi and xlvii volumes of the Trans- 
actions. 



224 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166Q. 

priapus, ad id temporis latens, magno cum impetu foras prorupit, accedente non 
levi ipsius M£Ta^o^(p«|U.£i/8 stupore. Erectus penis quatuor circiter pollices asquat. 
Locum virgae virilis ipsissimum occupat ; in glandem pariter desinit; praeputio 
(quod illi etiam frasnulo, ut in viris fit, annectitur) instructum : sed glans im- 
perforata (ita tamen ut tenuis membranula cam obturans facile pertundi posse 
videatur) semini, per urethram, seu potius virgae canaliculum viam afFectanti, 
exitum negat; unde per pudendum muliebre (refluum forte) excernitur. 

Cum annorum esset sedecim, menstrua periodice et modo debito fiuere ce- 
perunt, atque per biennium perseveraverunt. Quo elapso, iisdem non amplius 
comparentibus, pullulavit Barba, et exinde totum corpus pilosum conspicitur ; 
vox corporisque habitus virilem aemulantur. Crinis se habet virorum adinstar. 
Mammae nullae exsurgunt: papillae perquam exiguae. Pectus latum est. Ischia 
non ita dissita. Nates quam sunt fceminarum contractiores. 

Se ad utrumque sexum comparatum asserit, sed foeminis misceri praeoptare ; 
quas etiam cum videt, et concupiscit, erigitur penis, qui quoties virum appetit, 
flaccidus manet. 

Unum hoc, idque nee extra oleas putem, coronidis loco subnectam ; quod 
nempe, cum nocte quadam, quam totam tripudiis, compotationibus, caeterisque 
id genus lasciviag incitamentis, cum aliquot ejusdem farinae congerronibus in- 
sumpserat, oculos in virum quendam formae venustioris conjecerat, mox eum 
adeo deperibat, ut sequenti die, prae amoris oestro, in passionem hystericam in- 
cideret ; quam revera talem fuisse, non solum elevatio abdominis, cantus, 
risus, fletus, (notissima illius intemperiei symptomata) sed et juvantia, satis 
liquido comprobarunt : Applicato quippe emplastro ex galbano regioni umbi- 
lici, exhibitisque remediis hystericis illico convaluit. 

An Account of some Booh. N" 32, p. 625. 

I. Nouveaux Elemens de Geometric : Or, a Mathematical Treatise, entitled, 
New^ Elements of Geometry, printed at Paris in quarto, Anno 1667. 

II. Synopsis Optica, Auth. Honorato Fabri, Soc. Jesu, Lugduni Gall, in 4to. 
An. 1667. 

This author pretends to have comprised in this treatise, containing 58 pro- 
positions, besides many corollaries, all that has been hitherto discovered in 
optics, and to have added thereto many curious and useful remarks, not men- 
tioned in other authors. 

III. De Vi Percussionis, Joh. Alphons. Borelli.* Bononiae, in 4to. 1667. 

* An Italian, celebrated in matliematics, which science he professed at Florence, Pisa, and Rome, 
and was one of those philosophers who had tlie honour to be esteemed and noticed by Queen Chris- 
tina of Sweden. The works of Borelli are very numerous and valuable. He was born at Naples in 
16O8, and died at Rome in l679. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 225 

As in the doctrine of percussion several things are to be accurately dis- 
tinguished, such as the percussive force, the motion or the velocity of the per 
cussion, and the resistance of the body percussed ; and then an estimate to be 
made of the proportion of those three to one another : this author pretends to 
have both assigned that difference and demonstrated the proportion ; adding, that 
though Galila^o saw and acknowledged that the force of percussion was in- 
finite, or rather unlimited,* yet he there deferred discoursing any farther on 
that matter. Our author pretends that that proposition concerning the infinite- 
ness of the force of percussion, not having been yet demonstrated by any, he 
has in this book resumed the whole matter concerning percussion, and clearly 
demonstrated the true and genuine nature of it, its cause, properties and 
effects. In doing which, he takes occasion to discourse also of gravity, mag- 
netism, tremor of bodies, pendulums, &c. 

IV. Nicolai Stenonis-}* Musculi Descriptio Geometrica, Florentiag, 4to. 1667. 

This work exhibits an ingenious but unsatisfactory attempt to explain the struc- 
ture and action of a muscle upon geometrical principles. Subjoined to it are two 
narratives, one of which relates to the dissection of the head of a shark, which he 
calls canis carcharia,:}: where he delivers many curious observations concerning 
the skin, eyes, optic nerves, muscles of the eye, exceeding smallness of the 
brain, as also concerning the mouth and strange teeth of this fish ; examining 
withal whether glossopetrae be the teeth of this creature, or stones produced by 
the earth ; in which controversy he takes their side who maintain that those 
and divers other substances found in the earth are parts of the bodies of ani- 
mals ; and endeavours to prove that such sorts of earth may be the sediments 
of water, and such bodies the parts of animals carried down together with those 
sediments, and in progress of time reduced to a stony hardness.^ — The other 
narrative relates to a female dog-fish, also dissected by himself, where there 

•* That is, in respect of mere dead weight or pressure. 

f This celebrated Danish anatomist studied under his countrj'man Bartholine, and held for some 
time the professorship of anatomy at Copenhagen. He afterwards travelled into Holland, Germany, 
and Italy J in the last- mentioned country he resided a considerable time, during which he changed his 
religion, becoming a catholic, and receiving some ecclesiastical appointments from Pope Innocent XI. 
He died in l6s6, before he had attained his 50th year, Steno wrote several Latin tracts on anato- 
mical subjects, and discovered the external salivary duct, which has since gone by his name. See 
his Obs. Anatom. quibus varia oris, oculorum et narium vasa describuntur, novique salivae, lachiy- 
marum et muci fontes deteguntur. Leidae, l66"2. 

X Squalus Carcharias, Linn. 

§ These glossopetrae are petrifactions of the teeth of some animal, probably some marine animal j 
but they do not always resemble the teeth of the shark. They were once supposed to be the 
petrified tongues of serpents^ whence their compoiuid name. 

VOL. I. F P 



226 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

occur no less remarkable observations than in the former, both as to the 
parts in the head and those in the body ; concerning the small weight of the 
brain of this fish compared to the weight of its body ; several little fishes found 
in the stomach, untouched by any teeth ; the ureters, the ovarium and ovi- 
duct ; where he digresses to show that the mulierum testes esse ovario analogos, 
and refers for further proof of this to his intended treatise, De partium genita- 
lium analogia. 

On Grinding Optic and Burning Glasses of Non- Spherical Figures. 
By Francis Smethjvick, Esq. F. R. S. N" 33, p. 631. 

Mr. Smethwick produced before the society, Feb. 27, 1 667-8, as specimens 
of his invention, a telescope, a reading-glass, and two burning-glasses. The 
telescope was about four feet long, with four glasses, the three ocular ones, 
piano convex, were of this newly invented not-spherical figure, and the fourth 
a spherical object-glass. This being compared with a common, yet very good 
telescope, longer than it by about four inches, and turned to several objects, 
it was found to excel the other by taking in a greater angle, and representing 
the objects more exactly in their respective proportions, and bearing a greater 
aperture free from colours. 

The reading glass, of the same figure, being compared with a common sphe- 
rical glass, far excelled it, by magnifying the letters to which it was applied up 
to the very edges, and by shewing them distinctly from one brim, through the 
centre, to the other, which the spherical glass came far short of. But this ef- 
fect the new figured glass performed only on one of its sides, whereas the sphe- 
rical glasses perform their effect nearly alike on both sides. 

Lastly, the two burning concaves, of this new invented figure, were, the one 
of six inches diameter, its focus three inches distant from the centre ; the other 
of the same diameter, but less concave, and its focus ten inches distant. These 
when approached to a large candle lighted, somewhat warmed the faces of those 
that were four or five feet distant at least, and when held to the fire burnt 
gloves and garments at the distance of about three feet from the fire. 

At another time, in the presence of Dr. Seth Ward, the deeper of the two 
concaves turned a piece of wood into flame in the space of ten seconds of time, 
and the shallower in five seconds, and that in autumn, about nine o'clock in 
the morning, and the weather gloomy. The deeper concave, when held to a 
lucid body, would cast a light strong enough to read by at a considerable dis- 
tance. Also, that exposing the same to a northern window, on which the sun 
did not shine, or very little, he perceived that it would warm one's hand sensi- 



VOL. II.] , PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 227 

bly, by collecting the warmed air in the day-time, which it would not do after 
sun-set. 

Tides observed at Plymouth. By Mr. S. Colepresse. iV** 33, p. 632. 

The diurnal tides, from about the latter end of March till the latter end of 
September, are about a foot higher in the evening than in the morning, that 
is, in every tide that happens after noon and before midnight. On the con- 
trary, the morning tides, from Michaelmas till Lady-day in March again, are 
constantly higher by about a foot than those that happen in the evening. And 
this proportion holds in both, in the intermediate times of increase and decrease. 
The highest monthly spring tide is always the third tide after the new or full 
moon, if a cross wind do not oppose the water, as the north-east or north-west 
usually does. The highest springs make the lowest ebbs. The water neither 
flows nor ebbs alike in respect of equal degrees; but its velocity increases with 
the tide, till just at mid-water or half flood, at which time the velocity is 
strongest, and so decreases proportionably till high water or full sea. As ap- 
pears by the following scheme, collected from observations made at several 
times and places ; which, though taken at Plymouth Haven, where even the 
water usually rises about sixteen feet, yet it may indifferently serve for otlier 
places, where it may rise as many fathoms, or not so high, by a proportional 
addition or subtraction. 

I 

flhr.l feet 

I 2 2 

Time of j 3 4 

Flowing j 4 4 

I 5 2 

16 I 

Inquiries and Directions for the Antilles^ or Caribhee Islands. 

N° 33, p. 634. 

/. Of Fegetahles. 

1 . Whether the juice of the fruit of the tree junipa, being as clear as any 
rock water, yields a brown violet dye, and being put twice upon the same place 
makes it look black ? and whether this tincture cannot be got out with any 
soap, yet disappears of itself in nine or ten days : and whether certain animals, 
and particularly hogs and parrots, eating of this fruit, have their flesh and fat 
altogether tinged of a violet colour ? — 2. Whether ring doves that feed upon 

p p 2 



Jight. 










Height. 


6 inch. " 




- J 


hr. 


1 


feet Q inch. 


6 




2 




2 


6 





Time of 
^Ebbing' 


3 




4 








4 




4 





6 




5 




2 


6 


6 J 




L6 




1 


6 



228 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668, 

the bitter fruit of the acomas tree, have their flesh bitter also ?— 3. Whether 
the wood of the acajou tree, being red, hght and well scented, never rots in 
water, nor breeds any worms when cut in due season ? And whether the 
chests and trunks made thereof, keep clothes placed therein from being worm- 
eaten ? — 4. Whether the leaves of a certain tree, peculiarly called Indian wood, 
give such a haut-gout to meat and sauces, as if it were a composition of several 
sorts of spices ? — 5. Whether there be such two sorts of the wood called saponier 
or soap- wood, of the one of which the fruit, of the other the root serves for 
soap ? — 6. Whether the bark of the paretuvier-wood tans as well as oak-bark ? 
— 7. Whether the root of the tree laitus, being brayed and cast into rivers, 
makes fishes drunk ? — 8. Whether the root of the manioc is so fertile, that one 
acre planted therewith, yields so plentiful a crop as shall feed more people than 
six acres of the best wheat ? — g. What symptoms do usually follow on taking 
the juice of manioc, or on eating the juice with the root, and what effects are 
thereby produced on the body, that infer it to be accounted a rank poison ? 
— 10. The palmetto royal being said, by Ligon, to be a very tall and straight 
tree, and so tough that none of them have been seen blown down and hollow ; 
in all which respects they may serve for special uses, and particularly for long 
optic tubes ; it is much desired that the largest and longest pieces of them that 
can be stowed in a ship may be sent over. — 1 1 . Whether the oil expressed out 
of the plant ricinus or palma Christi, be used by the Indians to keep them from 
vermin ? — 12. Whether in the passage of the isthmus from Nombre de Dios to 
Panama, there is a whole wood full of sensitive trees, of which as soon as they 
are touched, the leaves and branches move with a rattling noise, and wind 
themselves together into a roundish figure? — 13. Whether there be certain 
kernels of a fruit like a white pear plum, which are very purgative and emetic, 
but having the thin film which parts them into halves taken out, they have no 
such operation at all, and are as sweet as a Jordan almond ? — 14. To send over 
some of the roots of the herb called by our French author I'herbe aux fleches, 
(the dart-herb) which being stamped, is said to have the virtue of curing the 
wounds made with poisoned darts. — 15. To send some of the grain of the herb 
musk, putting it up carefully in a box, that it may keep its musk scent. — 
l6. To send over a specimen of all medicinal herbs, with their respective vir- 
tues, as they are reputed there : particularly the prickle-with at the Barbadoes, 
macao, mastic-tree, locust, black-wood, yellow within^ five-sprig, tidle-wood, 
white-wood, Barbadoes-cedar. — 17 . Whether the fruit mancenille of the man- 
cenillier-tree, though admirably fair and fragrant, yet is fatal to the eater, 
and falling into the water kills the fishes that eat of it, except crabs, which yet 
are said to be dangerous to eat when they have fed upon this fruit ? Whether 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 22Q 

under the bark of this tree is contained a certain glutinous liquor as white as 
milk, very dangerous, so that if you chance to rub it and this juice spurt upon 
the shirt, it will be like a burning ; if upon the naked flesh it will cause a 
swelling ; if into the eye, blindness for several days ? And whether the shadow 
of this tree be so noxious, that the bodies of men reposing under it will swell 
strangely? Further, whether the natives use the milky juice of this tree, and 
the dew falling from it, and the juice of its fruit, in the composition of the poi- 
son they infect their arrows with ? 

//. Of Animals and Insects. 

18. Whether the skin of the tatou, and the little bone in his tail do indeed, 
as is related, cure deafness and pains of the ears ? And whether this animal be 
proof not only against the teeth of dogs, but also against bullets ? — IQ. Whe- 
ther the birds called canides, be so docile, that some of them learn to speak 
not only Indian, but also Dutch and Spanish, singing also the airs in the In- 
dian tongue as well as an Indian himself? And whether the bird colibry have 
a scent as sweet as the finest amber and musk? both which are affirmed by a 
French author ? — 20. To procure some of the fat of birds, called fregati, re- 
puted to be very anti-paralytical and anti-podagrical. — 21. To send over a land- 
pike, which is said to be like the water pike, but that instead of fins it has four 
feet, on which it crawls. — 22. Whether the skin of the sea wolf, which they 
otherwise call the requiem, be so rough and stiff, that they make files of them 
fit to file wood? And whether it be usually guided by another fish, that is 
beautified with such a variety of curious and lively colours,, that one would say 
such fishes were girt with necklaces of pearls, corals, emeralds, &c.? — 23. Whe- 
ther the skin of sea calfs, otherwise called lamantins, be so hard when dried, that 
they serve the Indians for shields ? — 24. Whether the ashes of the fresh water 
tortoises hinder the falling of the hair, being powdered with it ? — 25. Whether 
the land crabs of these islands do at certain times hide themselves all under 
ground for the space of six weeks, and during that time change and renew their 
shells ? — 26. Whether the serpents in those parts that have black and white 
spots on their backs be not venomous ? — 27. To send over some of the skins of 
those huge lizards, they call ouayamaca, which, when come to their full size, 
are said to be five feet long, including the tail. And especially to send some 
of those that are said to have the scales of their skins so bright and curious, that 
at a distance they resemble cloth of gold and silver. — 28. Whether the shining 
flies called cucuyes, hide almost all their light when taken, but when at liberty, 
afford it plentifully ? — 29. Whether there be a sort of bees brown and blue, 
which make a black wax, but the honey in it whiter and sweeter than that of 



230 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

Europe? — 30. Whether in those parts the Indians cure the bi tings of serpents 
by eating fresh citron pills; and by applying the unguent made of . the bruised 
head of the wounding serpent, and put hot upon the wound ? — 3 1 . Whether 
the woodlice in those countries, generated out of rotten wood, are able not only 
to eat through trunks in a day or two, and to spoil linen, clothes, and books, 
(of which last they are said to spare only what is written or printed;) but also 
to gnaw the props which support the cottages, so that they fall ? And whether 
the remedy against the latter mischief is, to turn the ends of the wood that is 
fixed in the ground, or to rub the wood with the oil of that kind of palma 
Christi with which the natives rub their heads to secure them from vermin? — 

32. Whether that sort of vermin called ravets spare nothing of what they 
meet with (either of paper, cloths, linen, and woollen) but silk and cotton ? — 

33. Whether the little cirons called chiques, bred out of dust, when they pierce 
once into the feet, and under the nails of the toes, over-run the whole body, 
unless they be drawn out betimes? And whether at first they cause but a little 
itch, but afterwards having pierced the skin, raise a great inflammation in the 
part affected, and become in a small time as large as a pea, producing innumer- 
able nits, that breed others ? 

Answers to some of the Queries relative to Vegetables. 

1 . There is nothing improbable in this ; since it is well known that several animals in whose food 
madder has been mixed, will, after a certain time, have even the bones tinged red. 

2. It is expressly affirmed by authors of good credit, that the white-headed pigeon, (columba 
lencocephala, Lin.) a species very common in America, is either bitter or sweet according to its food. 
See Latham's Synopsis, vol. ii. p.6\6. 

5. The Sapindus Saponaria, Lin. known in North America by the naipe of tlie soap tree, is a tree 
with a stem of moderate thickness, upright branches, and winged leaves : it bears round berries re- 
sembling plums, having a large smooth stone or kernel, covered with a slight pulp, which is of a 
saponaceous quality, and may be used for washing, but is said to injure tlie linen by its acrimony. 

6. This seems to be tlie mangrove, (rhizophora mangle, Lin.) a tree from tliirty to forty feet 
high, witih a thickish stem, smooth bark, and pendulous branches, with laurel-like leaves towards 
the tips. The branches which happen to touch the ground take root, and producing similar stems and 
branches, propagate the tree in arcades to a vast extent, in tlie same manner as the ficus religiosa, Lin. 
The bark is used in tanning. 

8. According to Sloane, the root of the manioc or cassava, (latropha manihot, Lin.) " is of the 
most general use of any provision all over the West Indies, especially in the hotter parts, and is 
used to victual ships." 

9. Swelling of the whole body j severe vomitings and purgings ; giddiness, swoonings, and some- 
times death. See Sloane's Jamaica, &c. 

1 1 . The oil of the ricinus or palma Christi, is at present in high esteem as a catliartic, and is com- 
monly known by the name of castor oil. 

12. Nothing improbable in this. Sloane describes a highly sensitive species under the name of 
sensible-grass. Mimosa herbacea, &c. which spreads over large spots of ground in many parts of 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 23\ 

Jamaica, and is so very sensible that *' a puff of wind from your mouth will make impressions on 
it." " I have (says this author) on horseback wrote my name with a rod on a spot of it, which corv- 
tinued visible for some time, and it is the most sensible of any of this kind." 
15. The seeds of the hibiscus abelmoschus, a plant of the malvaceous tribe. 

17. The juice of the manchineel tree, (hippomane mancinella, Lin.) is one of the most acrimoni> 
ous and dangerous of vegetable poisons, and though the accounts of its malignant properties may be 
here somewhat exaggerated, yet it is certain that even the effluvia of the tree are often prejudicial to 
those who remain long under its shade. As to the fruit rendering animals poisonous which happen 
to feed upon it, we are assured by Catesby that this is a groundless idea. 

Ansv;ers to some of' the Queries relative to Animals. 

1 8. The long armour of the tatu or armadillo, is a sufficient defence against any common acci- 
dents to which tliis animal may be exposed, but by no means proof against a bullet. As to the 
former part of the query, it surely deserves no answer. 

1.9. The colibris or humming-birds, in their living state, are not naturally impregnated with the 
musky odour here mentioned, and it may ratlier be supposed that the specimens are sometimes per- 
fumed in order to preserve them when sent over in a dried state. It may be added that many animal 
substances by long keeping are known to acquire a musky scent. 

20. The bird here mentioned seems to be tlie pelecanus aquilus, or man of war bird, Lin. 

21. This animal is probably the lizard, called in Jamaica by the name of galliwasp : it is from 
t\velve to fifteen inches or more in length, and is covered with large rounded scales resembling those 
of a fish. 

22. The skin of several of the sliarks is often used by various artificers for the purpose of rasping 
wood, &c. 

23. The animal here alluded to is not, properly speaking, a phoca or sea-calf, but a species of the 
genus trichecus, viz. the whale-tailed manati of Pennant. The skin of tlie body is excessively hard 
and strong, resembling the bark of a tree. 

25. Yes. See Brown's Jamaica, p. 423, where a pretty full account of the economy of this 
species, viz. (Cancer ruricola, Lin.) may be found. See also Catesby's Carolina, vol. ii. p. 32. 

27. Many of the larger Indian and American lizards are very elegantly variegated : among others 
some varieties of the lacerta monster, Lin. In New Holland is a peculiarly beautiful variety of the 
same lizard, which is so richly variegated witli bright yellow or black ground, as to bear a striking re- 
semblance to a gold embroidery : this may probably occur in several parts of America and the West- 
Indies, as well as in Austral Asia. 

28. Yes, at pleasure. The insect meant is the elater noctilucus, Lin. See Syst Nat. p. 66\. 
Brown's Jamaica, p, 432, and Sloane's Jamaica, vol, ii, p. 206. 

31. The insects here called woodlice, are the termites, (improperly named white ants, in many of 
the West Indian and African settlements). See Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixxi, where an 
ample account of their economy and ravages may be found. There is no exaggeration in the reports 
here mentioned. 

32. The insects here called ravets, are the blattse or cockroaches, the destructive nature of which 
is too well known to require particular description. See tlie preface to the 3d volume of Drury's 
Exotic Insects. 

33. The true history of the chegoes, here termed chiques, is not yet exactly known ; the observa- 
tions of authors not being sufficiently clear. According to Catesby, the insect is a species of flea: 
others rather consider it as a species of acarus or mite. Whatever its genus may be, it is observed to 
deposit its eggs under the skin of the human feet, particularly of the toes, and is most frequent in 



232 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

those of the labouring negroes : troublesome swellings are the consequence, which by neglect are apt 
to degenerate into ulcers. See Catesby's Carolina, appendix, p, 10. In the Systema Naturae of 
Linnaeus, the insect is referred to the genus pulex, under the title of piilex penetrans. See also 
Sloane's Jamaica, introduction, p. cxxiv. 

An Account of two Boohs. N" 33, p. 640. 

I. Saggi di Natural! Esperienze fatte nell Academia del Cimento, in Firenze, 
An. 1667, in fol. 

The book contains these particulars : — 1. An application of the instruments 
employed in these experiments. — 2. Experiment belonging to the natural 
pressure of the air. — 3. Concerning artificial conglaciations. — 4. About natural 
ice. — 5. About the change of the capacity of metal and glass. — 6. Touching the 
compression of water. — 7- To prove that there is no positive lightness. — 
8. About the magnet. — 9. About amber and other substances of a virtue elec- 
trical. — 10. About some changes of colours in divers fluids. — 11. Touching 
the motions of sound. — 12. Concerning projectiles. — 13. Various experiments. 

II. Vera Circuli et Hyperbolae Quadratura, in propria sua proportionis specie 
inventa & demonstrata, a Jac. Gregorio Scoto,* Patavii, in 4to. 

This tract, perused by some very able and judicious mathematicians, and par- 
ticularly by the Lord Viscount Brounker, and the Rev. Dr. John Wallis, re- 
ceives the character of being very ingeniously and very mathematically written, 
and well worthy the study of men addicted to that science : that in it the author 
has delivered a new analytical method for giving the aggregate of an infinite or 
indefinite converging scries: and that thence he teaches a method of squaring 
the circle, ellipsis, and hyperbola, by an infinite series, thence calculating the 
true dimensions as near as you please. And lastly, that by the same method 
from the hyperbola he calculates both the logarithms of any natural number 
assigned, and vice versa, the natural number of any logarithm given. 

* James Gregory, a celebrated mathematician, was born at Aberdeen, 1639. He very soon dis- 
tinguished himself by his ingenious writings and inventions in various branches of the mathematics. 
He was the contemporary of Newton, as well as a formidable competitor in some of his discoveries, 
as the reflecting telescopes and infinite series. After returning from his travels on the continent, he 
became a respectable member of the Royal Society, and contributed several valuable papers to the 
Philosophical Transactions. Mr. Gregory was engaged in some controversies with several eminent 
philosophers, as Newton, Huygens, &c. He seems to have been of an irritable temper, and jealous 
of his discoveries and inventions. He seems also to have been rather severe in his contemptuous at- 
tack on the harmless Mr. Sinclair of Glasgow. Besides the before mentioned papers in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, he was the author of several learned works 5 as Optica Promota, 1 6"()3 ; Vera 
Circuli et Hyperbolae Quadratura, 16675 Geometriae Pars Universalis, I668 j Exercitationes Geome- 
tricae, 1668 ; The Great and New Art of Weighing Vanity, &c., 1672. Mr. Gregory became successively 



VOL. II.] 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



233 



The Squaring of the Hyperbola. By Lord Viscount Brouncker.* 

N" 34, p. 645. 

Let A B be one asymptote of the hyperbola E d C, fig. 7- pi- 7 ; and let A E 
and B C be parallel to the other ; also let A E be to B C as 2 to 1 ; and let the 
parallelogram A B D E be equal to 1. And supposing that E A, a ^, K H, (3 n, 
d9, yx, Sx, iju, CB, &c. are in an harmonic series, or the reciprocals of an 
arithmetical progression. Then will 

1.1.1.1.1 



ABCdEA = 
EdCDE = 



1 X 2 
1 






3x4 
1 



2x3 ' 4x5 

EdCyE=:^^,+ ' 



+ 



5x6 
1 



+ 
+ 



7x8 
1 



+ 



9 X 10 

1 



+ 



8X9 ' 10x11 

1 



&c. 
&c. 



2x3x4 ' 4x5x6 ' 6x7x8 ' 8x9x10 



+ 



&c. 



For (in fig. 2 and 3) the 
Parallelograms 

1 

l"x2 

1 

s'xi 



dD 
br 
fG 
aq 

C S : 
o f - 


1 


2x3 

1 


"~4 X 5 

1 


^6x7 
1 


""8 X 9 

1 

10x11 

1 




"12x13 

1 


gU- 


""14x15 
&c. 



CA = 

dF = 



5x6 



fk = 
ap = 



1 

7x8 
1 



9x10 

^"™=riTT2 



el = 
gh = 



13X14 
1 



15 X l6 
&c. 



EdC = 

Ebd = 

dfC = 

Eab = 

bcd = 

def = 



And (in fig. 4) the Triangles 

1 i=)dD — c=idF 







2 






C=3 


br 


— 


cn 


bn 






2 






cn 


fG 


— 


C3 


fk 






2 







2x3x4 

1 

4x5x6 

1 

6x7x8 

1 cnaq— craap 



fgC = 



8x9x10 


2 


1 


cncs — ciDcm 


10X11X12 


2 


1 


c=ie t — cue 1 


12x13x14 


2 


1 


_c=igu — cDgh 



14x 15x 16 
&c. 



Note. 

CA= dD + dF 
-i-dD= br + bn 
idF= £G+ fk 
-Lbr = aq + ap 

^ b n = c s 4- cm 
4- f G= e t + el 
i-fk = gu + gh 
&c. 



pFofessor of mathematics in the universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh j where he was suddenly 
struck with total blindness while employed in showing to his pupils the satellites of Jupiter, and died 
a few days after, in l675, being only 36 years of age; to the great loss of the mathematical and phi- 
losophical world. 

* William Brouncker, or Brounker, Lord Viscovmt of Castie Lyons in Ireland, was bom about 
the year l620. He very early manifested a genius for mathematics, in which he afterwards became 
very eminent. He was made M. D. at Oxford, l646. Afterwards he maintained an honourable cor- 

VOL. I. Gg 



234 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

Therefore, in the first series, half the first term is greater than the sum of 
the two next ; and half the sum of the second and third greater than the sum 
of the four next ; and half the sum of those four greater than the sum of the 
i;iext eight, &c. in infinitum. For -^ dD = br •\- hn; but hn z^fG^ therefore 
^dD>br -{-/Gf &c. And in the second series, half the second term is less 
than the sum of the two next, and half this sum less than the sum of the four 
next, &c. in infinitum. 

Then the first series are the even terms, viz. the 2d, 4th, 6th, 8th, lOth, 
&c. and the second, the odd terms, viz. the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th, gth, &c. of 
the following series, viz. ^, ji^, ■^^, ji-., ^., _I^, &c. m nifini- 
turn = 1 . Whereof a being put for the number of terms taken at pleasure, 
— - is the last, ~-^ is the sum of all those terms from the beginning, and 

the sum of the rest to the end. 

c + I 

Also that 4- of the first term in the third series, is less than the sum of the 
two next ; and a quarter of this sum, less than the sum of the four next ; and 
one fourth of this last sum, less than the next eight, I thus demonstrate. 

Let a = the 3d or last number of any term of the first column, viz. of divisors. 

1 1 i(3Q? — 48a' + 56 a — 24 _ . 

«xa— 1 X« — 2 a' — 3 a* +2 a l6" a^ — 96 «' 4- 033 a-*— 288 a^ + 184 a* — 48 a 

1 1 

2ax2o— lx2a — 2 80^ — 12 a* + 4a ( l6a' — 48a* + 5(ja— 24 



\ 64a^'— 38^ 



,1 I f ~64a^'— 384a5 + 880a4— 96'0a^ + 496a— C)6" 

2fl— 2x2a— 3x2a— 4 8a3— 36a* + 52a— 24 

64 a^^— 384a^ + 928 a^ — 1152 a^ + 72,6a ^— 192 a ^ . p* 

6"4 a^ — 384 aS + 880 a* — 960a' + 496 a* — 96" a ^ "T A — D. 

And 48 a'* — 192, a^ + 240 a^ — 96 a = excess of the numerator above the 
denominator. 

But the affirmatives >► the Negatives "J 
That is, 48 a* + 240 a^ >► I92 a^ -\- gOal.r. 
Because a" + 5 a^ > 4a^+ laC ^^^' 
Or a^-l- 5a > 4 a^ -j- 2 J 
Therefore B >- ^ A. 

respondence on mathematical subjects with Dr. Walhs, by whom this correspondence was published 
in his Commercium Epistolicum, l658. Lord Brounker was one of the personages who signed the 
remarkable declaration concerning King Charles II, in l66'0. After tlie restoration, he was ap- 
pointed Chancellor and Keeper of the Great Seal to the Queen, also a Commissioner of the Navy, 
and Master of St. Katharine's Hospital, near the Tower of London. He was one of those learned 
men who laid the foundation of the Royal Society, of which he was, by charter in 1662, appointed 
the first President : which office he held, witli great honour to himself and benefit to the Society, 
till the anniversary election, Nov. 30, 1677, when he was succeeded in the presidency by Sir 
Joseph Williamson. He died April 5, l684. — Lord Brounker made several communications to the 



fHlLOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



235 



0,0029019589 



VOL. II.] 

Therefore 4- of any number of A, or terms, is less than their so many respec- 
tive B, that is, than twice so many of the next terms Q. E. D. 

By any one of which three series, it is not hard to calculate as near as you 
please, these and the like hyperbolic spaces, whatever be the rational propor- 
tion oi ji E to B C. As for example, when j4 E is to B C, as 5 to 4, (where- 
of the calculation follows after that where the proportion is, as 2 to 1 , and both 
by the third series.) 

First then when (in fig. l) A E : B C : *. 2:1. 
2X3X4) 1. (0,0416666666-] o,04i6666666 

4X5X6) 1. (0,0083333333-. 

6x7X8) 1. (0,0029761904-/ ^'"^^^^y^^^7 

8X 9X10) 1.(0,0013888888 — 

10x11x12) 1.(0,0007575757 — 

12X13X14) 1.(0,0004578754 — 

14X15X16) 1.(0,0002976190 — 

16x17x18) 1 . (0,0002042484 — 

18X19X20) 1.(0,0001461988 — 

20X21X22) 1.(0,0001082251 — 

22X23X24) 1. (0,0000823452- >o 0007306482 
24X25X26) 1. (0,0000641026- ^0,0007300482 

26 X 27 X 28) 1 . (0,00005087 5 1 — 
28X29X30) 1. (0,0000410509 — 
30X31X32) 1.(0,0000336021 — 
32X33X34) 1. (0,0000278520— 
34X35X36) 1. (0,0000233426 — 
36X37X38) 1. (0,0000197566— 
38X39X40) 1. (0,0000168691 — 
40X41X42) 1.(0,0000145180— 
42X43X44) 1. (0,0000125843 — 
44X45X46) 1. (0,0000109793 — 
46X47X48) 1. (0,0000096361 — 
48X49X50) 1.(0,0000085034 — 
50X51X52) 1.(0,0000075415- 
52X53X54) 1. (0,0000067193 — 
54X55X56) 1. (0,0000060125 — 
56X57X58) 1. (0,0000054014 — 
58X59x60) 1. (0,0000048704 — 
60 X 6 1 X 62) 1 . (0,0000044068 — 
62x63x64) 1. (0,0000040002— J 



0,0416666666 
0,0113095237 
0,0029019589 
0,0007306482 

3) 0,000 1 829939 (0,0000609980 

0,05679179 
-f- 0,00006 100 

^0,0001829939 0,05685279" <EdCy 

But 0,00073064821 

0,000 1 829939 [-H- 
0,00004583153 



Therefore 0,05679179 
-1-0,00004583 
-1-0,00001528 



0,05685290 >- E d C y. 

Royal Society; particularly, experiments concerning the recoiling of guns ; also the series for the qua- 
drature of the hyperbola, in tlie article above, being the first invented series of the kind on that subject, 
besides some papers not printed. Several of his letters to Archbishop Usher were also printed in 
Usher's Letters; as well as some to Dr. Wallis, in his Commercium Epistolicum, before mentioned. 

G G 2 



236 . PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

For it has been demonstrated that J- of any term in the last column, is less 
than the term next after it ; and therefore that -a- of the last term, at which you 
stop, is less than the remaining terms ; and that the total of these is less than 
•I- of a third proportional to the two last. 

And therefore ABCyE being = 0,75 0,75 

and E d C y ::> 0,05685279 and < 0,05685290 

And ABCdE is<: 0,69314720 and :> 0,69314709 

But when A E : B C : : 5 ♦ 4, or as E A to K H, then will the space A B C E, 
or now the space A H K E (A H = ^ A B) be found as follows : 
8 X 9 X 10) 1. (0,0013888888 0,0013888888 

16X 17 X 18) 1. (0,0002042484-) 0003504472 0,0003504472 

18X19X20) 1. (0,0001461988/^ ^' 3)0,0000878204(0,0000292735 

32X33X34) 1. (0,0000278520) 0018271564 

34X35X36) 1: (0,0000233426 f +o'o000292735 

36X37X38) 1. (0,0000197566r^^^^"^^7^^"^ ^-^ P^ 

38X39X40) 1. (0,0000168691) 0,0018564299 <:Eab 

But 0,0003504472 t 

0,0000878204 [-H- 
0,000022007 37 J 

Therefore 0,0018271564 
4-0,0000220074 
-j- 0,000007 33 5 8 

0,0018564996 >Eab 



Therefore E M b (fig. 4) being = 0,025 

Eab>- 0,0018564299 and 



0,025 

: 0,001 8564996 



EMba (%.4) orEKM (%. l) > 0,02685643 and <:o,02685650 
A HKM<: 0,22314356 and >0,223 14349 



Therefore 3A B C d E = 2,079441 54 
and A H K E = 0,2231435 



ABCdE(whenAE:BC:: 10:1) = 2,3025850 



Therefore the logar. of 10 
is to the log. of 2 

as 2,302585 
to 0,693147, 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 23/ 

Extract of a Letter (tvritten in Latin) hy Mr. Michael Beiim, Con- 
sul at Dantzick, to Mr. John Hefelius, concerning some Chemicaly 
Medicinal, and Anatomical Subjects. N" 34, p. 650. 

In the beginning of this letter Mr. Behm conveys a well-merited eulogium 
on Mr. Boyle's Treatises on Colours and on Fluidity and Solidity, of which he 
had met with a Latin translation. At the same time he expresses a wish that 
the illustrious author would publish his further experiments on the nature of 
saline bodies. He then observes that he entertains great hopes of finding out a 
liquor, which, when injected into the bladder, may dissolve calculi without irri- 
tating the bladder itself; also of finding out other mixtures which may prevent 
or attenuate various viscidities that are injurious to the stomach. He afterwards 
mentions, that during an attack of the gout, in which he was disengaged from 
political concerns, he made some experiments on blood, the serum of which he 
found to be coagulable by a gentle heat and by acids, in the same manner as the 
white of an egg; but that it remained fluid when alkalies were mixed with it. 
He next enters upon a theory of the gout, which he supposes to be owing to 
a urinous acrimony, (urinosa putrilago) not eliminated by the kidnies or by 
perspiration from the mass of blood, but carried along with it and deposited 
upon the ligaments, joints, &c.* He hopes this subject will be more thoroughly 
investigated by some ingenious person in England ; so that the gout may cease 
to be acknowledged even by physicians themselves to be an incurable affection. 
After noticing the inefficacy of the usual remedies, and the salutary operation 
of the warm mineral springs (especially of such as are diuretic) he remarks that 
he had experienced considerable relief from bathing the affected limbs with a 
liquor of his invention, which exactly resembled in smell, taste, and other proper- 
ties, those warm mineral waters. Moreover he derived great benefit from some 
pills which were diuretic without being purgative; but (contrary, he says, to 
the advice of physicians) he has found in his own person and in the instances of 
his friends, the application of blisters to the part affected to give the speediest 
and most effectual relief; though he would not recommend this remedy to 
those whose skin is liable to ulcerate badly. Then follow some remarks on 
Highmore's Anatomical Account of the Spleen, and on Sylvius's absurd theory 
of the effervescence of the pancreatic juice, (which he supposed to be of an 
acid nature) with the bile in the duodenum, being the cause of numerous dis- 
eases. Mr. Behm says he never could detect any acidity in the juice of the 

* The composition of gouty depositions has been accurately analysed by modern chemists, as wUl 
be seen in the subsequent volumes of this work. 



238 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1668. 

pancreas, and that he never observed any effervescence to take place on mix- 
ing acids with the bile ; but that in such experiments a precipitate was thrown 
down (in the form of a coagulum*) similar to the precipitation of lac sulphuris 
by acids. Hence he conjectures that the bile is subservient to chylification, by 
correcting the acid fermentation of the food.-|- 

On the Variety of the Annual Tides in several Places of England. 
By Dr. IVallis. N° 34, p. 652. 

In my Hypothesis for Tides I cast the annual high tides not on the two equi- 
noxes, about the 1 1 th of March and September, nor yet on the apogee and 
perigee of the sun, about the middle of June and December, but as proceeding 
from a complication of those two causes, on a middle time between the perigee 
and the two equinoxes, as is the greatest inequality of the natural days, pro- 
ceeding from a complication of the same causes. And particularly for the coast 
of Kent, about the beginning of November and February ; which agrees with 
observations on those coasts. 

The last year an account was brought us of the annual high tides on the 
Severn, and at Chepstow-bridge, to be about the beginning of March and the 
end of September. Which though they agree not with the particular times on 
the coast of Kent, yet in general they agree thus far, that the one is about as 
much before the one equinox as the other is after the other equinox. You now 
acquaint me with high tides about February 22, about the coast of Plymouth, 
which is later than that of the coast of Kent, but sooner than that on the Se- 
vern. And I doubt not but in other parts of the world will be found other 
varieties. 

The reasons of these varieties are to be attributed to the particular position of 
those parts, rather than to the general hypothesis. The general hypothesis of 
the earth's diurnal motion, from west to east, would cast that of the waters, not 
following so fast, from east to west ; which causes the constant current within 
the tropics where the circles are greatest, westward from the coast of Africa to 
that of America, which is also the cause of the constant eastern breeze blowing 
in those parts. But the sea thus beating on the coast of America, is cast back 
as with an eddy on either hand, and consequently returns from the American 
shore eastward towards the coast of Europe ; where, the parallel circles to the 
equator being less, and consequently the diurnal motion slower, it doth not cast 

* The precipitate here mentioned would consist of albumen, and perhaps some of the resinous 
parts of the bile. 

+ This idea of bile correcting the acid fermentation of the food is consistent with its known com- 
position, soda being obtained from it by chemical analysis. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 23^ 

the waters so strongly westwards as between the tropics, and so not strong 
enough to overcome the eddy, which it meets with from the other motion, 
which gives the sea a north-easterly motion, on these coasts, as to its usual 
course. The current therefore of our seas being north-easterly, we are next to 
consider, at what times it runs more to the north, and at what more to the east. 
When it runs most northerly it runs up the Irish sea, and so up the Severn ; 
when most easterly it runs straight up the channel, and so to the coast of Kent; 
when between these, it beats against Devonshire and Cornwall, and those parts. 
We are therefore to consider, as to the annual periods, that the annual motion 
of the earth in the zodiac, and the diurnal in the equator, are not precisely in 
the same direction, but make an angle of 23^ deg. at the equinoxes, but run, as 
it were, parallel at the solstices ; and as they be nearer or farther from these 
points, so is the inclination varied. Which several directions of motion cause 
the compound motion of both to vary from the east and west more or less, ac- 
cording as the sun's position is farther from or nearer to the solstices. And 
therefore, nearer to the equinoxes, this inclination casts the constant current of 
our seas more to the north and south ; and further from it, more to the east and 
west. Which is the reason why the current up the Irish sea is nearer to the 
equinoxes at the beginning of March and end of September, and up the Chan- 
nel or narrow seas, farther from it, at the beginning of February and of No- 
vember; and against the coasts of Devonshire and thereabout, at some inter 
mediate time. 

Time of the Tides observed at London. Addressed to Dr. IFallis. 
By Mr. Henry Philips. N" 34, p. 656. 

The true time of the tides is very rudely and slightly estimated by most sea- 
men and astronomers; most of them reckoning as if the moon being upon such 
a set point of the compass as the seaman calls it, or so many hours past the 
meridian as the almanack makers reckon, it were high tide in such and such a 
port at all times of the moon. And thus they reckon the tides every day to 
differ constantly 48m. As for instance: A south-west moon makes a full tide 
at London, that must be understood, that it is high tide at London when the 
moon is three hours past the meridian. Now this is true indeed at the new and 
full moon, but not at other times of the moon, which few take any notice of. 
But observing this more narrowly, I find that at London the tides fall out at 
the least two points, that is one hour and a half, sooner in the quarters, than in 
the new and full moon. Now this being a very considerable difference of time, 
which might very well make many seamen and passengers to lose their tides, I 

♦ Omitted here a letter from Dr. Wallis, pointing out a mistake in a book, viz. Specimena Mathe- 
matical by Franciscus Du Laurens. 



240 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166&, 

set myself to watch this difference of the time of the tides, and to find out some 
rule how to proportion the time of the tides between the spring tides and the 
neap tides, and I found by many trials, that the true time of the tides might be 
found out to be somewhat shorter and shorter from the new and full moon unto 
the quarters ; yet not in an equal manner, neither gradually decreasing from the 
new and full moon until the quarters ; but rather that there was some little 
difference of alteration, both at the new and full moon, and also at the quarters; 
and that the greatest difference fell out in the midst between them, agreeing 
very well to a circular proportion after this manner : (See fig. 5, pi. 7.) — First, 
Divide a circle into 12 equal parts, or hours, according to the moon's motion 
or distance from the sun, from the new moon to the full. — 2d. Let the dia- 
meter of the circle be divided into 90 parts or minutes, that is, according to the 
time of the difference of tides between the new or full moon, and the quarters ; 
which is one hour and a half. — 3d. Make perpendicular lines cross the diameter 
of the circle, from hour to hour. — 4th. Reckon the time of the moon's coming 
to the south in the circumference of the circle, and observe the perpendicular 
line that falls from that point on the diameter ; then the proportional minutes 
cut thereby, will show how many hours or minutes are to be subtracted from 
the time of high tides at the new and full moon, that you may have the true 
time of the tides that present day. 

For example : At London, on the day of new and full moon, it is high 
tide there at three o'clock, that is when the moon is three hours past the 
meridian : so that by the common rule, the moon being about four days old, 
it will be south about three o'clock, and it will be high tide three hours after- 
wards, that is at six o'clock. But now by this rule, if you count this time of 
the moon's coming to the south in the circumference, the perpendicular line 
which eomes from three to nine cuts the diameter in the half, or at 45 m. which 
shows that so much is to be abated from the time of high tide in the new and 
full moons. So that it is high tide 45min. before six o'clock, that is, at five 
hours 15min. and not at six o'clock, according to the common rule. 

The like you may do for any other port or place, knowing the time of high 
water at the new and full moon in that place : And it will be done the more 
readily, if you set down the time of high water at the new and full moon under 
the diameter, as I have done for London, where it is high tide at three o'clock. 
So that when the moon is south at three o'clock, the perpendicular cuts the 
diameter at 2 hours 15 m. which added to the time of the southing, makes it 
5 hours .15 m. and so when the moon is south at nine o'clock, by adding 2h. 
15 m. you have the time of high water, which is llh. 15 m. 

And thus you may easily make a table, which by the southing of the mooii 
shall readily show the time of high tide at any time of the moon. 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 241 

An Account of some Books. N" 34, p. 660. 

' I. W. Sengwerdius, P. D. de Tarantula. Lugd. Bat. 1668, 12mo. 

As the subject of this treatise will present itself more than onc€ in the sub- 
sequent volumes of these Transactions, (See Lister in vol. vi. and Cirillo, in 
vol. Ix.) we shall only observe on the present occasion, that the very extraordi- 
nary effects formerly attributed to the bite of this insect, and minutely described 
by this author, together with the pretended cures by music and dancing, are 
now justly referred to imposture in many instances, and to the influence of the 
imagination in others. It is nevertheless true that the bite of the aranea taran- 
tula is not wholly innoxious. On the genus aranea, see Linnaean Trans, vol. ii. 

II. Regneri de Graaff,* M. D. Epistola, de nonnuUis circa Partes Genitales 
Inventis Novis. Lugduni Batav. 1668. (See also N° 38). 

III. Johannis Van Home,-}* M. D. Observationum circa Partes Genitales 
in utroque Sexu, Prodromus. Lugd. Batav. 1668. (See also N° 38). 

De Graaf, 1 . Rejects the opinion of those that teach a conjunction of the se- 
minal arteries with the veins by visible anastomoses, and that reckon the testicles 
among glands. 2. He affirms that he has often unravelled the whole substance 
of the testicles to a great length. 3. He asserts to have showed in a clear man- 
ner the communication of the vesiculae seminales with the vasa deferentia, and 
the size, shape and termination of these last in the urethra. To which he says 
he has added a very easy way of examining the body of the prostatae. From 

* Regner de Graaf was born at Schoonhaven in 1 64- 1 ; he studied at Leyden under De le Boe Syl- 
vius and Van Home 3 but took his doctor s degree at Angers, and practised at Delft. He was author 
of the following anatomical treatises: De Succi Pancreatici Natura, 166-1- and 1666; De VirorumOr- 
ganis Generationi Inservientibus, l6'6'8j De Mulierum Organis Generationi Inservientibus, l6"72; De- 
fensio Partium Genitalium, 1673, These were collected into one 8vo. vol. and reprinted after his 
death under the title of Opera Omnia, Leid. 1677. He died prematurely when only 32 years of age, 
in consequence, as is supposed, of great uneasiness of mind, brought on by the warm disputes in which 
he was involved with Swammerdam. In his tract on the pancreatic juice, he gives an account of a 
very difficult anatomical experiment which he performed on a living dog, opening the abdomen, and 
inserting a tube into tlie pancreatic duct, for the purpose of collecting the juice thereof^ to which 
(with Sylvius) he ascribed acid properties. By his other writings he tlirew considerable light on the 
structure and uses of tlie different parts belonging to the organs of generation in both sexes. 

f Van Home was a native of Amsterdam j but he spent many years in Italy, practising at Venice, 
Padua, and other places. On his return to Holland he was appointed to tlie anatomical and chirurgical 
professorships at Leyden, where he bestowed great pains on the art of injecting the vessels, preparing 
the various parts of the body, and making anatomical drawings. He wrote several anatomical treatises, 
(such as his NoAOis Ductus Chyliferas, 16.52 5 De Ductibus Salivalibus, 1656; Microcosmus seu 
Manuductio ad Histor. Corp. Hum. 16603 Prodromus Obs. circa Partes Genitales, 1668, &c.) all which 
have been since reprinted in one Svo. vol, under the title of Opuscula Anatomico-chirurgica, Leips. 
1707. He died at Leyden in 167O, being only 49 years of age. 

VOL. I. H H 



242 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

the consideration of all which he concludes, that there is but one material of 
the seminal liquor, which after being secreted in the testicles is deposited in the 
vesiculae, and ejected from thence into the urethra, not (as Vesling asserts) by 
one but by two foramina. 4. He affirms to have an easy and more accurate way 
of dissecting the penis than any other anatomist he knows; and he assigns to the 
muscles thereof a far other use than has been hitherto done. (See N° 38). 

Van Home refutes the above mentioned anastomoses between arteries and 
veins; then describes the spermatic arteries and veins; the pyramidal figure 
they make, where they meet near the testes, the direct and retrograde passage 
of the said arteries through the testes, and such a strange anastomosis between 
the spermatic veins, that they represent a kind of rete mirahile most elegantly. 
He also will not admit the testes to be glandular, but affirms, (which is the 
same with the doctrine of De Graaf ) that the whole substance of the testicles is 
nothing more than a congeries of extremely minute tubes (the author uses the 
term funiculorum concavorum) wherein the semen is elaborated and conveyed ; 
adding, that if the greater globe of the epididymis be well examined, there will 
appear through its membrane such anfractus and funiculorum gyri, as resemble 
those of the brain. He holds the semen to consist of three different fluids, one 
of which comes from the testes, another from the vesiculae, and a third from the 
prostate glands. He deduces from the wonderfulness of the structure of the 
penis, tensionem ejus, et impetuosam seminis per eundem ejaculationem. — 
He asserts, with Steno, that mulierum testes esse ovario in oviparis analogos, they 
containing perfect eggs full of liquor, and encompassed with a skin of their own.* 

Observations on Deafness. By the Rev. Dr. IFilliam Holder. ^ 

N' 35, p. 665. 
A young gentleman was born deaf, and continued dumb till the age of 10 or 
1 1 years. His mother, when pregnant with him, received a sudden fright ; by 

* Further information relative to the male organs of generation may be obtained by referring to 
Haller's Observ. de Viis Seminis in the 46th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, and to Monro's 
Dissert, de Testibus. Concerning the uses of the vesiculae seminales, the late Mr. J. Hunter enter- 
tained some singular opinions, not warranted by the structure and connexion of these parts in the 
human subject. See his Observations on certain Parts of tlie Animal Economy. Beautiful specimens 
of the serpentine vessels or seminiferous tubes of the testicles, filled witli quicksilver, are to be seen 
in the private anatomical museums of this metropolis. 

f Dr. Holder, a learned divine, and skilled in the sciences, was rector of Blechingdon in Oxford- 
shire. At the restoration he took his doctor's degree, became subalmoner to the king, and a fellow of 
the Royal Society. He had great skill in teaching deaf persons to speak, and wrote a treatise on that 
art. He was also well skilled in music, and published a treatise on the Natural Grounds and Principles 
of Harmony, in 8vo. iGQi. His other works are, A Discourse on Time, in 8vo. Also some con- 
troversial papers against Dr. Wallis, on the art of teaching deaf persons to speak. Dr. Holder died 
in 1697. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 243 

occasion of which the child's head and face were a little distorted, the whole 
right side heing somewhat elevated and the left depressed, so that the passage 
of his left ear was quite shut up, and that of the right ear proportionally dis- 
tended and too open. This gentleman being for some time recommended to 
my care, amongst other things, I spent some thoughts in searching the cause 
of his deafness in the ear whose passage was open. And having found that the 
auditory nerve was not perished, but that he could hear the sound of a lute- 
string, holding one end thereof in his teeth, and had some perception of any 
very vehement sound, I supposed the defect to lie in the want of due tension 
of the tympanum of his ear ; whose use I took to be only to preserve the audi- 
tory nerve and brain, and inward parts of the ear from outward injury by cold, 
dust, &c. and to be no more to hearing than glass in the window is in a room 
to seeing, i. e. as the one intromits light without cold or offence to those in 
the room, so the other permits sound to pass ; and shuts out what else might 
offend the organ ; as appears in the experiment of breaking the tympanum of a 
dog, who hears never the worse for some few weeks, till other causes, as cold, 
&c. vitiate the organ.* 

But for the free passage of the sound into the ear, it is requisite that the 
tympanum be tense and hard stretched ; otherwise the laxness of that mem- 
brane will certainly deaden and damp the sound. 

Now as to the case of the young gentleman before mentioned, I supposed 
the requisite degree of tension of the tympanum to be wanting ; and that if by 
any remedy it could be restored, I assumed that he might recover his hearing in 
that ear : to which end, I advised his mother to consult with learned physicians. 

Mons. UAbbe Mariotte's^ new Discovery touching Vklon; with 
Mons. Pecquet s Ansiver : both communicated hy Mons. Justel, 
iV" 35, p. 668. 
Having often observed in anatomical dissections of men as well as brutes, 

that the optic nerve does never answer just to the middle of the bottom of the 

* The fact here mentioned of the hearing being impaired in experiments made on dogs, a few 
weeks after the perforation of the membrana t)'-mpanl, would be an objection to the modem 
chirurgical remedy against deafness, (See Astley Cooper in the Phil. Trans, for ISOO and 1801) 
were it not possible to counteract, in a great measure, the effects of cold and other injurious impres- 
sions of the atmosphere, by wool or cotton occasionally introduced into the cavity of the ear. 

t Edmund Mariotte, an eminent French philosopher and mathematician, was bom at Dijon, and 
died in the year l6S4. Mariotte became prior of St, Martin near Dijon, and a member of the 
Academy of Sciences of Paris in l666, to which he communicated a number of curious and valuable 
papers, which were printed in the collection of their memoirs in 1666, viz. from vol. i. to vol. x. 
But all his works were collected into 2 vols. 4to, and printed at Leyden in 17 17. Mariotte was a 

HH 2 



244 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l668, 

eye, i. e. to the place where is made the picture of the objects we directly 
look on ; and that in man it is somewhat higher, and on the side towards the 
nose ; to make therefore the rays of an object fall upon the optic nerve of my 
eye, and to find the consequence thereof, I made this experiment : 

I fastened on an obscure wall, about the height of my eye, a small round 
paper to serve me for a fixed point of vision ; and such another on the side 
towards my right hand, at the distance of about two feet ; but somewhat 
lower than the first, that it might strike the optic nerve of my right eye, while 
I kept my left shut. Then I placed myself over against the first paper, and 
drew back by little and little, keeping my right eye fixed and very steady upon 
the same ; and being about ten feet distant, the second paper totally dis- 
appeared. 

That this cannot be imputed to the oblique position of the second paper, is 
evident, as I can see other objects further to the side of it ; so that one would 
believe that the second paper was taken away, if one did not find it again by 
the least stirring of the eye. 

This experiment I made often, varying it by different distances, and remov- 
ing or approaching the papers to one another proportionally. I made it also 
with my left eye, by keeping my right shut, after I had fastened the second 
paper on the left side of my point of vision, so that from the situation of the 
parts of the eye it cannot be doubted but that this deficiency of vision is upon 
the optic nerve. 

This discovery I communicated to many of my friends, who found the same 
thing, though not always at the same distances ; which difference I ascribed to 
the different situation of the optic nerve. Some at the distances mentioned 
have lost sight of a paper eight inches large, but others not so soon, which 
must be caused by the different magnitudes of the optic nerve in different eyes. 
This experiment has given me cause to doubt, whether vision was indeed 
performed in the retina (as is the common opinion) or rather in that other 
membrane which at the bottom of the eye is seen through the retina, and is 
called the choroides. For if vision were made in the retina, it seems that then it 
should be made wherever the retina is ; and since the same covers the whole 
nerve, as well as the rest of the bottom of the eye, there appears no reason to 
me why there should be no vision in the place of the optic nerve where it is : 

good mathematician for the age he lived in, and was the first French philosopher who applied much to 
experimental physics. The law of the shock or collision of bodies, the theoiy of the pressure and 
motion of fluids, the nature of vision, and of the air, more particularly engaged his attention. And 
he was remarkable for carrying into his philosophical researches that spirit of scrutiny and investiga- 
tion, so necessary to those who would make any considerable progress in discovery or improvement. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 245 

on the contrary, if it be in the choroides that vision is made, it seems evident 
that the reason why there is none on the optic nerve, is because that membrane 
(the choroides) parts from the edges of the said nerve, and does not cover the 
middle as it does the rest of the bottom of the eye. 

Tlie following is M. Pecquet' s Answer to the above. 

Every one wonders that no person before you has been aware of this priva- 
tion of sight, which every one finds, now you have given notice of it. But as 
to the result you draw from this discovery, I see it not sufficiently cogent to 
abandon the opinion of the retina being the principal organ of vision. For 
it will be sufficient now to take notice, that at the place of the optic nerve there 
is something that may very well cause this loss of the object. There are the 
vessels of the retina, the trunks of which are large enough to intercept the 
vision. These vessels, which are only the ramifications of the veins and arteries, 
are derived from the heart, and having no communication with the brain, they 
cannot carry thither the species of the objects. If therefore the visual rays, 
issuing from an object fall on these vessels at the place of their trunk or main 
body, it is certain that the impression made thereby will produce no vision, 
and that the picture of that object will be deficient ; as when on a white paper 
in an obscure chamber there is some black spot, or in it some hole of a con- 
siderable size : for the more sensible this blackness or hole is, the more of the 
image of the object it intercepts from our eyes. It is not so in respect of the 
small ramifications that issue from those trunks, and shoot into the retina. 
For if they be met with at the place of the bottom of the eye where vision is 
made distinct, they will not render the image of the object deficient, because 
they are so small as not to be sensible. Thus it is, that in looking-glasses, 
when they want lead or tin in any place large enough to be perceived, the 
image we there see appears to have a hole ; which happens not when there is 
but so small a one as might be made by the point of a needle. 

Thus much being observed as to the deduction made from this experiment, 
I shall further note, that that paper, the sight whereof is lost, must be further 
off or nearer, according to the diversity of the structure of eyes. For some lose 
this paper at the distance of two feet, some at a less, others at a greater dis- 
tance ; some lose it a little higher, others a little lower, according as the trunks 
of the vessels are situated in respect of the optic nerve ; and some lose more 
of it than others, according as those vessels are larger or smaller. And because 
it is hard to determine precisely the place where the object is lost in all sorts of 
eyes, we have ground to believe that this loss is not always made on the extent 
of the nerve where the retina is, but sometimes on the side of it where the cho- 



246 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

roides is found. For the trunks of the vessels of the retina are large and long 
enough to extend on this or that side of the nerve, and so to hide some part of the 
choroides according to their magnitude. And in this case it will be true that 
vision is not made in all the parts where the choroides is found, though they be 
exposed to the light. Which may very well give a check to your opinion, for- 
asmuch as those trunks would hinder the objects falling on them from coming 
to the choroides ; which would render the image deficient in that place, in re- 
gard that those species would not be able to make an impression on the organ 
of vision through those vessels. 

In the mean time such a discovery as this could not be long without being 
confirmed. For as the secret of your experiment consists in contriving that the 
picture of an object may fall just on the optic nerve, or thereabout, M. Picard 
has devised a way by which an object is lost keeping both eyes open, by letting 
the image of the object fall on both the optic nerves at one and the same time, 
after this manner: 

Fasten against a wall a round white paper of the size of an inch or two, and 
on the side of this paper put two marks, one on the right the other on the left 
side, each about two feet distant; then place yourself directly before the paper, 
at the distance of about nine feet, and put the end of your finger opposite both 
eyes, so that it may hide from the right eye the left mark, and from the left 
eye the right mark. If you remain firm in that posture, and look steadily with 
both eyes on the end of your finger, the paper, which is not at all covered 
thereby, will altogether disappear; which must be the more surprising, because 
without this particular encounter of the optic nerves, where no vision is made, 
the paper would appear double, the reason of which is sufficiently known. 

The application of this method is easily made to that of yours. For when 
one looks steadily with both eyes on the end of one's finger, held before the 
marks, it is the same thing as if you directed each eye by itself to the place 
which is to be looked on to lose the paper; so that one may with both eyes do 
the same thing, that you do with one, keeping the other closed. 

A Letter from Dr. Timothy Clarck, one of his Majesty s Physicians 
in Ofdinary, concerning some Anatomical Discoveries and Observa- 
tions, particularly the Origin of the Injection into Veins, the Trans- 
fusion of Blood, and the Organs of Generation. iV° S5, p. 6*72. 

After some prefatory remarks on the state of medicine and physiology in his 
days. Dr. Clarck animadverts upon the abuse of experimental philosophy; by 
which some (he is persuaded) have acquired a temporary unmerited fame. 
From this charge, however, he excepts, among anatomists, Asellius,* the dis- 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 247 

coverer (though, as Asellius himself acknowledges, the accidental discoverer) of 
the lacteals ; Pecquet,-|- the discoverer of the thoracic duct; and Bartholine J and 
Rudbeck,§ who by chance hit upon the lymphatics while they were busied in 
tracing the lacteals ; though Dr. C. asserts that his countryman Jolif, while he 
was examining the spermatic vessels in l652, tying a ligature above, and with 
his hand squeezing the testicle and its involucra beneath, in order to render the 
blood vessels more turgid, unexpectedly saw for the first time the lymphatic ves- 
sels in like manner rendered turgid. These observations are followed by some 

* Caspar Asellius was bom at Cremona, and taught anatomy in the university of Pavia, with great 
celebrity, in the beginning of the 17th century. In l662 he discovered the lacteals in the mesentery 
of a dog. He drew up an accurate description of these vessels,, illustrated by coloured plates, in a 
work entitled Dissertatio de Lactibus seu lacteis Venis, published at Milan, in l6'27, the year after 
his death. These vessels had been seen by Erasistratus many centuries before, in the mesentery of 
goats J but no farther notice had been taken of them until they were agam detected by Asellius in his 
anatomical investigations. 

f Some biographical notices of this anatomist have been given at p. l63, vol. i. of this Abridge- 
ment, 

X Thomas Bartholine, one of the greatest anatomists of the l/th century, was the son of Caspar 
Bartholine, (a man of universal erudition, and equally distinguished as a theologian, a philosopher, and 
physician) and was born at Copenhagen in 1616. He spent many years at foreign universities, 
travelling through Holland, France and Italy, On his return to Copenhagen in 1&47, he was at first 
made professor of mathematics, but afterwards filled the anatomical and medical chair in that univer- 
sity. In this situation he discovered, in conjunction with Rudbeck, the lymphatic vessels. He also 
traced the course of the thoracic duct in the human subject, confirming and elucidating Pecquet's de- 
scription thereof. His anatomical and medical writings are very numerous. Next to his tracts con- 
cerning the lymphatics, lacteals, and thoracic duct, the chief are his edition of his father's Institutiones 
Anatomicae, with notes and copious additions of his own; his Collegium Anatomicumj his Historiae 
Anatomicae ; his Epistolae Anatomicae ; his Dissertatio de Medicina Danorum ; his Cista Medica, and 
his Orationes Varii Argumenti. -He was besides a principal contributor to the Acta Medica and Phi- 
losophica Hafniensia. The number of his works would have been still greater, had not his library 
and MSS, been destroyed by fire in l6"70. This celebrated man died in 168O, aged 6'4-. Some 
years before his death he was appointed physician to Christian the Vth, was made rector of the 
university of Copenhagen, and had other honours conferred upon him. 

§ Olaus Rudbeck was born at Arosia in Westmania, a province of Sweden, in l630. He was pro- 
fessor of physic in the uni\ ersity of Upsal, and founder of the botanic garden there. The lymphatics 
of the liver (which he called ductus hepatis aquosos) were discovered by him and Bartholine jointly. 
He undertook, with the assistance of his son, a magnificent botanical work in folio, entitled Campi 
Elysii; but lost most of his MS. in the great conflagration which happened at Upsal in 1702, during 
which year he died, aged J 3. Besides his anatomical Exercitatio exhibens ductus hepatis aquosos, 4to. 
1053, and the botanical undertaking above mentioned, he also wrote a large historical and archaiologi- 
cal work, entitled Atlantica sive Manheim, in 3 vols, folio. It is said that he performed the Caesarian 
operation upon his own wife, so successfiilly as to save both mother and child. This was certainly 
an instance of great chirurgical intrepidity as well as skill. Fragments of the Campi Elysii were pub- 
lished some years ago by Dr. E. Smith, purchaser of the Linnaean Museum, founder of the Linnaean 
Society in London, and one of the first botanists of the age. 



248 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1 668, 

reflections on Bartholine, for his insinuations that Pauli, of Venice, was ac- 
quainted with the circulation of the blood before Harvey * published his account 
of it ; whereas it is certain that whatever knowledge Pauli (between whom and 
Harvey there was a long established friendship) might have had of this subject, 
it must have been derived through the medium of the Venetian envoy, then 
in England. He afterwards proceeds to observe, that although he had been 
diligently engaged for several years past in mixing various liquors with the blood 
of living animals, and had infused into the circulating mass not only a variety 
of alimentary drinks (potulenta) to the quantity of 1 lbs. but had likewise made 
similar trials with emetics, cathartics, diuretics, cardiacs, and opiates, as well 
as the transfusion of blood itself; yet he confesses he still entertains many 
doubts as to the utility (and in some instances the safety) of such experiments, 
in a medical point of view. At the same time he is ready to allow that the in- 
fusing of difi^erent liquors into the veins of animals may answer some anatomical 
purposes, and tend to throw light upon the nature and composition of the blood. 
He is further of opinion, that in sudden and profuse haemorrhages the transfu- 
sion of blood may possibly have the eff^ect of recruiting the exhausted frame in 
a speedy and powerful manner; in support of which opinion, he appeals to the 
experiment witnessed by Mr. Oldenburg and himself, of an animal which was 
bled until it was seized with convulsions, and apparently in a dying state, being 
restored to its former vigour in the space of seven minutes, by transfusing into it 
the blood of another animal of a different species. Nevertheless he doubts 
much of the applicability of transfusion of blood to the cure of diseases in ge- 
neral, and particularly of the possibility of conferring, by its means, upon per- 
sons far advanced in years, the health and vigour of youth. In regard to the 
infusing of nutrimental or medicated liquors into the veins, he justly suspects 
that no such liquors can be really beneficial, unless they previously undergo 
those changes in the first concoctions which render them fit for being mixed 
with the circulating mass. Much of what follows relates to the priority of the 
discovery (claimed by the French and other foreigners) of the transfusion of 
blood, and the injecting of medicated liquors into the veins. Dr. Clarck shows 
(as Mr. Oldenburg had done before) that both these experiments originated 
with the English; Dr. Lower having been the first who performed transfusion 
on brutes, and the French anatomist Dr. Denis the first who tried it upon man. 
The account of Dr. Lower's experiment was published in the Phil. Trans, for 
December 1666; but nothing was heard of Dr. Denis's operation until March 

* An opportunity will hereafter occur of giving some account of this great physician's discoveries 
and writings. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 24() 

in the following year, 1667. Dr. C. then rectifies an error into which Mr. Ol- 
denburg had fallen, respecting the time when the experiment of infusing liquors 
into the veins was first tried by Dr. Christopher Wren ; showing that it was 
performed in the house of the French ambassador, the Due de Bourdeaux, in the 
year 1657, and not 1659, as would appear from Mr. Oldenburg's statement. And 
the experiment (he says) was several times repeated in the course of that same 
year. In regard to a certain Hamburgh physician who would attribute the in- 
vention of infusing liquors into the veins to his countrymen (the Germans), 
stating that he had heard of the experiment being made in the presence of a 
prince of the Palatinate ; it is accounted for by the circumstance of the experi 
ment having been performed before the Palatine Prince Rupert, in England, 
through whose correspondence the fame of it might easily pass into Germany. 
Moreover, Dr. Clarck remarks, that it appears from this physician's own words 
that he had never tried this operation (though he says he had thought of it) at 
the time he mentions. 

Dr. Clarck then observes, that with the present letter he sends a drawing of. 
the vasa deferentia and vesiculae seminales, representing them in the state in 
which they were cut out of the human body by Lower and himself. He con- 
gratulates De Graaf, * or rather himself, that they both should have hit upon 
the same discovery. So evident, he says, is the communication between the 
vasa deferentia and vesiculas seminales, that if a person injects a liquor into 
the vas deferens, not a single drop of it will get into the urethra before it has 
reached the upper extremity of the vesiculae seminales. For in the angle A (see 
figure 1, plate 8), this communication is so contrived, that the vesiculae seminales 
must be entirely filled before any of the liquor can make its way into the ure- 
thra. He allows that the semen is emitted into the urethra by two foramina; 
but he cannot readily assent to De GraaPs doctrine, that there is but one ma- 
terial of the seminal fluid (unam solummodo esse materiam seminis) ; for if the 
testicle differs in its structure, colour, and substance, from the epididymis, in 
the same manner as the epididymis differs from the prostate; and if in these 
several parts we meet with juices that are of a different consistence and colour, 
he infers that different materials of the seminal fluid are elaborated in them. 

With regard to De Graaf s and Van Home's assertion, that the substance of 
the testicle is nothing but a conglomeration of funiculi, or rather extremely mi- 
nute tubes ; this fact. Dr. Clarck remarks, was known to himself, as well as to 
Riolan-J- and others, before. But although these funiculi may be drawn out to 

• Of whose anatomical labours an account has been already given at p. 241. (See also N° 38). 
f John Riolan was the son of a physician of the same name^ and was bora in 1577 at Paris, where 
VOL. I. I I 



250 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

a certain length, yet he says he could never find that the whole substance of 
the testes could be untwined, like yarn from the spindle. 

In the concluding part of his letter. Dr. C. gives notice of his intention of 
communicating to the world his observations on the organs of generation, and 
on impregnation in the human subject, tracing its progress from the first fort- 
night to the seventh and eighth months ; deduced from data, furnished partly 
by abortions, and partly by dissections of women dying at different periods of 
gestation. 

Explanation of the Figures referred to in this Letter. 

Figure 1 exhibits part of the vas deferens with the vesiculae seminales of one 
side, as they appeared before they were cut out of the body. A, The angle of 
communication. B, The upper extremity of the vesiculas seminales. C, The 
vas deferens where a small injecting pipe was inserted. D, The foramen which 
opens into the urethra, aaa. Part of the vas deferens, bbb. The vesiculae se- 
minales. ccc. The duct which leads from the vesiculae into the urethra. 

Fig. 1 represents a part of the vas deferens, with the vesiculae seminales of 
the other side, after being cut out, inflated, and dried for preservation. The 
letters denote the same as in fig. 1 . 

Observations concerning the Comet tvhicli lately appeared in foreign 
Parts, communicated from Italy and Portugal. N" 35, p. 683. 

The Italian account, given by Gio. Domin. Cassini: — 

Anno l668, the 10th of March, ih. of the following night, (after the Italian 
way of counting) at Bononia, S. Cassini observed a path of light extended from 
the Whale through Eridanus; which he judged to be the train of a comet, both 
by the figure and colour, as also because that the direction of it, being by the 
fancy continued, seemed to proceed to the 21st degree of Pisces, where the 
sun then was, and so tended to the part opposite to the sun, like other comets. 
By its extreme point reached to that star in Eridanus marked 14 by Bayer. 
But it issued out of the horizontal clouds, so that it seemed the head of the 
comet was either veiled by them, or hid under the horizon. It followed 

he afterwards distinguished himself as a teacher of anatomy. He died in l657, aged 80. He wrote 
a Schola Anatomica ; Anatomica, Corp. Hum. j Osteologia ; Anthropologia (afterwards republished 
with large additions under the title of Opera Anatomica) ; Enchiridion Anat. ; besides several con- 
troversial tracts. He was a man of a most invidious and overbearing temper, and was almost constantly- 
involved in disputes with contemporary writers, concerning some of the most important anatomical 
discoveries which were then made. He would not allow Pecquet and Bartholine the merit of their 
respective discoveries} and even attempted to refute Harvey's doctrine of tlie circulation of the 
blood. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. !§! 

the motion of diurnal revolution westward, and it was to be seen about the 
second hour of the night; for then it was demersed in the mists of the 
horizon. 

Not far from its pointed end eastward, a star appeared, equal to the brightest 
of the fourth magnitude, almost in the same place where was observed the 
comet of 1664, December 31; which star was not then seen, nor at other 
times elsewhere, nor is described in any catalogue, or any globe or map ; which 
therefore he deems to be a new one, that is, of new appearance. 

March 11, in the evening, the horizon was in the west overcast with thin 
clouds ; among which after one hour of the night, there was seen a brightness 
in the Whale, at least for half an hour, which was very like the splendour of 
Venus, likewise veiled by thin clouds. 

March 12, at night, the lower parts of the heavens in the west were clouded, 
and when the great Dog-star was in the mid-heaven, the same tail appeared 
again. It passed through the star in Eridanus which Bayer calls the 13th, 
and left to the southward the 14th, where it terminated March 10. Being by 
the imagination drawn out to about three degrees and further, it tended to that 
southern star which precedes the ear of Lepus. It was therefore more norther- 
ly than the day before yesterday, and more easterly ; and it also reached to the 
opposite part of the sun. The apparent part of the train reached out in length 
about 32 degrees. 

So far the Italian relation; the following is that from Lisbon. 

March 5, N. S. Forasmuch as it seems to follow the regular course of the 
sun, and sets few hours after it, there could hitherto be taken no considerable 
observations of it. The body is not seen, because it remains hid in the horizon. 
Its train is of a stupendous length, extended in appearance over almost the 4th 
part of the visible heaven, from west to east ; its apparent breadth is of a good 
palm, and its splendour very great, but it lasts only a few hours. 

Several letters written from France also mention its having been seen in 
several parts of that kingdom, as at Lyons, Tholouse, Toulon, but not at Paris ; 
no more than it hath been observed at London, or in any other part of England 
yet heard of. 

An Account of some Books. iV" 35, p. 685. 

I. Geometriae Pars Universalis, Quantitatum Cunarum transmutationi et 
mensurae inserviens, auth. Jacobo Gregorio Scoto, Patavii, 1668. In 4to. 

This work and the other before noticed, on the quadrature of the circle and 
hyperbola, were both composed and printed in Italy, while the ingenious au- 

II 2 



252 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

thor was on his travels in that country. In the preface of the present work he 
observes, that the defect of algebra in the mensuration of curved jfigures may in 
some manner be supplied, if out of some essential property of any such figure 
thence be given a method of changing it into another equal figure, having 
known properties, and of that into another, and so on, till at last it be changed 
into some known quantity ; which he says is eff^ected in this work. 

To square a circle organically, or divide an angle in a given ratio, he 
supposes there is no easier method, than by the common linea quadratrix, the 
properties whereof are treated at large in Leotaudi Cyclomathia, Lugduni, 
1663, in 4to. 

He then remarks that all things concerning logarithms, and the composi- 
tion of ratios, may be performed by help of a curved line, drawn through the 
tops of a rank of lines in continual proportion, standing as perpendiculars on a 
right line and at equal distance, being the logistic or logarithmic curve. That 
however the operations performed thereby are not to be accounted geometrical, 
because they are not performed by the sole aid of rule and compass. The 
confirmation of which the author thus demonstrates, that no cubic equation 
irreducible to a quadratic, can be resolved by the sole aid of rule and compass. 
For every cubic equation has either only one real root or three real roots 3 
hence if they could be found by the sole aid of rule and compass, or by the in- 
tersection of a circle and a right line, then aright line should cut a circle either 
in one point or three points ; either of which is absurd. And for the like rea- 
son a cubic equation, having three real roots, can never be reduced to a pure 
equation which has only one root ; for in these equations, it is impossible, by- 
aid of any reduction, to change an imaginary root into a real one, and the 
converse. 

The book itself contains these several heads : — 1. The mensuration of sundry 
solids, with general methods for that purpose. He here cubes or measures 
either of the segments of a parabolical conoid cut by a plane parallel to the axis. 
• — 2. The mensuration or plaining of the surfaces of divers solids and spiral 
spaces unknown to antiquity, and not treated of by any modern authors, till of 
very late years ; from whom the author differs in his method : particularly, he 
finds a circle equal to the surface of a parabolical or hyperbolical conoid, resem- 
bling a cup or bowl ; viz. when the revolution is about their axes. Prop. 46 and 
49. Also, the parabolical hour-glass or solid, when the revolution is about a 
tangent at the vertex, Prop. 52. Also the oblong spheroid. Prop. 47, 48 ; 
and Prop. 67 , the surface of any segment of a cone. Generally it its shown. 
Prop. 36, that the surface of every round solid is equal to a rectangle, whose 
base is the cirGumference of the figure, by the rotation whereof the solid is 



rOL. ir.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 253 

generated, and the height equal to the circumference which the centre of gra- 
Tity of the perimeter of the figure describes. — 3. A method for straightening of 
curved lines in the first six propositions ; and in particular he finds a right line 
equal to a parabolical cur\^e, Prop. 51. — i. Divers optic propositions toward* 
the end of the book, concerning the imperfection of the eye and the confusion 
of the sight ; the apparent magnitude of the sun low and high ; the tails of 
comets ; what proportion the earth's illumination by the sun, at the full of 
the moon, bears to the illumination of the earth by the moon ; and the like 
comparison between the sun and Sirius ; that vision by aid of a telescope or 
microscope is not deceitful : and an observation of the similitude between the 
earth and the moon. 

This same author, in his letter to Mr. John Collins, suggests, that Cassini 
has observed the motion of Jupiter about his axis in 10 hours ; of Mars in 23 
hours ; that Venus has the like rotations, but the precise period not yet 
known. That Cassini h.'js published tables of the motion of the satellites of 
Jupiter, with an ephemeris of the same for this present year. The like tables 
have been formerly published by the learned John Baptist Hodierna at Rome 
about 1656. — In another letter of this author to the same Mr. Collins, he 
states that Mich. Angelo Ricci only, since Viviani, has written de Maximis et 
Minimis in two sheets, but to extraordinary good purpose. 

II. An Introduction to Algebra, translated out of High Dutch into English 
by Tho. Branker, M. A. much altered and augmented by Dr. John Pell. Also 
a table of such odd numbers as are less than one hundred thousand, showing 
those that are incomposite, and resolving the rest into their factors or coeffi- 
cients. Printed at London in 4to. 

The author of this book, in the German language, was J. H. Rohn. The 
method of it is new, containing much in a little, and each distinct step of 
ratiocination or operation has a separate line, the operations being registered in 
the margin. The author puts small letters for unknown quantities, and capitals 
for known ones. — The book consists of many excellent problems ; some of 
which are such as Bachet either confesses he did not attain, or at least left 
obscure : and others of them are such as the celebrated Descartes and Van 
Schooten have left doubtful, as not being by them thoroughly understood. 
And some such as being unlimited, have for their answers certain ranks or 
series of all possible whole or rational numbers, whereby the student may be 
accomplished for the resolution of other questions of the like nature. 

The remainder of Rohn's book, but omitted in this translation, treats of cir- 
cular tangencies ; also of the construction of equations by means of the circle 
and parabola ; and of sines, tangents and secants, in 105 propositions. 



'154 PHILOSOPHICAL TRAXSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

III. An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language, by 
John Wilkins, D. D. Dean of Ripon, and Fellow of the Royal Society.* 

The description of the contents of this work, here given, is now no longer 
a curiosity, the book being in every person's hand. 

IV. Stanislai de Lubienietz Theatrum Cometicum, duabus partibus con- 
stans. 

Account of a Controversy hetiveen Stephano de Angelis, Pi^qfessor of 
the Mathematics at Padua, and J oh. Baptiste Riccioli, a Jesuit. 
Communicated by Mr. James Gregory, Fellow of the Royal Society. 
Translated in part from the Latin. N° 36, p. 693. 

Riccioli, in his Almagestum Novum, pretends that he has found out severa 
new demonstrative arguments against the motion of the earth. Steph. de 
Angelis, conceiving his arguments to be none of the strongest, takes occasion 
to let the world see that they are not more esteemed in Italy than in other 
places. Manfredi, in behalf of Riccioli, endeavours to answer the objections 
of Angeli ; and this latter replies to Manfredi's answer. The substance of this 
dispute is as follows : 

Although the arguments of Riccioli be many, yet the strength of them con- 
sists chiefly in these three. — 1st. Bodies let fall through the air in the plane of 

* Bishop Wilkins was one of the first institutors of tlie Royal Society, and one of its most useftil 
members, as well as the first or principal secretary, under whom Mr. Oldenburg acted as the sub or 
copying secretary. He was well skilled in mathematical and philosophical literature, producing se- 
veral useful works and inventions, one of which, though never noticed in any accounts of his life, 
was that of the perambulator, or surveying wheel, for measuring roads and great distances. Bp. Wil- 
kins was a man who thought it prudent to submit to the powers in being; he therefore subscribed to 
the solemn league and covenant while it was enforced, and was equally ready to swear allegiance to 
King Charles when he was restored. He accordingly had favours and promotion from both parties ; 
and, being of a good and amiable mind, he always used his power and interest for the benefit of in- 
dividuals and of the public weal. Dr. Wilkins was born in l6l4-, and studied at Oxford, where he 
took his degrees. During the civil wars tlie parliament appointed him warden of Wadham College 
in l648. In l6"56' he married the sister of the Protector, Oliver Cromwell, and, by the son Richard 
Cromwell, was made master of Trinity College, Cambridge, in l659i hut was ejected on the restora- 
tion the year following. From the prudence of his conduct, however, and his superior learning and 
piety, he met with great encouragement and patronage, and at last was promoted to the see of Ches- 
ter in \668. Like most studious and sedentary men, he became much afifliicted with the gravel, and 
at length died of the stone in l672, at 58 years of age. 

Of his publications, which are all of them very ingenious and learned, and several of them highly 
curious and entertaining, the first was in l638, when he was only 24 years of age, viz. The Disco- 
very of a New World, or a discourse to prove that it is probable there may be another habitable 
world in the moon 3 with a discourse concerning the possibility of a passage tliither^ In 1^40, a Dis- 



TOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. fO^ 

the equator, descend to the earth with a velocity constantly increasing as they 
fall. But if the earth were moved by a diurnal motion only about its own 
axis or centre, no heavy bodies dropped through the air in a perpendicular 
direction would descend to the earth with a real and remarkable increase of 
velocity, but with an apparent one only. Therefore the earth either does not 
move at all, or at least not with a diurnal motion. — 2d. If the earth were 
moved by a diurnal motion, or even by an annual one, the force of a cannon 
ball would be much weaker, when discharged towards the north or south, than 
from the west towards the east. But the consequent is false; and therefore the 
antecedent also. — 3d. If the earth were moved by a diurnal rotation, a ball of 
baked earth of eight ounces let drop through the still air from the height of 240 
Roman feet, would fall obliquely towards the earth, without real or physical in- 
crease of velocity, or certainly not by so much as is the proportion of the per- 
cussion and sound occasioned by the fall from the said altitude. But the latter 
is absurd, and therefore the former. 

In answer to the first of these arguments, Angeli denies the minor, which 
Riccioli pretends to prove thus : — If the earth is moved by a diurnal motion, 
any heavy body dropped from the top of a tower C, in the plane of the equator, 
should describe by its own natural motion a portion of the line C T I, which 
would be to all appearance circular. See fig. 6, pi. 7* 

This Angeli denies, showing, by computation, that Riccioli's observation 
proves no such thing. For, (says Angeli) according to Riccioli, in one second 
of an hour the weight descends 1 5 feet ; in two seconds, (X) feet ; in three 
seconds, 135 feet; and so continually, the spaces from the beginning in the 
duplicate proportion cf the time from the beginning; and, according to the 
same author, AB, the semidiameter of the earth, is 25870000 feet, and B C, 
the height of the tower of the Asinelli, in Bononia, 240 feet ; therefore A C is 
25870240, which has the same proportion to FS, 15 feet, to wit, the fall in 
one second, which AC, in parts 20000000000, has to FS 11 596 J'^\W% ; but 
supposing, with Riccioli, C S I A a semicircle, F S is 53 parts, of which A C 
is 10000000000: hence Angeli concludes, that CSIA is no ways near to a 

course concerning a New Planet; tending to prove that our earth is one of the planets. In l641. 
Mercury, or the secret and swift messenger; showing how a man may, \n ith privacy and speed, com- 
municate his thoughts to a friend at any distance. In this work are descriptions of many Axays of tele- 
graphic communications, as practised by several people. In 1648, Mathematical Magic; bemg a re- 
lation of the wonders effected by engines and mechanical contrivances. And lastly, in \66s. The 
.Essay towards a real Character and Philosophical Language; a very ingenious performance. Besides 
numerovis theological writings. All the foregoing mathematical and philosophical works were col- 
lected, and published 1708, in one vol. Svo. with an account of the lile and writings of tlie author. 



^50 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1608. 

semicircle ; which is most true, if the weight fall not to the centre of the earth 
precisely in 6 hours ; for, in this case of Riccioli, the weight falls to the centre 
of the earth in 21 minutes and 53 seconds. 

Manfredi, in his answer for Riccioli, affirms, that Angeli understands not 
the Rule-of-Three, in giving out FS for II596 -v^-rVg-j of which AC is 
20000000000 : and Angeli, in his reply, affirms his analogy to be so clear, that 
there can be nothing said more evident than itself to confirm it : referring in 
the mean time the further determination to geometricians. 

Angeli might have answered Riccioli's argument, granting the weight to 
move equally in a semicircle, by distinguishing his minor thus : No heavy 
bodies descend to the earth with a real and notable increase of velocity, if the 
velocity be computed in the circumference of a semicircle ; then the minor pro- 
position is true. But the descending motion is not so to be computed : for 
here the equal motion in the circumference of the semicircle CIA is com- 
pounded of the equal motion in the quadrant CD, and of the accelerated motion 
in the moveable semidiameter C A; and this accelerated motion in the semi- 
diameter is a true and simple descending motion; in which acceptation the 
minor proposition is most false, and likewise contrary to the experiments of 
Riccioli. But it seems that Angeli answers otherwise, to make Riccioli sensible 
that CI A is no semicircle; concerning the nature of which line they debate 
very much throughout the whole dispute. 

The second argument is much insisted on by Angeli, to make his solution 
clear to vulgar capacities ; but the substance of all is, that the cannon ball has 
not only that violent motion impressed by the fire, but also all those motions 
proper to the earth, which were communicated to it by the impulse received 
from the earth; for the ball, going from w^est to east, has indeed two impulses, 
one from the earth, and another from the fire ; but this impulse from the earth 
is also common to the mark, and therefore the ball hits the mark only with that 
simple impulse received from the fire, as it does when shot towards the north 
or south ; as Angeli excellently illustrates by familiar examples of motion. 

To Riccioli's third argument Angeli answers, desiring him to prove the sequel 
of his major, which Riccioli does, supposing the curve in which the heavy body 
descends to be composed of many small right lines ; and proving that the 
motion is almost always equal in these lines ; and after some debate concerning 
the equality of motion in these right lines, Angeli answers, that the equality of 
motion is not sufficient to prove the equality of percussion and sound, but that 
there are necessary also equal angles of incidence; which in this case he shows 
to be very unequal. To illustrate this more, let us prove that, other things 
being alike, the proportion of two percussions is composed of the direct propor- 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 357 

tion of their velocities, and of the direct proportion of the sines of their angles 
of incidence. 

Let us suppose also the following axiom, to wit, that percussions, aeteris 
paribus^ are in the direct proportion of the velocities, by which the moving 
body approaches the resisting plane. Suppose CF the plane, (fig. 7, pi. 7); 
and let there be two moveable bodies, in every respect alike, which approach 
with an equal motion the plane CF from the point A, in the right line* 
AD, A F ; I say, the percussion at the point D is to the percussion at the point 
F, in the ratio compounded of the ratio of the velocity in the right line A D, to 
the velocity in A F, and of the ratio of the sine of the angle A D E, to the sine 
of the angle A F E. From the point A to the plane C F draw the perpendicular; 
also make the right line A C equal to the right line A F, A B equal to the right 
line A D, and the plane B G H parallel to the plane C F. Let us suppose the 
moving body, as before mentioned, alike in all respects, to be moved equally in 
the right line A C, with the same velocity with which the body is moved in the 
right line A D ; then because the planes B G H, C F are parallel, and the mo- 
tion in the right line A C is equable, therefore the moving body approaches the 
plane BH with the same velocity with which it approaches the plane CF, and 
thence the percussions at the points B and C are equal ; also the percussion at 
the point D, is to the percussion at the point B, as the right line A E to the 
right line A H, or (because of the equals A B, AD) as the sine of the angle 
A D E to the sine of the angle A B H, which I thus prove : the velocity of the 
body in the straight line A D, is equal to the velocity in the right line A B, 
which is equal to AD, and therefore both the right lines AD, AB, are passed 
over in the same time ; and so in the same time the accessions to the resisting 
planes A E, A H, are performed ; therefore the velocities of the accessions to 
the resisting planes are in the direct ratio of A E to A H, and likewise the per- 
cussion at the point D is to tlie percussion at the point C, in the same ratio 
of A E to A H, namely, as the sine of the angle of incidence A D E to the 
sine of the angle of incidence ACE, or A F E. But because the right lines 
AC, A F, are equally inclined to the plane C F, the moving bodies in the 
right lines A C, A F, approach to the plane C F, in the same ratio in which they 
are moved in the right lines AC, A F ; and therefore the percussion at C is to 
the percussion at F, in the ratio of the velocity of the motion at A C, or in 
A D, to the velocity of the motion in A F. But since it is before demonstrated 
that the percussion at the point D, is to the percussion at the point C, in the 
ratio of the sine of the angle A D E to the sine of the angle A F E ; and now it 
is demonstrated that the stroke at the point C, is to the percussion at the point 
F, as the velocity of the motion in AD to the velocity in AF: therefore (by 

VOL. I. K K 



258 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66S. 

5 defin. 6 Eucl.) the percussion at D, is to the percussion at F, in the ratio 
compounded of the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence A D E, to the 
sine of the angle of incidence A F E, and of the ratio of the velocity in A D to 
the velocity in A F ; which was to be demonstrated. 

It makes no difference that this demonstration is confined to equal motions in 
right lines and resisting planes; for it is tnie in every case, since the percussions 
are made in the point in which the right and curved lines coincide and agree : 
but if the percussions be not made in points, from these no geometrical con- 
siderations can be given, but the defect of the conclusion is to be judged of 
according to the defect of matter from the requisite conditions ; as it ought 
always to be, when geometrical demonstrations are applied to a physical body. 

In Angeli's reply to Manfredi, he mentions an experiment, which, as it was 
related to him by a Swedish gentleman, had been made with all due circum- 
spection by Descartes, to prove the motion of the earth. The experiment was ; 
he caused a cannon to be erected pei*pendicular to the horizon ; which being 24 
times discharged in that position, the ball fell 22 times towards the west, and 
only twice towards the east.* 

/l?i Enlargement of the Observations formerly published in Numb. 27' 
% Dr. Stubbes. N' 36, p. 699- 
Of no consequence now to any one. 

Extract of a printed Letter, addressed to the Editor, by Dr. Denis, 
of Paris, touching the Differences that have arisen about the Trans- 
fusion of Blood. Dated Paris, May 15, 1668. N' 36, p. 710. 

You have sensibly obliged me in assuring me, by your letter of April 29, 
that the magistrates of London had not at all concerned themselves to prohibit 
the practice of the transfusion of blood, and that that operation had been hi- 

* There seems to be a strange blunder made here, both by Angeli and the Swedish gentleman, 
with regard to Descartes's object in this experiment j since it rather proves the composition of forces, 
than the earth's motion. For as it is constantly found that, in all such experiments as this, the ball 
falls down again very nearly on the same spot from whence it was discharged, the inference would ra- 
ther be (independent of the composition of forces) that the earth did not move. For, granting the 
earth's motion, either diurnal or annual, or both, then the ball must fall veiy far indeed from the place 
of the gun, viz, by more than tliree miles in the middle latitudes, in consequence of the diurnal mo- 
tion, and not less then 300 miles by the annual motion, were it not for tlie composition of motion, or 
of forces, supposing the ball to ascend only to the moderate height of 1000 feet. So that, such com- 
position being a fact very well established, the experiment proves nothing as to the earth's motion, 
neither for nor against it. But, granting such motion, then tlie circumstance of the ball falling down 
qgain near the place of the cannon, is a splendid proof of tlie composition offerees or motion. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. f5Q 

,therto practised with good success on brutes, and without any ill consequence 
upon a man (Arthur Cogan) . The enemies of new discoveries had taken such 
great pains to publish every where this false report to decry this experiment, 
that there needed an authentic testimony to undeceive the multitude. If one 
should undertake to dissipate all the false rumours on this subject, one should 
never lay aside the pen ; but the best of it is, that men of discretion so much 
disdain these wild reports, that they listen to them with disgust. And as to me, I 
was resolved to write no more upon it, until some new experiments should coun- 
tenance my first conjectures. But your last letters do so civilly engage me to 
impart to you the secret cabal, practised by some persons to embarrass the his- 
tory of that madman, that was cured * six months ago by means of transfusion, 
that I could not omit sending you the sum of what hath hitherto passed upon 
that subject, expecting mean time what the parliament of Paris, who I believe 
will be the judges and arbitrators thereof, shall determine. 

You already know, that the transfusion of calf's blood so tempered the ex- 
cessive heat of the blood of the madman,-^ who for four months had run naked 
up and down the streets night and day, that he fell asleep two hours after the 
operation, and that after ten hourg sleep he awakened in his senses, and that he 
remained in that condition about two months, until the too frequent company 
of his wife, and his debauches in wine, tobacco, and spirituous liquors, had cast 
him into a very violent and dangerous fever. 

You may also have heard, that this operation had effects quite contrary' at 
the same time, and that for one brain cooled thereby, it fired many, forasmuch 
as by curing the madness of one poor wTctch, it disturbed the wits of many such 
as aim at nothing, but to signalize themselves by opposing all new discoveries, 
which themselves are not capable of making. It was indeed but three or four 
days after this man was recovered, that some malicious spirits began to publish 
that he died under our hands, and that we had put an end to his extravagancies 
by putting an end to his life. This first story having been proved to be false, 
they mended the tale, and were resolved to make people believe he was re- 
lapsed into his former madness, and even was grown worse than ever. This 
obliged the first president and many other persons of quality to send for him to 
their houses, to examine the truth themselves ; who, after they had entertained 
him awhile, were all satisfied of the good effect of the transfusion, and that 
those wanted no malice, who reported things so contrary to what they saw with 
their own eyes. 

These things you may have learned from our formerly printed letters ; but 

* He was not cured. His madness was periodical, and he relapsed. 

+ This tempering of the heat of the patient's blood by tlie blood of the calf, is a strange idea. 

K K 2 



260 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l668f. 

what perhaps you know not yet, is, that these envious spirits were not the only 
ones that were .troubled at this cure. The wife of the patient was most alarmed 
at it, though she used artifice enough to show us the contrary, and to persuade 
us, that she thought of nothing else, but to relieve him in his distempers. The 
truth is, that this man having been a lackey, and since a valet de chambre, had 
no profession that could bring in a subsistence for his family. And indeed the 
time of his madness was not so troublesome to his wife as the time when he 
was in his wits; for whereas she had her freedom to make certain visits, and to 
live as she listed, when he was not at home, but ran up and down, and even 
lay at night in the streets; she was on the contrary in great pain when he came 
to stay at home, because he observed her narrowly, and could not forbear re- 
proaching her, for having often attempted to poison him ; now and then ex- 
pressing also some jealousy he had conceived against her. These are the com- 
plaints she herself hath often made to credible persons, who thought themselves 
obliged to depose it judicially, thereby to discover the misunderstanding, which 
doubtless hath been the cause of the unfortunate sequel of this affair. 

And indeed this poor man falling ill again, his wife urged us beyond measure 
to try a third transfusion upon him, insomuch that she threatened she would 
present a petition to the solicitor general to enjoin us to do what we absolutely 
refused. At last she came one morning to my house, and not finding me, she 
left word, that she entreated me in charity to come after dinner to her house, 
where would be a certain meeting. I went, and there met M. Emmerez, and 
finding a calf and every thing ready for a transfusion, we were about to go away, 
telling her that her husband was not in a condition for this operation. Then 
she fell down with tears in her eyes, and by unwearied clamour she engaged us 
not to go away without giving her the satisfaction of having tried all possible 
means to recover her husband. Her art was great enough to make us conde- 
scend to another trial, to see whether we could give him any relief. M. Em- 
merez, to content her, passed . a pipe into the vein of the patient's arm ; and 
since it is necessary to draw away some of the old blood when new is to be in 
fused, he opened a vein in his foot for that end. But a violent fit having seized 
on him in that instant, together with a trembling of all his limbs, there issued 
no blood out of the foot, nor the arm ; which obliged M. Emmerez to take 
out the pipe put into the arm, without opening the artery of the calf, and so 
without any transfusion. 

This poor man dying the night after, and news thereof being brought us, we 
went thither next morning, together with M. Emmerez and another surgeon, 
and remembering the complaints the dead man had often made of his wife's at- 
tempt to poison him, we would gladly have opened his body in the presence of 
seven or eight witnesses. But she so violently opposed it, that it was not 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL. TRANSACTIONS. 26l 

possible for us to execute our design. We were no sooner gone, but she be- 
stirred herself exceedingly, as we were informed, to bury her husband with all 
speed. But being in an indigent condition, she could not compass it that day. 
Meantime a famous physician of the faculty of Paris, happening to be that night 
at the house of a lady who was solicited for a charity towards this burial, was of 
the same mind with us, that his body should be opened, and therefore sent in- 
stantly for surgeons to execute it. But she being resolved against it, used lies and 
other arts to elude this design. And when we threatened her, that we would 
return next morning and do the thing by force, she caused her husband to be 
buried an hour before day, to prevent our opening of him. 

As soon as his death was buzzed abroad, the enemies of the experiment began 
to triumph, and soon after they published defaming books against us. I then 
resolved- to be silent, but that silence made our adversaries keener. And I was 
surprised when two months after I was informed, that there were three physi- 
cians that did not budge from the widow, importuning her by promises of a 
great recompense, only to let them use her name to accuse us before a court of 
justice for having contributed to the death of her husband by the transfusion; 
and that even they addressed themselves to the neighbours of this woman to 
engage them to bear false witness against us. And some time after, this woman, 
raised by the hopes given her by those men, came and told us, that some phy- 
sicians did extremely solicit her against us, and that she had always refused 
them, knowing her obligations to us for having relieved her husband freely. 
But she drawing from hence no profit, as she expected she should, she turned 
her notices into menaces, and sent us word, that in the present necessity to 
which she was reduced, she was obliged to accept of the offer made her by 
certain physicians, if we would not assist her. I sent her this answer, that those 
physicians and herself stood more in need of the transfusion than ever her hus- 
band had done, and that, for my part, I cared not for her threats. But yet I 
then thought it time to break silence, not only my interest being concerned, 
but the public, to discover to the world those persons that would be engaged in 
intrigues so unworthy of learned men. I complained of it to the lieutenant in 
criminal causes, who presently allowed me to inform both against the widow 
and those that solicited her. Some witnesses having been called before justice, 
they deposed against the three physicians and this woman, accusing them of 
having secretly given to her husband certain powders, which might have con- 
tributed to his death. 

This information, brought in by five witnesses, having been presented in 
a full court to the said lieutenant by Mr. Dormesson, the king's advocate, he 
gave sentence, that the woman should have a day set her, to appear in person 
to be examined upon my informations, and that in the mean time new informa- 



202 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO ]668. 

tions should be taken against her at the desire of his majesty's attorney. And 
because he thought that there might be danger in permitting indifferently the 
practice of transfusion to all sorts of persons, he ordered, that for the future it 
should be used but under the inspection of physicians ; this is what you will see 
more fully in the sentence itself. 

JSxtract of the Sentence, given at the Chastelet, hy the Lieutenant in Criminal 

Causes, April 17, 1668, in Paris, 

In this cause there are proofs and evidences of these particulars ; 

1 . That the operation of transflision was twice performed upon Antony Mauroy, a madman, and 
that it was attempted the tliird time : that it succeeded so well those two times, that tlie patient was 
seen for two months after it in his good senses and in perfect health. 

2. That from the time of tlie two first operations his wife gave him eggs and broths, and bedded 
with him four times, notwithstanding the prohibition of those tliat treated him, and that she carried 
him to her house without speaking to them of it, and with great reluctancy of her husband. 

3. That since that time, he went from one public house to another, and took tobacco, and falling 
ill again, his wife gave him spirituous liquors to drink, and broths, wherein she mixed certain 
powders ; and that Maufoy having complained that she would poison him, and gave him arsenic in 
his broths 5 she hindered the assistants from tasting tliereof, and making a show of tasting it herself, 
cast upon the ground what she had in a spoon. 

4. That du Mauroy had frequent quarrels with his wife since, and that she gave him many strokes, 
as sick as he was, but having once received a box on the ear from him, she said he should repent it 
though she should die for it. . , 

5. That when transfusion was attempted the third time, it was at the instant request of his wifej 
those that were to perform the operation refusing to do it without permission of the Solicitor General; 
that some days after that the operation was begun, but that as scarce any blood issued either out of the 
foot or of the arm of the patient, a pipe M-^as inserted, which made him cry out, tliough it appeared 
not that any blood of the calf had passed into his veins : that the operation was given over, and tliat 
the patient died the next night. .]:■.-, 

6. That this woman would no ways suffer any person to open the body of her husband, saying in 
excuse, he was already in the coffin, when he was not, 

7. That a good while after the decease of the said du Mauroy, three physicians did solicit the said 
woman to take money, and to make complaints that the transfusion had killed her husband : that she 
said when those persons were gone away from her, tliat they had been witli her upon that account ; 
and that unless those that had made the operation would give her wherewith to return into her country, 
she should do what those others pressed her to : that a witness deposetli, tliat she came to pray him, 
that he would inform those who had made the operation, tliat unless they would maintain her during 
her life, she would accept of the offer made her by the said physicians : that another witness deposeth, 
that one was come to him from a physician, and had offered him 1 2 louis d'or, if he would depose 
that du Mauroy died in tlie very act of the transfusion. 

That the matter was important enough to inquire into the bottom of it ; that there was cause 
enough to examine this woman. Where she had those powders ? Why she had given them to her 
husband ? And by whose order ? Why she had hindered the opening of the body by a lie ? That he 
required further information might be taken about it, and she in the mean time put in safe custody. 

That as to the three physicians who had solicited her witli money to prosecute those that had made 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, 2^3 

the operation, and who had been seen with her, he demanded that a day might be set them to ap- 
pear in person. 

Lastly, that since tlie transfusion had succeeded well the first two times, and had not been under- 
taken the tliird but at tlie earnest request of the woman, who otherwise had so ill observed the orders 
of tliose tliat had made the operation, and who was suspected to have caused the death of her husband, 
he demanded tliat tlie execution of tlie decree of prefixing them a day. for personal appearance might 
surcease. 

Whereu^wn it was decreed, that the widow of du Mauroy should on a set day appear personally, 
and undergo the examination upon the alleged informations ; and that more ample informations 
should be made of the contents in tlie complaint of Mr. Denis : And then, that for the future no 
transflision should be made upon any human body but by the approbation of the physicians of the 
Parisian faculty. 

Since this sentence new informations have been given in, considerably 
stronger than the former; and witnesses have been discovered, to whom the 
woman had committed it as a secret, that it was arsenic she mingled in her 
husband's broth, and even that the patient before his death having given the re- 
mainder of one of the messes of broth to a cat, the animal died of it a few days 
after. 

As to the experiment of transfusion, you see it is not absolutely prohibited 
by this sentence ; there needs no more to practise it but to have the approbation 
of some physicians of Paris ; of whom seven or eight have already signed the 
proposal made for one. And I have now before me a paralytic woman (a 
neighbour and friend of her who was cured of the palsy this way) who is 
resolved to present a petition to the magistrate, and therein to desire the trans- 
fusion may be allowed her. 

Meantime, if ever the faculty of the Parisian physicians meet upon this 
business, I do not believe that they will act with that precipitancy as is supposed. 
And as to the parliament, I do not see that those who compose it are of a re- 
solution to strike at this operation, unless it should happen that the experiments 
that may be made before them should not succeed as thoSe have done that have 
been made hitherto. It is well known to that court, that the faculty made a 
decree a hundred years since against antimony, which was then used by the 
physicians of Montpelier, and that after they had given it a place among poisons, 
they obtained a sentence prohibiting the use thereof: yet nevertheless these 
physicians not having forborn to use it under another name, the effects thereof 
proved so advantageous, and the recovery of our great monarch thereby so 
famous, that the same faculty of Paris was constrained two years ago, by a de- 
cree, to approve what before they had forbidden, and even demanded another 
sentence for permitting the use of the same.* 

• If we put together all the circumstances stated in the preceding narrative, we shall easily be con- 
vinced that the operation of transfusion did not occasion this man's deatli, and that tliere were strong 
grounds for suspecting that he was poisoned. The selecting, however, of such a subject for the ex- 



*^ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1 ^^8. 

A Sand-fiood at Downham, in Suffolk. By Thomjs Wright, Esq. 

N'' 37, p-722. 

•'>'ilt is but about 100 years since the sands first broke loose. I could not 
without some difficulty trace out their original. But I now find it to be in 
a warren in Lakenheath, distant about five miles south-west and by west of 
Downham. There some great sand-hills, having the sward or superficies of the 
ground broken by the impetuous south-west winds, blew upon some of the 
adjacent grounds ; which being much of the same nature, and having nothing 
but a thin crust of barren earth to secure it, was soon broken up, and thus 
contributed to increase the mass. At the first eruption the whole magazine of 
sand could not cover above eight or ten acres of ground ; which increased into 
1000 acres before the sand had travelled four miles from its first situation. 
Indeed it met with this advantage, that till it came into this town, all the 
ground it passed over was almost of the same nature as itself. All the opposition 
it met with in its progress hither, was from one farm house, which stood within 
a mile and a half of its first source. It is between 30 and 40 years since it first 
reached this town; where it continued for 10 or 12 years in the outskirts with- 
out doing any considerable mischief. The reason of which seems to be, that 
its current was then down hill, which sheltered it from those winds that gave it 
motion. But that valley being once passed, it went above a mile up hill in two 
months time, and overspread 200 acres of very good corn the same year. It is 
now got into the body of this little town, where it has buried and destroyed 
several tenements and other houses, and has forced us to preserve the re- 
mainder at a greater charge than they are worth. Which doubtless had also 
perished, had not my affection for this poor dwelling obliged me to preserve it 
at a greater expense than it was built. Where at last I have given it some 
check, though for four or five years our attacks on both sides were with so 
various success that the victory remained very doubtful. For it had so possessed 
all our avenues, that there was no passage to us but over two walls, of eight or 
nine feet high, which encompassed a small grove before my house, now almost 
buried in the sand; nay, it was once so near a conquest, that at one end of my 
house it was possessed of my yard, and had blown up to the eves of most of my 
out-houses. At the other end it had broken down my garden wall, and stopped 
all passage that way. 

periment of transfusion does notrefiecl much credit on the judgment of Dr. Denis and his coadjutorj 
for unless more blood was drawn from the man than was infused into him (which does not appear 
to have been the case in the two first trials) a sudden and considerable plethora would be produced; a 
change little suited to relieve a maniacal affection. 



VOL. II.] 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



265 



But by stopping of it four or five years with furze hedges, set upon one 
another, as fast as the sand levelled them, by which I have raised sand-banks 
near 20 yards high, I brought it into the circuit of about eight or 10 acres: And 
then in one year, by laying some hundreds of loads of muck and good earth 
upon it, I have again reduced it to terra Jirma, have cleared all my walls, and 
by the assistance and kindness of my neighbours, who helped me away with 
above 1 500 loads in one month, cut a passage to my house through the main 
body of it. 

But the other end of the town met with a much worse fate, where divers 
dwellings are buried or overthrown, and our pastures and meadows over-run 
and destroyed : and the branch of the river Ouse, on which we border, for three 
miles together so filled with sand, that now a vessel with two loads weight passes 
with as much difficulty as before with 10. And had not the stream interposed 
to stop its passage into Norfolk, doubtless a great part of that country had ere 
now been left a desolate trophy of this conquering enemy. 

The situation of the country in which these sands took their rise, lies east- 
north-east of a part of the great level of the fens, and is thereby fully exposed 
to the rage of those impetuous blasts, which yearly blow from the opposite 
quarter, and which I suppose acquire more than an ordinary vigour by passing 
through so long a tract without any check. Another thing that contributes to 
it, is the extreme sandiness of the soil, the lightness of which I believe gave 
occasion to that story of the actions that used to be brought in Norfolk for 
grounds blown out of the owner's possession. 

Of the Magnetical Variation, and the Tides, near BristoL By Capt. 
Sam. Sturmv, N" 37, p. 726. 

June 13, 1666, Capt. Sturmy made the following magnetical observations in 
Rownham meadows, near Bristol, by the water-side. 



Sun's observed 
Altitude. 


Magnetical 
Azimuth. 


Sun's true 
Azimuth. 


Variation 
Westerly. 


44° 20' 


72° 00' 


70° 38' 


1° 22' 


39 30 


80 00 


78 24 


1 36 


31 50 


90 00 


88 26 


1 34 


27 42 


95 00 


93 36 


1 24 


23 20 


103 00 


101 23 


1 23 



VOL. I. 



Ll 



266 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166S. 

In this table he notes the greatest distance or difference to be 14 minutes; 
and so taking the mean for the true variation, he concludes it then and there to 
be just 1 deg. 27 min. viz. June 13, l666. 

He observed again in the same day of the next year, viz. June 13, 1667, and 
then found the variation increased about six minutes westerly. 

From many former observations Capt. Sturmy assures, that the highest spring 
and annual tides there are about the equinoxes, according as the moon is near 
the full or change, before or after that time. 

J7i easy Help for decayed Sight. iV" 37, pp. 727 and 729. 

The inventor of this method was about 60 years of age, but his sight much 
decayed ; and I seemed, says he, always to have a kind of thick smoke or mist 
about me, and some little black balls dancing in the air about my eyes, and to 
be in such case as if I came into a room suddenly from a long walk in a great 
snow. I could not distinguish the faces of my acquaintance, nor men from 
women, in rooms that wanted jio light. I could not read the great and black 
English print in the church bibles, nor keep the plain and trodden paths in 
fields or pastures, except I was led or guided. I received no benefit by any 
glasses, but was in the case of those whose decay by age is greater than can be 
helped by spectacles. The fairest prints seemed through spectacles like blind 
prints, little black remaining. 

Being in this sad pliglit, what trifle can you think has brought me help more 
valuable than a great sum of gold ? Truly, no other than this : I took spec- 
tacles that had the largest circles ; taking out the glasses, I put black Spanish 
leather taper-wise into the emptied circles, which widened enough, took in my 
whole eye at the wider end ; and presently I saw the benefit through the lesser 
taper-end, by reading the smallest prints, which thus seem as if they had been a 
large and fair character. I coloured the leather on the inside with ink, to take 
off the glittering. Finding that the smaller the remote orifice was, the fairer 
and clearer the smallest prints appeared ; and the wider that orifice was, the 
larger object it took in, and so required the less motion of my hand and head 
in reading ; I therefore cut one of these tapers a little wider and shorter than 
the other, and the wider I use for ordinary prints, and the longer and smaller 
for smallest prints: these without any trouble I alter as is necessary. I can only 
put the very end of my little finger into the orifice of the lesser, but the same 
finger somewhat deeper, yet not quite up to the first joint, I can insert into the 
orifice of the wider. Sometimes I use one eye, sometimes another, for ease by 
the change ; for you must expect that the visual rays of both eyes will not meet 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ^f^^J 

for mutual assistance in reading, when they are thus far divided by tubes gi that 
length. The lighter the stuff is, the less it will encumber. Remember always 
to black the inside with some black that has no lustre or glittering. And you 
should have the tubes so moveable, that you may draw them longer or shorter, 
allowing also the orifice wider or narrower, according to circumstances. 

I have not tried what glasses will do if settled in these tubes, having no need 
of them. Probably they may be more proper for some that are squint-eyed, 
whose eyes interfere. Certainly it will ease those that cannot well bear the 
light ; and perchance it will preserve the sight for a longer time. 
In another letter the same person adds: 

I see now, by these taper tubes, as well as the youngest in my family, and can 
read the smallest and most confused prints through them as well as ever I could 
from my childhood, though my sight be almost lost. And having used these 
empty holes for spectacles little more than a week, I can now use them without 
trouble all the day long; and I verily believe, that by this little use of them, my 
sight already is much amended. For I now see the greenness of the garden, 
and pastures in a florid verdure, whereas very lately dark colours, blue and green, 
had the same hue to my eye. 

If you ask me, how this device came in my head, I shall tell you all I know. 
Some years ago I was framing one of Hevelius's polyscopes ; as I was trying 
the tube, without the dioptric glasses, I perceived that though the tube took in 
very little, and seemed scarce serviceable for any considerable purpose; yet the 
object appeared to me more distinct and clear through the tube, than through 
the open air. This I recollected, and thereupon made the trial, and found the 
effect fully answer to my case. 

As for your trial of the tubulous spectacles, the tubes may be of paper, only 
coloured black and pasted on, and with the inner folds drawn out from one inch 
to three; some of the folds to be taken out, that the orifice may be w^der or 
narrower, as best fits to every degree of defect. 

Of the Antiquity of the Transfusion of Blood from one Animal to 

another, N" 37, p. 731. 

There has been of late some contest about the origin of transfusion, the 
English first claiming it as a late invention of theirs, the French pretending 
thereupon, that it had been proposed among them ten years ago : after which, 
it was afiHrmed upon further investigation, by some ingenious persons in Eng- 
land, that it had been known there 30 years ago ; (whereof the publisher of 
these Tracts has good proof in his hands) . But it seems, that an Italian philo- 

L L 2 



268 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

sopher, in a tract, entitled. Relatione dell' Esperienze fatte in Inghilterra, 
Francia, & Italia, intorno la Transfusione del Sangue, lately printed in Rome, 
undertakes to prove that the transfusion is yet of greater antiquity, as having 
been known to Libavius above fifty years since. For which that Roman author 
quotes a place out of the said Libavius (in Defensione Syntagmatis Arcanorum 
Chymicorum contra Heningum Schneumannum, Actione 2, p. 8. edit. Fran- 
cof. A. l6l5), where the transfusion is so plainly described, that one can hardly 
discourse of it with more clearness than is there done, in these words : Adsit 
(says Libavius, 1. c.) Juvenis robustus, sanus, sanguine spirituoso plenus: Adstet 
exhaustus viribus, tenuis, macilentus, vix animam trahens. Magister artis ha- 
beat tubulos argenteos inter se congruentes, aperiat arteriam robusti, & tubulum 
inserat muniatque; mox et aegroti arteriam findat, et tubulum foemineum infigat. 
Jam duos tubulos sibi mutuo applicet, et ex sano sanguis arterialis, calens et 
spirituosus saliet in aegrotum, unaque vitae fontem afferet omnemque languorem 
pellet. This indeed is clear enough, and obliges us to allow a greater antiquity 
to this operation than we were before aware of ; though it is true, Libavius did 
not propose it but only to ridicule it ; besides, he contrives it with great danger 
both to the recipient and emittent, by proposing to open arteries in both ; which 
indeed may be practised upon brutes, but ought by no means upon man. 

Mr. Gregory's Answer to the Animadversions of Mr. Huygens, upon 
his Book, De vera Circuli et Hyperholce Quadraturd ; as they were 
published in the Journal des Scavans of July 2, 1668. N° 37, p- 732. 

This letter is omitted, as of no satisfactory use to any person, without the 
animadversions which occasioned it, and which were printed in another coun- 
try. The whole controversy, both animadversions and answers, was collected 
and printed in Huygens's Opera Varia, vol. 2, pp. 463, &c. 

An Account of some Boohs. N" 37, p. 736. 

I. Discours Physique de la Parole, par M. De Cordemoy, a Paris, in 12mo. 

IL De Infinitis Spiralibus Inversis, Infinitisque Hyperbolis, aliisque Geome- 
tricis, Auth. F. Stephano de Angelis, Veneto. Patavii, in 4to. 

This author treats here concerning the figures mentioned in the title, mea- 
suring their areas very accurately and geometrically ; as also concerning several 
other things conducing to the perfection of geometry. He mentions one of 
these spirals to be the line described by a heavy body falling towards the centre 
of the earth, supposing the earth's motion-. He also touches on the controversy 
betwixt himself and Riccioli, given more at large in the foregoing number. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ^6^ 

III. Michaelis Angeli Ricci* Exercitatio Geometrica; in 4to. printed at 
Rome. 

This book is reprinted in London, and annexed to Logarithmotechnia N. 
Mercatoris. It was thought fit to be so reprinted, partly by reason of its scarce- 
ness, but chiefly by reason of the excellency of the argument, which is, de 
maximis et minimis, or the doctrine of limits ; wherein, according to the ac- 
count of the intelligent Mr. John Collins, the author shows a deep judgment 
in discovering a medium to reduce the lately found out analytical doctrine de 
maximis et minimis to pure geometry. The tract itself is very small, being lit- 
tle more than two sheets of paper ; wherein is demonstrated the doctrine of Ca- 
ravagio de applicationibus, who affirms, that he who is ignorant therein may 
mispend his time about equations, in searching for that which cannot be found. 
He delivers also a method of drawing tangents to all the conic sections, and di - 
vers other curves. 

IV. La Venerie Royale du Sig. de Salnove, in 4to. a Paris. 
Treating of the different kinds of hunting in France. 

u4 Contrivance to make the Picture of any Thing appear on a ffall, &c. 
in a Light Room. By Mr. Hook. N" 38, p. 741. 

This optical experiment is new, though easy and obvious ; and has not that I 
know been ever made by any other person in this way. It produces effects not 
only very delightful, but to such as know not the contrivance very wonderful ; 
so that spectators not well versed in optics, that should see the various appari- 
tions and disappearances, the motions, changes and actions, that may this way 
be represented, would readily believe them to be supernatural and miraculous. 

Opposite to the place or wall where the apparition is to be, let a hole be made 
of about a foot in diameter or larger ; if there be a high window that has a case- 
ment in it, it will be so much the better. Without this hole place the picture 
or object, which you will represent, inverted, and by means of looking-glasses 
set behind, if the picture be transparent, reflect the rays of the sun so as that 
they may pass through it towards the place where it is to be represented; and 
let the picture be encompassed on every side with a board or cloth, that no rays 
may pass beside it. If the object be a statue or some living creature, then it 
must be very much enlightened, by casting the sun beams on it by refraction, 
reflexion, or both. Between this object and the place where it is to be repre- 

■* Michael Angelo Ricci was a learned Italian divine, born at Rome, l6l9. He was well skilled 
in the pure mathematical sciences, of which the above article is a good specimen. He was created 
cardinal in 168I 5 but did not long enjoy that dignity, dying in l683, iX6^ years of age. 



270 . ' PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

sented, there must be placed a broad convex-glass, so that it may represent the 
object distinct. The nearer it is placed to the object, the more is the object 
magnified on the wall ; and the farther off the less ; which diversity is effected 
by glasses of several spheres. If the object cannot be inverted, as it is pretty 
difficult to do with living animals, candles, &c., then let two large glasses of 
convenient spheres be placed at proper distances, to be found by trials, to make 
the representations erect, as well as the object. 

These objects, reflecting and refracting glasses, and the whole apparatus, as 
also the persons employed to manage them, must be placed without the window 
or hole, so that they iliay not be perceived by the spectators in the room. 

Whatsoever may be done by means of the sun-beams in the day time, the 
same may be done with much more ease in the night, by the help of torches, 
lamps, or other strong lights placed about the objects, according to the several 
sorts of them. 

So far our inventor; who has not contented himself with the bare speculation, 
but put the same in practice some years since, in the presence of several mem- 
bers of the Royal Society. 

Of Counterfeiting Opal, and making lied Glass. By Mr. S, Cole- 

PRESSE. N" 38, p. 743. 

I was two days at Haarlem, on purpose to see the experiment of the making 
of counterfeited opal glass, which is there done by rule. It is very lively, and, 
as I guess, performed only by the degrees of heat producing the colours. 
When the composition is thoroughly melted, they take out some on the point 
of an iron-rod, which being cooled, either in the air or water, is colourless and 
pellucid; but being put into the mouth of the furnace on the same rod, and 
there turned by the hand for a little time, its little particles take such various 
positions, that the light falling on them being variously modified, represents 
those several colours that are seen in the true opal. It is remarkable that the 
colours of it may be destroyed and restored again by different degrees of heat. 

They also make there the amethyst and sapphire ; and have recovered the 
hundred years loss of incorporating red glass ; and have some metal that is 
thought to equal crystal in hardness as well as colour. 

Some Animadversions, ivritten in a Letter by Dr. John Wallis, on a 
printed Paper, entitled Responsio Francisci du Laurens ad Epistolam 
B. Wallisii, ad CI. V. Oldenhurgium scriptam. iV" 38, p. 744. 

A continuation of the unprofitable controversy, noticed before in N° 34, 
p. 239, between Dr. Wallis and M. du Laurens. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 271 

An Account of tivo Boohs. N" 38, p. 750. 

I. R. (le Graaf, M. D. de Virorum Organis Generationi Inservientibus, Ludg. 
Bat. 1(568, l2mo. 

This treatise was promised by the author in a printed epistle of his, of which 
we gave an account in N° 34, p. 241. There being at that time published a 
Prodromus of J. Van Home, wherein it was suspected that the observations of 
de Graaf were much the same with his upon this subject ; we do now, upon the 
perusal of this book, find chiefly these considerable differences between them : 

Van Home makes the spermatic artery in man to go to the testicles in a 
winding, but De Graaf in a straight direction. The former affirms, that the 
vasa deferentia have no communication with the vesiculae seminales ; but the 
latter maintains and demonstrates that there is so great a communication be- 
tween them, " ut semen dum a testibus per vasa deferentia affluens in urethram 
" effluere nequit, propter carunculam clausam ; necessario influat in vesiculas, 
" in iisque pro futuro coitu reservetur." The former is of opinion, " triplicem 
" esse materiam seminis ;" but De Graaf will have only one, answering the 
arguments of both Van Home and Dr. Wharton to prove that triplicity. 

But what De Graaf much insists on in this book is, to show what is the true 
substance of the testicles, and to vindicate the discovery thereof to himself, 
affirming positively that no man before him ever knew tHe truth of it.* For 
the making out of which, he first denies that the testes are glandulous or pulta- 
ceous ; and then affirms that their substance is nothing else but a '* Congeries 
" minutissimorum vasculorum semen conficientium, quae si absque ruptione 
*' dissoluta sibi invicem adnectereiitur, facile viginti ulnarum longitudinem ex- 
** cederent." Which he affirms he can prove by ocular demonstration. 

He then shows how the seminal vessels pass " e testibus ad epididymides," 
viz. not by one tmnk (as Dr. Highmore-}- thinks) but by 6 or 7 small ducts; 
assigning the cause why Dr. Highmore did not see them. 

Farther he examines, " An semen in testibus conficiatur ; utrum ex sanguine 
" vel ex lympha ? quomodo elaboretur, crassescat, lactescat : qua via a testibus 
" ad urethram excurrat." 

He also endeavours to prove, '* Vesiculas seminales ordinatas esse non seminis 
" generationi, sed ejus receptioni et asservationi." 

* See Dr. Clarck's letter. No. 35. 

t Nathaniel Highmore practised at Oxford in the middle of the 17th century, and acquired a con- 
siderable reputation by his medical and anatomical writings, viz. by his Corp. Hum. Disquisitio 
Anatomica, by his History of Generation, and by his Exercitationes de Passione Hyst. deque Hypo- 
chondriaca AfFectione. But Haller finds fault with the descriptions given in the first of these anato- 
raical works, and says that most of the plates are copied from Vesalius. 



272 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

He also observes concerning the seminal matter, that it is composed ex duplici 
materia, which, after Aristotle, he calls Xoyov o-n-i^fAocny.ov xa.\ oyMv <nn^y.xriv.ov y con- 
sidering this twofold matter like dough and ferment, this infecting and quicken- 
ing that, and the grosser part being a conservatory and vehicle to that which is 
most elaborate. 

When he examines the penis, he takes notice, '^ Omnes hactenus anatomicos 
'^ perperam assignasse usum musculorum penis, quos erectores appellant ; eomm 
*^ quippe provinciam non esse, penem erigere, et dilatare urethram, cum omnis 
" musculi actio sit contractio, quae extensioni contraria est ; eos potius penem 
** versus interiora retrahere quam erigere: Interim, hosce penis musculos, coarc- 
" tando corpora nervosa circa eorum exortum, materiam seminalem versus penis 
*^ partem anteriorem propellere, atque hac ratione corporum nervosorum disten- 
*^ sione erectionem augere."* 

Before we conclude this account, we cannot but take notice, that the author 
occasionally inserts in this book several curious and remarkable examples and 
observations ; some of which are the following : 

1 . Concerning those that are born, either " absque testibus ; or, cum 
testiculo uno; or, cum tribus, idque haereditario per aliquot familias, admodum 
fsecundas." 2. About the " situs praeternaturalis testiculorum generationis 
tamen virtutem non impedientis." 3. Concerning lactescent blood in a man 
living at Delft in Holland, whose blood always turned into milk, w'hen let out 
either by venesections or by bleeding at the nose, or by a wound. Compare 
Number 6, p. 37, and Number 8, p. 41 of this Abridgement of these 
Transactions. 4. Concerning the strange alteration made in females, ** a 
*^ liquore seminali: quod confirmat exemplo felis, diu sugentis (idque ad in- 
" tegram fere sui nutritionem) lac mammarum caniculae, per aliquot annos 
" a coitu prohibitae ; deinceps vero, postquam catella admiserat canem, nun- 
*^ quam ab eo tempore lac ex mammis ejus exsugere volentis." 5. About a 
strange haemorrhagy per penem, which amounted to 14 pounds, in a porter of 
52 years old, falling down with a heavy load upon a board laid over a ditch, 
which so turned about on his stepping upon it as to throw him down upon its 
edge, turned between his legs ; yet the patient by the skill and care of our 
author recovered. 6. Various observations on clysters and suppositories, cast up 
by vomits. 7. Several ways of performing dissections of animals without 
effusion of blood. 

II. Logarithmotechnia of Nicholas Mercator, by Dr. John Wallis, in a let- 
ter to Lord Viscount Brouncker, president of the Royal Society. Translated 
from the Latin. 

* Inter causas quibus penis erectio perficitur, intiprimis amiumerandus est sanguinis in ejus corpora 
cavernosa subitus atque impetuosus influxus. 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 273 

With this book, my Lord, which is just come out, I was so much pleased, 
that I could not quit it before I read it quite through. The doctrine on which 
it is founded, and by which the logarithms may be expeditiously and ingeni- 
ously constructed, is perspicuous, and ingeniously treated. The quadrature of 
the hyperbola, subjoined to it, is very elegant and ingenious ; and is to this 
effect. , 

After the author had demonstrated, prop. 14, that in the hyperbola MB F, 
(fig. 8, pi. 7.) having its asymptotes, AH, AN, meeting at right-angles^ and 
drawing B I, F H, s p, &c. parallel to the asymptote A N, then the rectangles 
A I B, A H F, A p s, &c. are all equal among themselves, and that therefore 
their sides are reciprocally proportional, being the known property of the hy- 
perbola : putting then A I = B I = 1, and H I =a; he shows, prop. 15, that 
F H = , namely from this analogy H A : A I : *. B I : F H, that is 1 -f a : 

1 : : 1 : =FH=1 — a + a^ — G^-f-a* &c. by dividing the numerator 

1 by the denominator 1 + «> continued by the powers of a, alternately nega- 
tive and affirmative. And since this holds equally true for every point H be- 
yond I, putting A I, as before, = 1, and making any continuation of it, as Ir, 
= A, which is conceived as divided into innumerable equal parts, each of 
which, as I p, p q, &c. is called a ; therefore I p, I q, &c. will be a, 2 a, 3 a, 
&c. till the last term be A. Then the right lines p s, q t, &c. corresponding 
to these, comprehending the space B I r u, are, 

1 — a + c^ — c^ -\- a^ &c. Since then it is, 

1+1 + 1 &c. (to the last) = A 

a + 2 a -i- 3 a &c. (till A) = -lA^ 

a" -\- Aa' + g a" &c. (till A') =z i-A* 

a3 _^ 8 a' + 27 ef &c. (till A') =^A* 

and so on, as he Fhows in prop. 16, and which I have elsewhere demonstrated. 
Hence he properly infers, that the hyperbolic space BIruis = A ^ 4.A^ 
+ ^A^ — ^A* -\- ^A^ &c. So that, assigning to A=lr, any value in 
numbers, and distributing the series into two classes, viz. the affirmative 
powers A, -^A^ ^A\ &c. and the negative powers ^A\^A\ &c. the ag- 
gregate of the latter being deducted from that of the former, the remainder 
will be the value of the hyperbolic space B I r u. 

Then putting ^=0.1, or = 0.21, 01; any other decimal fraction, and con- 
sequently less than 1, that is, making I r less than A or 1, the last powers of 
A become so small, that they may be neglected. For example, putting A I = 1 
and I r = 0.21, then the terms will be as follow : 

VOL. I. Mm 



1 — 2 a + 4 a'^ — 8a^ -j- 16 a'' &c. 
1 — 3g!+ Qa^— 27a^+ Sla'^&c. 

and so on to 
I - A -\- A' - A^ + A* &c. 



274 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



[anno 1668. 



A — 0.21 
^^^ = 0.003087 
■^u4' =z 0.000081682 
-\.A'' = 0.000002572 
.1-^^ = 0.000000088 
T-V^^^= 0.000000003 



4-^^ = 0.02205 
4. ^* = 0.000486202 
^A^ = 0.000014294 
^A^ = 0.000000472 
^'-A^°z=i 0.000000016 



+ 0.213171345 
— 0.022550984 



— 0.022550984 



Gives 0.190620361 = B I r u the hyperbolic space. 
But if the quadrature of the whole space B I H F be required, when the side 
I H is longer than A I, this method would not succeed so well ; for in that 
case ^ being greater than 1, it is manifest that the higher powers of it would 
be too considerable to be neglected. To remedy this inconvenience, proceed 
thus ; Suppose H F u r the space to be squared, A H being of any length what- 
ever, either greater or less than A I, or equal to it : taking the point r any- 
where between A and H, let AH = 1, and Hr = ^, which is to be con- 
ceived as divided into innumerable equal parts, each =: a; then, after AH = 1, 
the other parts continually decreasing will be, 1 — a, 1 — 2 a, 1 — 3 a, &c. 
to A r = 1 —A. Hence, because of the equal rectangles F H A, u r A, B I A, 

&c. each of which suppose = b^, it will be H F = —-, and the rest m order 

■I 2 \\7, V»S Vt.2 

• , 1 — T-, - — —, &c. till ru = -; -, completing: the space H Fur, as is 

shown in the Arithm. Infinit. prop. 88, 94, 95. Then dividing b^ by 1 — «, 
the quotient will be b^ -|- b^ a -|- b* a^ -f b^ a^ &c, that is b^ into \-\-a-\-a^ +«'' 
&c, and all the right lines between 



into 



H F and r u will be, 

1 -h a + a^ -f- a^hc. ' 
- 1 H- 2 a -I- 4 a^ -h Qa^ he. 
i -i- 3 « + 9 a^ -I- 27a^ &c. y 

and so on till 
1 +^-h^' + ^'&c. 
Then the aggregate of all is A-\- 
^A'' + i-A^ + ^A* he. Xb^ = 
F H r u, by Arith. Inf. pr. 64. 



For example, let A H = 1 , H r =: 
A = 0.21, A I = b = 0.1, and there- 
fore b^ = 0.01 ; then. 



A = 0.21 
i-A^ = 0.02205 
0-^^ = 0.003087 
4-^^ = 0.000486203 — 
i^^ = 0.000081682 -I- 
^A^ = 0.000014294 -h 
1-A^ = 0.000002573 - 
i-A^ = 0.000000473 — 

■^A^ = 0.000000088 -t- 

vv^'°= 0.000000017 4- 

.tV^" = 0.000000003 -|- 



Their sum 0.235722333 
Which drawn into b^ or 0.01, 
Gives 0.00235722333 = FH r u; 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 275 

such that 1 = A H G N a square if A be a right angle, or a rhombus if A be an 
oblique angle. 

The same may also be accommodated both to the constructing of logarithms, 
and to the finding the sum of the logarithms, which Mercator does in prop. 19. 
Thus, putting AH= l,AI = IB = b, as before, and the plane BIHF =/>/; 
it will he pi - b' + b' = BIps + BIqt + BIru, &c. till BIHF. 

If we begin, not at BI, but on either side of it, as suppose at ps; then 
putting pH =a, and psFH = pi, it will be universally pstq-j-psur, &c. till 
psFH = pi — ab^, where 1 = AH^. Which may be otherwise demonstrated, 
if necessary. 

A Note relating to the former Narrative about Empty Tubes, serving 
for a decayed Sight ; imparted by the same Author y in a Letter of 
August 10, 1668.* N" 39, p. 765. 

I have now tried convex spectacles, which about three years ago (before 
my sight fell into this decay) agreed very well for my use ; and putting these 
glasses into the tapers, I found the smallest prints somewhat larger, but not 
so clear, so distinct, nor so pleasing to the eye, as when I use the empty 
tapers. Also I am confirmed that these empty tapers preserve, strengthen, 
and in some small degree recover the sight. And I find myself best at ease 
with those leathern tubes I first used, and rather without any fastening to the 
bone of the spectacles : For as they hang in that slight manner, I can now with 
a touch of my finger raise them up or bow them down, divide them or unite to 
take in the same object. And I put them off and on as speedily and as easily as 
any other spectacles. 

Extract of a Letter written from DantzicJc to the Hon. Mr. Boyle, 
containing the Success of some Experiments of Infusing Medicines 
into the Human Feins. N° 39, p- 766. 

Mons. Smith, physician in ordinary to this city, having liberty granted him 
to try an experiment upon some persons desperately infected with the venereal 
disease, then in the public hospital here, ventured the opening of a vein, and 
infusing some medicines into the blood. This was tried upon two persons, one 
of whom recovered, and the other died. Yet being since farther encouraged by 
corresponding with some of the Royal Society in England, about a month since 
the said physician, together with Mons. SchefFeler, another old practitioner in 

* See N° 37j p. 266 of this Abridgement. 
MM2 



276 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166Q, 

this city, repeated the experiment by infusing altering medicines into the vein 
of the right arms of three persons, the one lame of the gout, the other ex- 
tremely apoplectic, and the third reduced to extremity by that singular distem- 
per, the plica polonica. The success of this, as Mons. Hevelius informs me, 
was, that the gouty man found himself pretty well next day, and shortly after 
went to work, it being harvest time, and has continued well ever since, leaving 
-the hospital yesterday, and professing himself cured. The apoplectic patient 
has not had one paroxysm since ; and the several sores which the plica polonica 
had occasioned are healed ; and both these persons have been able to work at 
any time these three weeks.* 

j4 further Account of the Mendip Mines. By Mr. Glanvil. 

N'' 39, p. 767.+ 

This gentleman says he has been informed by experienced miners to the fol- 
lowing effect, viz. that the veins sometimes run up into the roots of trees, yet 
they observed no difference at the top. The water is accounted healthy to 
drink, and to dress meat with it. The snow and frost near the grooves melt 
quickly ; but continue longer at a greater distance. Sometimes when a mine has 
been very near the surface, the grass has been yellow and discoloured. Some 
have made use of the virgula divinatoria ; but experienced workmen account it 
of no value ; yet they say, when the mine is open they may guess by it how far 
the vein leads. 

White, yellow, and mixed earth are leaders to the country, as they call it : 
changeable colours always encourage their hopes. The stones are sometimes 
12 fathoms deep before they are met with. Other times, when a stony reak is 
at top, they meet ore just under the sward or superficies of the grass, which ore 
has sometimes gone down above 40 fathoms. A black stone is of bad import, 
as it leads to a jam, a black thick stone that hinders their work. A grey clear 
dry one they account best. They seldom meet with damps. If in sinking they 
come to wet moorish earth, they expect a jam, and to be closed up with rocks. 
The nearness they guess by short brittle clay; for the tough is not leading. The 
ore is sometimes shole, and sometimes 14 or 20 fathoms deep. They follow a 
vein inclining to some depth, when it runs away in flat binns. When the 
stones part it, then they find a vein again. Their draughts are 14 or J 6 fathoms, 
till they come to a stone, where they cast aside a draught called a cut. Then 
they sink plumb again 4 or 5 cuts, one under another. They find ore at 5Q 

* The public should have been told what the medicines employed in these experiments were. 
f See the former account by this gentleman, in N° 28, p. 186 of this Abridgement. 



VOL. II.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 277 

fathoms. Their best reaks are north and south: east and west are good, though 
not so deep. The groove is 4 feet long, 2 j- feet broad, till they meet a stone, 
when they carry it as they can. The groove is supported by timber of different 
thickness as the place requires. A piece of an arm's thickness will support 10 
ton of earth. It lasts long: that which was put in above 200 years since will 
serve again in new works. It is tough and black, and being exposed to the sun 
and wind for two or three days, will scarcely yield to an axe. For the supply of 
fresh air there are boxes of elm exactly closed, of about fix inches in the clear, 
by which they carry it down above 20 fathoms. When they come at ore, and 
need an air shaft, they sink it at 4 or 5 fathoms distant, and of the same fashion 
with the groove, to draw 'ore as well as air. They make use of leathern bags, 
eight or nine gallons a-piece, drawn up by ropes to draw up the water. If they 
find a swallet, they drive an adit on level, till it is dry. If they cannot cut the 
rock, they use fire to anneal it, laying on wood and coal, and the fire is so con^ 
trived that they leave the mine before the operation begins, and find it danger- 
ous to enter again, before it be quite cleared of the smoke, which has killed 
some. Their beetles, axes, wedges, unless they be so hardened as to make a 
deep impression upon the head of an anvil, are not fit for their use ; and yet 
they sometimes break them in an hour; others last three or four days. They 
work in frocks and waistcoats, by tallow candles, 14 or 15 to the pound, each 
whereof lasts three hours, if they have air enough ; which if they want to keep 
in the candle, the workmen cannot stay there. When a vein is lost, they drive 
two or three fathoms in the breast, as the nature of the earth directs them. They 
convey out their materials in elm buckets drawn up by ropes, the buckets hold- 
ing about a gallon. Their ladders are of ropes. 

The ore runs sometimes in a vein, sometimes dispersed in banks. It lies 
often between rocks : some of it is hard, some milder. They never find any 
perfect, but it must be refined. They have often branched ore in the spar. 

There is about the ore some substances of spar and chalk, and another sub- 
stance, which they call the crootes, which is a mealy white stone, marted with 
ore, and soft. The spar is white, transparent, and brittle like glass. The chalk 
white and heavier than any stone. The vein lies between the coats, and is of 
diff'erent breadths. It breaks off sometimes abruptly in an earth, called a dead- 
ing bed, and after a fathom or two may come to it again, keeping the same point 
or direction. It terminates sometimes in a dead clayey earth, without croot or 
spar; sometimes in a rock called a fore- stone. The clearest and heaviest ore 
is the best; of which 36 hundred weight may yield a ton of lead. They beat 
the ore with a flat iron; then cleanse it in water from the dirt; and sift it 
through a wire sieve. The ore tends to the bottom, and the refuse lies at top. 



278 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 166S. 

And these are the preparations they make use of, before it is fit for fusion. For 
this purpose they have a hearth about five feet high, set upon timber to be 
turned as a windmill, to avoid the inconvenience of smoke upon a shifting 
wind. The hearth contains half a bushel of ore and coal, with bellows on the 
top. The charcoal is put upon the hearth, where the ore is; laying dry sticks 
upon the top, which they call their white coals. There is a sink on the side of 
the hearth, into which the lead runs, that holds about a hundred and a half. 
Then it is cast into sand, forming what are called sowes. They have a bar to 
stir the fire, a shovel to throw it up, and a ladle, heated red-hot, to cast out the 
melted metal. Once melting is enough : and the best, which is heaviest, melts 
first. 

There is a flight in the smoke, which falling upon the grass, poisons the cat- 
tle that eat of it. They find the taste of it upon their lips to be sweet, when 
the smoke chances to fly in their faces. This brought home and laid in their 
houses, it kills rats and mice. If this flight mix with the water in which the 
ore is washed, and be carried away in a stream, it poisons cattle that drink it, 
even after a course of three miles. What of this flight falls upon the sand they 
gather up to melt in a flag-hearth, and make shot and sheet-lead of it. 

Of Osteocolla, &c. near Franhfort on the Oder; also, an uncommon 
hind of Snoiv. By J. Chr. Beckman. N" 39, p. 771. 

Osteocolla, or glue-bone, grows in a sandy yet not gravelly soil, and not at 
all as yet known in any rich or clayey ground. It shoots down 10 or 12 feet 
depth under ground ; where the branches most commonly grow straight up, yet 
sometimes also spread sideways. The branches are of unequal thickness, like 
plants growing above ground, some of them thicker, some slenderer ; and the 
farther they are distant from the common stem, the smaller they are; the stalk 
being thickest of all, usually equalling the thickness of an arm or a leg, and the 
branches of the thickness of a little finger. Where the osteocolla is found the 
sand is every wh e yellowish, and there appears a whitish fatty sand, which if 
it be dug into has under it a dark fatty, and (how hot and dry soever the 
other sand be) a somewhat moist and putrid matter, like rotten wood ; which 
matter spreads itself here and there in the earth, just as the osteocolla itself 
does, and is called the flower of the osteocolla. The osteocolla being thus 
found, is quite soft, yet rather friable than ductile. So that to get out of the 
ground a whole piece of it, with its branches, the sand must be very carefully 
removed every way from it, and then let it lie so a while ; its quality being such 
that remaining exposed to the sun for about half an hour or longer, it grows 



VOL. II.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 279 

hard, as it is sold in the shops. This substance seems to be a kind of marl, or 
to have great affinity with it; of which we here also have great store, yet not 
near those places where I have found osteocolla. It requires time to come to 
maturity; which appears from hence, that in the very same place where I dug 
some of it the last year, I this year found others ; yet with this difference, that 
those were grown hard, after the manner before described, but these remain still 
soft and friable, though now in the fifth month. 

I shall further observe, that on the 1st of March last, there fell an unusual 
kind of snow, which I considered with more than ordinary attention. It had 
none of the ordinary figures, but was made up of little pillars, whereof some 
were tetragonal, some hexagonal, with a neat basis. On the top they were 
somewhat larger, as the heads of columns are. Considering the whole shape, 
we thought fit to give it the name of Nix Columnaris. 

Extract of a Letter ivritten hy an observing Person to a Friend of 
the Editor, concerning the Virtues of Antimony. N"" 39, p. 774. 
I found that a boar, to which I had given an ounce of crude antimony at a 
time, became fat a fortnight sooner than one without antimony on the same 
food. Antimony will recover a pig of the measles;* by which it appears to be a 
great purifier of the blood. I knew a horse that was very lean and scabby, and 
could not be fatted by any keeping, to which antimony was given for two 
months together every morning, and that upon the same keeping he became 
exceeding fat. One of my own horses having had the farcins, and being cured, 
had notwithstanding extreme running legs; so that he passed the course of 
farriers twice without being cured, but on my giving him antimony one week 
only he was presently healed. 

The manner of using it is this : Take one dram of crude antimony powdered 
for one horse, and when you give him his oats in the morning, shake it upon 
his oats in a little heap in the middle : if he be hungry, and you keep off his 
head from every other part of the oats, he will snap it up in his mouth at one 
bite when you loose him. Some horses like it much, others refuse it after the 
first ; if so, cover it with oats thinly, or make it into balls. 

An Account of some Booh, N° 39, p- 779. 
I. Olai Borrichiij-f- Medici Regii, et in Acad. Hafn. Prof. publ. De Ortu et 
Progressu Chemiae Dissertatio, 4to, Hafniae. 

* Commonly so called ; but probably a leprous or scrophulous aiFection. 

f Olaus Borrichius was bom at Ripen in Jutland, in 1626. He studied at Copenhagen under 
Worraius and Bartholin©, and afterwards travelled into Holland, England, France, Italy and Ger- 



280 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONSi [aNNTO 1668. 

This author's principal intention in his book, is to inform the curious of the 
origin and progress of chemistiy ; how it sprang up and flourished in Egypt ; 
passed thence into Greece, Italy, Arabia, China, Spain, France, and all Europe. 
And because Conringius and Ursinus have called in question this progress, he 
endeavours to remove the objections which they have urged against it. 

II. An Idea of the Perfection of Painting : originally written in French by 
Roland Freart Sieur de Cambray, and translated by J. Evelyn,* Esq. F.R.S. 

This excellent idea is drawn in such a manner that it is demonstrated from 
the principles of art, and by examples conformable to the observations which 

many. He took his doctor's degree at Angers. On his return to his native country in 1666, he was 
appointed to the professorships of philology, chemistry and botany, in the university of Copenhagen, 
was made physician to the king, and had other honours conferred upon him. Besides tlie work here 
mentioned, he wrote a treatise De Hermetis ^Egyptior Sapientia, 4to, l674, (a very learned perform- 
ance, wherein he further vindicates the merits of the Egyptians in respect to science and inventions, 
and particularly in respect to medical and chemical science, from the attacks of Conringius) another 
treatise De Usu Plantar. Indig. in Medicina, 8vo. 1^88 j a Conspectus Chemicor. illustr. published 
after his death in 4to. 1697 ; various Dissertationes Academicae, and several communications on 
medical subjects inserted in the Acta Medica Hafniensia. Add to these his classical work De Poetis 
Gr. et Lat. He died, after undergoing tlie operation for the stone, in 169O, aged 67 ; bequeathing a 
large sum of money for founding a medical college, to be provided witli a botanic garden, a chemical 
laboratory, and a library, and endowed with a fund for the maintenance and education of a number 
of poor students. Borrichius was not only celebrated as a physician and a chemist, but held also a 
very distinguished rank among the scholars and critics of his days. At the same time he possessed 
the knowledge and talents requisite to form the magistrate and the statesman ; tlie functions of hoth 
which he exercised with advantage to his country, in the honourable situations which he filled in 
the supreme court of justice and in the chancery. 

* Mr. Evelyn was a very ingenious writer, particularly skilled in botany, natural history, and tha 
fine arts ; and had the honour to be one of the original members on the first establishment of the 
Royal Society. He was born in 162O, and died in 1706, in tlie 86th year of his age. Though Mr. 
E. was a very studious man, lie was not of so recluse a character as to neglect public affairs } for on 
the retiring of Richard Cromwell he labom-ed zealously in bringing about the restoration ; and on the 
king's return he was honoured with particular marks of his attention. In l664 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners for the care of tlie sick and wounded : also, after the fire of London, one of the 
commissioners for rebuilding St. Paul's cathedral, and he paid considerable attention to that greatwork. 
About 1669 he was named one of the commissioners of the new board of trade. At the accession of 
James the lid, he was made one of the commissioners for executing tlie ofiSce of lord privy seal ; and 
after the revolution he was appointed treasurer of Greenwich hospital. At his entreaty it was that 
lord Howard presented the Arundel marbles to the university of Oxford. Mr. Evelyn was autlior of 
a number of ingenious works, some of which are the following: In 1 662 appeared his Sculptura, 
or the History and Art of Chalcography and Engraving in Copper, with an ample enumeration of the 
most renowned masters and their works ; to which was annexed the mezzotinto manner of engraving, 
communicated to him by Prince Rupert. In 1664 came out his great work, Sylva, or a Discourse 
on Forest Trees, (lately edited with valuable notes by Dr. Hunter of York). And in 1 697 appeared 
his Numismata, or Discourse on Medals. He wrote also several other books, political and philoso- 
phical, and some papers in the Phil. Trans. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 281 

Pliny and Quintilian have made upon the most celebrated pieces of the ancient 
painters ; paralleled with some works of the most famous modern painters, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Urbino, Julio Romano, and N. Poussin. 

Those principles of art constantly observed by the ancients in their works, are 
here enumerated to be five : 1 . Invention or the history. 2. Proportion or 
symmetry. 3. Colour (wherein is also contained the just dispensation of the 
Hghts and shades). 4. Motion, in which are expressed the actions and passions. 
5. The regular position of the figures of the whole work : of which the inven- 
tion and expression are more spiritual and refined ; the proportion, colouring, 
and perspective, the more mechanical part of this art. 

III. Stereometrical Propositions, variously applicable, but particularly in- 
tended for Gauging, by Robert Anderson.* Printed in small 8vo. l668. 

This little work is an elaborate treatise on the measurement of all kinds of 
solids that can be generated by the rotations of circles and the conic sections, 
or the ellipse, parabola and hyperbola; namely, all spheres, spheroids, conoids, 
and spindles, &c. with their segments, zones, ungulas, &c. 

IV. Elaphographia sive Cervi Descriptio Physico-Medico-Chymica, Auth. 
Joh. Andrea Graba, Med. Doct. Jenae, 8vo. 

In this small tract are delivered, from the best writers on this subject, and the 
author's own practice and observations, the nature, qualities, and uses of the 
stag. In it is particularly considered the longevity of this animal,-}- and its cause 
conjectured at, viz. the plenty of a balsamic preservative salt, with which it is 
said nature has stored this above many other animals : Then the successive 
growth and annual casting off of its horns, together with the causes thereof; 
but the author chiefly and largely insists on the uses of the several parts 
of a stag, which he finds to be very many, and of divers kinds, viz. ornamental, 
mechanical, culinary, and medicinal. He thinks all the parts of this animal, even 
the excrementitious parts, are endued with medical virtues; but it is to the 
volatile salt and spirit extracted from the horns and blood that he assigns the 
principal uses in physic; commending them as penetrating, opening, attenuating, 
abstersive and discussing. 

* Mr. Robert Anderson was an ingenious mathematician, who was much noticed and encouraged 
in his studies by the mathematical Mr. John Collins, so often mentioned in the labours of the Royal 
Society, Mr. Anderson was not in the profession of mathematics, or other branches which he culti- 
vated and improved, but was a silk-weaver by trade, and must have been a person of some con- 
sideration and substance, as he was able to make, at his own charge, some thousands of experiments 
with cannon, for improving the art of gunnery; which he did in a considerable degree; as appears by 
the treatises on that art which he published, as deduced from those experiments ; viz. The genuine 
Use and Effects of the Gun, in l674; To hit a Mark, in 1690; and. To cut the Rigging, &c. in 1691. 

-j- The asserted longevity of this animal ii a mere fable. 

VOL. I. M N 



iss 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



[anno 1668. 

Among the many medical prescriptions set down here, the author gives us 
the podagric unguent of the so much famed Franciscus Jos. Borrhi, made up of 
almost all the parts of a stag : which how far it deserves commendations, must 
be learned from experience.* 

The Variations of the Magnetic Needle predicted for many Years 
following. By Mr. Henry Bond. N" 40, p. 789- 

The doctrine of the magnet and magnetical motions is yet so obscure, that 
what hitherto has been discoursed and written upon that subject, proves very 
unsatisfactory. An intelligent mathematician and teacher of navigation in Eng- 
land, Mr. Henry Bond, having formed to himself an hypothesis of the variations 
of the needle, has thence calculated the following table; showing how the 
variations of the magnetic needle will fall out for many years to come ; which 
variation he conceives is now westward, and to have been so for some few years 
past ; whereas they were formerly eastward. This philosophical prediction is 
here made public, that inquisitive men may every where from time to time 
make observations accordingly, either to verify or to invalidate the proposed 
theory. 



Years 


Variation 
West 


Years 


Variation 

West 


Years 


Variation 
West 


Years 


Variation 
West 


Years 


Variation 
West 


166s 


1° 


56' 


1678 


3" 


46' 


1688 


5° 


19' 


1698 


6° 


52' 


1708 


8° 17' 


1669 


2 


7 


1679 


3 


50 


1689 


5 


29 


1699 


7 


J 


1709 


8 25 


1670 


2 


18 


168O 


4 





1690 


5 


39 


1700 


7 


10 


1710 


8 33 


1671 


2 


28 


168I 


4 


10 


1691 


5 


48 


1701 


7 


19 


1711 


8 41 


1672 


2 


38 


1682 


4 


20 


1692 


5 


57 


1702 


7 


28 


1712 


8 49 


1673 


2 


49 


1683 


4 


30 


1693 


6 


7 


1703 


7 


36 


1713 


8 56 


1674 


2 


59 


1684 


4 


40 


1694 


6 


16 


1704 


7 


45 


1714 


9 4. 


1675 


3 


9 


1685 


4 


50 


1695 


6 


25 


1705 


7 


53 


1715 


9 11 


1676 


3 


19 


1686 


5 





1696 


6 


34 


1706 


8 


1 


1716 


9 m 


1677 


3 


30 


1687 5 


10 


1697 


6 


43 


1707 


8 


9 







* It is now known that the volatile salt and spirit extracted from the horns of the stag are in no 
respect different either as to chemical properties or medical virtues from the volatile salt and spirit 
extracted from the bony parts of other animals. The stag, therefore, need no longer be regarded as 
an animal furnishing peculiar materials for the use of the healing art. It would be no recommendation 
in these days of the above-mentioned unguent, that it was " made up of almost all the parts of a 
stag!" 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 283 

Extract of a Letter written by M. Louis de Bils,* to D. Tobias 
Andrem of Duisburg; concernmg the true Use of the Lymphatic 
Vessels, &c. iVMO, p. 791- 

In this extract we have an account of this author*s eccentric ideas concern- 
ing the structure and uses of the lymphatic system. As these ideas are for the 
most part mere reveries, they are now justly exploded. It will not be ne- 
cessary therefore to occupy the reader's attention with an analysis of them. 

Of the Tides at Bermudas, also Whales, Spermaceti, strange Spiders 
JFebSy some rare Vegetables, and the Longevity of the Inhabitants. 
By Mr. Rd. Stafford. N" 40, p. 792. 

The water about our island (Bermudas) does not rise above five feet ; and 
that but at one season of the year, viz. between Michaelmas and Christmas ; 
at other times not above three feet. It is high-water when the moon is about 
an hour high ; and the like after her setting. It flows in from the north- 
west, and runs to the south-east nearest ; and in that part of the land which 
lies most to the north-west, it is high-water soonest. But the tide does not 
always ebb and flow directly that course quite round about the coast ; which 
may be owing to some points of land or shoals that may divert its north-west 
and south-east course. 

We have hereabout many sorts of fishes ; and among them great numbers 
of whales, which in March, April, and May frequent our coast. Their females 
have abundance of milk, which their young ones suck out of the teats, that 
grow by their navel. They have no teeth, but feed on moss, growing on the 
rocks at the bottom during these three months, and at no other season of the 
year. When that is consumed, the whales retire. These we kill for their oil. 
Spermaceti whales have been driven on the shore here : which sperma, as they 
call it, lies all over the body of those whales. These have divers teeth, which 
may be about as large as a man's wrist. They are very fierce and swift, also 

•* Louis de Bils or Bilsius was a Flemish nobleman, who had an enthusiatic passion for anatomical 
pursuits, on which he devoted much time and lavished considerable sums of money. He wrote 
several anatomical treatises in the Dutch language ; (they were afterwards translated into Latin) of 
which the most celebrated is that which bears the quaint title of Bloodless Anatomy j wherein he 
pretends to have invented a new method (which he kept a secret) of preserving or embalming dead 
bodies, and of performing dissections without effusion of blood. Of bodies or mummies thus prepared 
he once possessed a large collection, on which he set a very high price ; but in process of time they 
became putrid, and he died of a consumption, occasioned (it is said) by the fetor emitted from his 
decaying mummies. Thus ended the boasted mystery of the anatomia incruenta. After the author'f 
death it ceased to hold a place in the number of useful or even curious inventions. 

N N 2 



284 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

very strong, being inlayed with sinews all over their body, which may be drawn 
out thirty fathoms long. 

As to the age of our inhabitants here, some live to a hundred years and 
something upwards ; many live till they are near a hundred, but few above : 
and when they die, it is age and weakness that is the cause, and not any disease 
that attends them. The air here is very sweet and pleasant, but the diet coarse. 

Here are spiders that spin their webs between trees standing 7 or 8 fathoms 
asunder ; which they do by darting their web into the air, where the wind 
carries it from tree to tree. This web when finished, will snare a bird as large 
as a thrush. 

The houses are thatched with the leaves of the palmetto ; some of which are 
eight or ten feet long and near as broad. 

Of the polishing of Telescopical Glasses hy a Turn-lath ; also of an ex^ 
traordinary Burning-glass at Milan. N" 40, p. 795. 

There is an artist at Paris who polishes optic-glasses on a turn-lath, with 
the same ease as he turns wood. 

Signer Settalla, at Milan, causes a burning-glass of seven feet in diameter 
to be made. He pretends to make it burn at the distance of fifty palmes, 
which is about 33 feet. 

Concerning Cochineal. N° 40, p. 796. 

It is generally believed that the cochineal * comes out of a fruit called the 
prickle-pear, bearing a leaf of a slimy nature, and a fruit blood-red and full of 
seeds, which give a die almost like to brasiletto wood, that perishes in a few 
days by the fire : but the insect engendered of this fruit or leaves, gives a per- 
manent tincture, as is generally known. 

There grows a berry in the Bermudas and New-England^, called the summer- 
island-redweed, which is as red as the prickle-pear, giving much the same tinc- 
ture, out of which berry come worms, which afterward turn into flies, some- 
what larger than the cochineal-fiy, and feed on the berry. It is said to yield 
a colour not inferior to that of the cochineal-fly, and as to medicinal virtue 
much exceeding it. It might be useful to try whether this Bermuda berry 
might not grow in England ; also whether out of the berry of brasiletto wood 
the like insect might not be obtained in respect of colour or tincture ? and 
whether a fading colour yielded by certain vegetables, might not be fixed by 
causing such a fermentation in the concrete, as may engender insects giving 

* Coccus cacti, of which a description is given in the 52d volume of the Transactions. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 285 

the tincture of its original, which will hold in grain ? In order to breed insects 
out of herbs, dry them, for so they yield the best tincture ; otherwise stamp 
them and let them dry till they will suffer no more juice to run from them ; 
this in the sun or in a proportionable heat ; or if dried, infuse them with water 
in a heat for 24 hours ; then evaporate the water tijl the infusion be as thick as a 
syrup, without straining them from their fceccs ; take this mass and put it into 
an earthen or wooden vessel covered with straw, or something of that nature, 
that it lie not too close, and so proportion the quantity to the vessel, that the 
air may come about and into the mass, yet not too much. Then set this vessel 
in a ditch or pit made in the earth in a shady place, and put about it some wet 
leaves, or some such putrifying matters, and over it a board, and on that some 
straw or the like ; and it will produce first a shelly husky worm, and then a 
fly of the tincture of the concrete, but durable and somewhat higher. As for 
berries, stamp and boil them, evaporating them to the consistence of a rob, 
and then use them as the former. As for woods, infuse them in water, being 
first pulverized, and boil out their tincture ; then evaporate the water to such a 
thickness as the other, and treat them in the same way. The flies will play 
about the sides of the vessel and the surface of the matter ; which taken, are 
killed in a warm pan or stove, and so dried and kept. 

[The whole tenor of this inaccurate and ill- written paper betrays great igno- 
rance respecting the generation of insects. The coccus insect is not engendered 
hy the juice of the cactus plant, but is merely nourished by it.^ 

Queries concerning Vegetation. N" 40, p. 797- 

What vegetables are there which having the wrong end of them set downward 
into the ground, will yet grow ; as it is said elders, willows and briars will ? 
Whether the branch of - plant, as of a vine or bramble, being laid into the 
ground, whilst yet growing on the tree, and there taking root, being cut off 
from the tree whilst so growing, will shoot out forward and backward ? In 
tapping, cutting, or boring of any tree, whether the juice that vents at it comes 
from above or below? What part of the juice ascends or descends by the 
bark ? Whether what so ascends, does so by the outward or inward part of it ? 
Whether, if a zone of about two or three inches be cut off about the bottom 
of a branch, that branch will die or cast its leaves, or bleed out a juice from 
the upper or lower part of the bark, so cut, or be apt to shoot out leaves or 
branches or knobs either above or below that baring ? Of what use is the pith } 
Whether the juice ascend or descend by it.? And what effects will follow 
if the trunk be bored to the pith, and a peg driven hard into the hole of the 
pith both above and below ? This to be tried in the most pithy plants. Whe- 
ther the points or ends of the roots being cut off, the roots will bleed as copi- 



286 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

ously as branches of the trunks do when bored ? What side of the tree affords 
most sap ? Of what age trees afford most sap ? What are the best seasons of 
the year for taking the sap of every kind of tree in greatest quantity ; and how 
long that season lasts ? Whether the sap comes more copiously at one time of 
the day or night than another ? Whether trees affbrd any considerable juice in 
the fall ? What eff'ect copiousness or scarcity of rain has on the sap of trees ? 
Whether the nature of a tree may be changed by applications of juices or li- 
quors to the roots or other parts ? Whether a tree whose root is covered from 
rain and not watered, if the branches of it be exposed to the air, will grow ? 
Whether inoculated roots of a tree will grow ? How short the arms of the 
roots of a tree may be cut, and the tree still grow ? How deep the several 
kinds of trees are to be set in the ground to grow? Whether a seed being 
planted either way, it will grow equally ? Whether the stem of a tree being set 
in the earth, and the root turned up into the air, the tree will grow ? 

Extract of a Letter written hy Dr. Fairfax to the Editor, concerning 
a Bullet voided hy Urine. N" 40, p. 803. 

G. Eliot of Mendlesham in Suffolk, a pale, middle aged, full bodied woman, 
sorely afflicted for some years with a torment of the bowels, was prevailed upon 
by a neighbour who had suffered much in the like case, to swallow two fit 
bullets, which gave her immediate ease ; but afterwards her pains returned and 
increased, and she having many conflicts for about 15 years, then applied her- 
self to my apothecary, Mr. Gibson of Stow-market, who administered to her in 
the fit a dose of Lady Holland's powder, which she took in posset drink in the 
morning, was moved gently by it in the afternoon, spent that night in torture 
of body with vomitings, and next morning, during the use of the chamber- 
pot, together with the urine there came that from her, which giving a twang 
against the side of the vessel, surprised her with wonder what it should be; and 
the urine being poured off" gradually, there was left in it a heavy and (to appear- 
ance) gravelly stone of a colour between yellow and red, near as big as one's 
thumb's end (as she confidently asserts to me ;) but making use of a hammer, 
and knocking off" the outer parts of its crust, they came at a bullet inclosed in 
it of a kind of brazen colour on the outside; but cutting a little with a knife it 
proved lead within : which being discovered could easily be accounted for. 
Asking her if no inquiry had been made of such a bullet's coming from her be- 
fore, she told me that some days after she took them the stools had been 
slightly examined, but finding neither, they gave over search. Being farther 
asked about the size of the bullet, she told me it was apparently larger when 
she took it, than when she voided it. The state of her body in reference to 
the stone being inquired into, she said, that she had, before and since that 



VOL. III.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 287 

befel her, been a voider of abundance of red gravel, and particularly about three 
years after she took them, she voided a considerable reddish stone. When I 
asked her about the manner of affecting her body at the coming forth ? She 
answered, it was much like a common fit of the stone, only it held her longer 
(lasting some weeks) bowed her sadly forward, (as a stone often does in the 
ureters,) provoked to vomitings, and particularly she felt it crowd lower and 
lower from the kidney to the bladder in the left ureter. Asking her farther 
whether she was sure it came by the passage of urine and not by stool, she 
assured me she was not mistaken in that. And indeed the gravelly coat which 
the bullet has shows sufficiently whereabout it was lodged. Inquiring also 
whether the other bullet was come from her? She said no; for aught she knew 
it was still in her body. And as to her state since this evacuation, she said, 
that she has had ever since stone-colic pains, but none in so high a degree as 
before.* 

This is the plain relation of the matter of fact. The main use I would make 
of the instance (if it be worth mentioning) is to strengthen a conjecture I have 
had a long time, of some other passage from the stomach to the bladder, besides 
what anatomists have hitherto given accounts of. For that this bullet never 
came at the bladder through the veins, arteries, lymphatics, &c. (the only 
vessels that can be charged with it) is, I think, beyond dispute. If it shall be 
said that nature, when put to shifts, finds out strange conveyances to rid the 
body of what is extraneous and offensive to it, I readily grant it, because many 
instances are known making that good ; yet I think it not so pertinently urged, 
forasmuch as some other instances seem to side with it, which cannot be taken 
off by the same evasion ; viz. Many do find that drinking four or five glasses of 
rhenish (for instance), within less than a quarter of an hour they shall have a 
strong inclination to make water, especially if the body has been agitated. Now 
that it should pass through the lacteals, veins, heart and arteries, and be strained 
from the blood in so short a time, is to me scarce conceivable. 

But surely this shorter passage (wherever it is) is as natural as that by which 
it should have gone, had it staid longer in the body : Not to say how little it 
savours of the rankness of the kidney, and how much it resembles that which 
it was before it was taken into the body.-^ And methinks the conveyance of 

* If the bullet in this case was really voided from the urethra, it must have made its way through 
the coats of the intestinal canal (in some part of the lower tract thereof;) and, insinuating itself over 
the uterus, have penetrated into the bladder. It is highly improbable that it should get from the 
intestines into either of the kidnies, and from thence to the bladder. 

f This conjecture of a short road for fluids to tlie urinary bladder (without passing through the 
kidnies) although it has met with advocates among some celebrated modem physiologists, is not 
countenanced by anatomical researches. 



288 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

the milk into the breast has much affinity with this of the urine into the blad- 
der; the sudden pressing whereof into the paps after the nurses drinking ordi- 
nary milk could no more be explained by the ordinary doctrine of circulation 
than this of the urine into the bladder, till the shorter cut was hit upon by the 
ductus thoracicus ; though ordinarily it may be strained in from the arteries, as 
the serum also in the kidneys; only in a milk-flood nature finds some other 
channel there, as here in a water-flood. Lastly, Sometimes things are shed 
forth at the nipples, almost as surprising as this we have spoken of at the neck 
of the bladder. 

Account of some Booh. N" 40, p. 805. 

I. Joh. Hevilii Cometographia. Dantzick, An. l668. 

In this curious and learned volume the illustrious author has with great in- 
dustry endeavoured to explain the whole nature of comets, their place, parallaxes, 
distances from the earth, beginning and end, the several appearances of their 
heads and trains, with their admirable motion ; and all this by means of one 
constant hypothesis, viz. their motion in a straight line, and their generation 
from vapours issuing from the sun and planets ; by which he judges that all the 
phaBuomena and questions touching comets hitherto known, may be rationally 
and conveniently explained and demonstrated : All illustrated by 38 schemes in 
folio, engraven by the author himself; as the whole book has been printed at 
his own charges. To which are added both a particular explication of the comets 
which appeared An. l652, l66l, l664, l665 ; and a history of all the comets 
recorded by historians, philosophers and astronomers, from the Noachical de- 
luge unto this day, enriched with the author's notes and animadversions, and a 
general table, representing as it were in one view the most remarkable particu- 
lars observed in all comets, viz. concerning the time of their first apparition, 
their duration, place, motion direct or retrograde, slow or swift; the size, figure 
and colour of their heads, and the magnitude, shape and position of their 
tails. 

II. Renati Descartes Epistolae; Pars I et II. Londini, An. l668, in 4to. 
Though some few of these letters were by the author himself written in Latin, 

yet the far greater part of them having been written in French, they are now 
come abroad all translated into Latin, for the benefit of those that are unskilful 
in the other language. They contain many philosophical questions and matters 
of all sorts, and an explication of many difficulties to be met with in the other 
works of the illustrious author ; and were written to some of the most eminent 
persons for knowledge and learning of this age. They relate to a great variety 
of subjects, geometrical, arithmetical, musical, optical, mechanical, physiolo- 
gical, medical, metaphysical and moral. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 289 

There is a third part of the same author's letters yet remaining untranslated, 
which is likely to follow very shortly, with some other tracts concerning Man, 
and the Union of the Rational Soul with the Body ; whereof the former was 
written by Descartes himself, the latter by the ingenious D. de la Forge upon 
Cartesian principles. 

III. Scrutinium Chymicum Vitrioli, Auth. Joh. Georgio Trumphio, Jenae, 
1667. 

This author endeavours in this small tract to show the nature, difference, 
choice, qualities and medical virtues of vitriol, together with the various ways of 
preparing both dry and liquid medicines out of that mineral. He describes the 
method of preparing vitriol used at Goslar in Germany, his native country. 
This process is now so generally known, that it cannot be necessary to insert 
the account of it here. 

IV. Francisci de le Boe Sylvii* Praxeos Medicae Idea nova, Lugd. Batav. 
12mo. 1667. 

In this treatise the author endeavours to assign the nature, causes, symp- 
toms, and remedies of every disease. He introduces many speculations con- 
cerning fermentation ; the noxiousness of all such things as either destroy or 
dull the acid spirit of the body in the work of nutrition ; the dominion of 
the three humours in the body of animals, viz. the gall, the pancreatic juice, 
and the saliva, and their mixture, either immediate or mediate, with the blood 
returning to the heart ; as also their great influence when they are vitiated in 

* F. de le Boe Sylvius was descended from an ancient and noble family, and born at Hanau in 
1614. After studying at Le)'den, he went to Paris, and from thence to Basil in Switzerland, where 
he took his doctor's degree. He practised first at Hanau, tlien at Leyden, and afterwards at Amster- 
dam, until the year l658 ; when he was appointed to the professorship of physic in tlie university of 
Leyden. Here he continued teaching with almost unprecedented celebrity until tlie time of his 
death, which happened in l672, when he was in the 58th year of his age. Sylvius was an expert 
anatomist, and bestowed great attention on the dissecting and examining of bodies dead of different 
diseases. These dissections he regarded as so important towards an accurate knowledge of the seats, 
progress, and termination of diseases, that he caused a dissecting room for tlie examination of such 
patients as die of remarkable disorders, to be annexed to the hospital. He was one of the earliest 
defenders of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood. He was moreover well versed in the 
chemistry of his days j but it was by his medical theories, at that time almost universally adopted, 
tliat he acquired so great a degree of fame. They produced among physicians a revolution of opinion^ 
and made him the founder of a new medical sect. He taught that certain acidities and fermentations, 
and particularly the effervescence of the pancreatic juice with the bile, were the chief causes of dis- 
eases, and that the proper remedies for counteracting these diseases were absorbents, alkaline salts, 
both fixed and volatile, and opium. These theories, so little reconcileable to the condition of the 
living body either in health or disease, are now justly exploded. Besides the work here mentioned, 
Sylvius wrote various physiological and medical tracts, which after his death were printed collectively, 
under the title of Opera Medica, 4to, Amsterdam l679j and Genev. folio, l680. 

VOL. I. O O 



N 



290 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1668# 

disturbing the efFervescence of the blood, as well as their power and virtue 
when they are tempered together in a due proportion, to cause a regular 
motion in the blood, and to convert meat into good nourishment : also about 
the change of the chyle into blood, and where that change is begun, where 
advanced, and where perfected : concerning the alteration made in the whole 
body of animals by the spermatic aura, as to their voice, fatness, sweetness, 
&c. About respiration, and how that may cease for a while in syncope and 
hypochondriacal suffocations without death ; concerning sneezing, the hiccup, 
yawning, and their causes : the alteration which the blood of the left ventricle 
receives in the lungs by the inspired air, and the saliva or some other glandu- 
lous liquor : of the pulse ; of the plenty of animal spirits and its cause ; of the 
return of feverish fits by intervals, together with the cause thereof, &c. 

Tides observed in Hong-Road, four Miles from Bristol. By Captain 
Samuel Sturmy. N'^1, p. 813. 

I have observed that our annual spring tides happen in March and Septem- 
ber, either at the tide next before the sun's ingress into the equinoctial points 
of Aries and Libra, or the next tide after, according as the moon is then near 
her full or change : and then it rises in height about 7-i- fathoms, or 45 feet ; 
the lowest neap-tides rising in height 25 feet. We observe also, that the 
lowest neap makes the highest spring, unless the north-east winds, by blowing 
hard, keep back the tides ; and the contrary winds (south-west) if they blow 
hard, make here the highest. Concerning our diurnal tides, we observe, that 
from about the latter end of March till the latter end of September, they are 
about 1 foot 3 inches higher in the evening than in the morning; that is, 
when high water happens after the sun is past the meridian, or in the tides be- 
tween noon and midnight : But from Michaelmas till Lady-day we find the 
contrary, the day tides being in that season higher by 15 inches than the night 
tides, or the tides between midnight and noon. And this proportion holds in 
both, after the gradual increase of the tides from neap to the highest spring, 
and the like decrease of their height till neap again. As for the highest men- 
strual spring-tide, it is always the third after the full moon or change-day, if it 
be not kept back by north-east winds. I have observed several times, that it 
flows here on the change-day, when the moon is east-south-east, the tide flow- 
ing in for the space of 5 hours, and ebbing 7 hours. There is some difference 
in reckoning the tides by the moon's bearing on such a point of the compass, 
on the full or change-day ; for about that time only will the rule hold good. 
But from the change to the quarters, and from the full to the quarters again in 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



291 



VOL. III.] 

the neap-tides, it does not flow here so long by two points of the compass. 
The water neither flows nor ebbs equal spaces in equal times ; but its velocity is 
greatest at the beginning of the flood and ebb, and so gradually decreases till 
high or low water. This is observed in spring-tides only, which are as here 
set down in the following table, which I have made from my observations 01 
our tides here. 

The Tide-Table for Quarters of Hours, 



Flowing of 5 Hours. 


Ebbing 7 Hours. 


Time. 


Height. 


Time. 


Height. 


Time. 


Height. 


hours. 


quars. 


feet, inches. 


hours, quars. 


feet. 


inches. 


hours, quars. 


feet, inches. 





1 


2 7i 


3 


2 


3 


1 


2 7i 





2 


2 6 


3 1 


2 


2 


2 


2 6 





3 


2 6 


3 2 


2 


1 


3 


2 6 


1 





2 6 


3 3 


2 


I 


I 


2 6 


1 


1 


2 6 


4 


2 


1 


2 


9 


1 


2 


2 5^ 


4 1 


I 


9 


3 


8 


1 


3 


2 5 


4 2 


1 


8 


4 


6 9 


2 





2 5 


4 3 


1 


8 


5 


5 


2 
2 
2 


1 
2 
3 


2 3 
2 3 
2 3 


5 


1 


8 


6 

7 


4 
3 


in 5 hours. 


44 


1 


in 7 hours. 


45 10^ 







The usual number of tides from new moon to new moon, or from the full 
to the full, is 59. In the Severn, 20 miles above Bristol, near Newnham, 
160 miles from the river's mouth (Lundy,) the head of the flood, in spring- 
tides, rises in height like a wall near nine feet high, and so runs for many 
miles together, covering at once all the shoals which were dry before ; at which 
time all vessels that lie in the way of these head tides, or boars, as they are po- 
pularly called, are commonly overset, or carried upon the banks ; and the head 
of the tide being past, such vessels are left dry again. It flows there but 2 
hours and 1 8 feet in height, and it ebbs ten hours. The reason of the said 
boar is doubtless the straightening and shoaling of the river in that place, it 
being there but half a mile broad; as it is but 20 perches over three miles 
higher, running tapering to Gloucester. 

002 



tg2 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNN0 1668. 

Observations in a Voyage from Spain to Mexico, particularly of the 
Minerals in that Country. By an English Gentleman. N" 41 , p. 817- 

Nature has so prodigally enriched this country of Mexico with all sorts of 
minerals, both perfect, imperfect, and mixed, that she almost overwhelms the 
observation of the most diligent and curious naturalists. I have conversed with 
the most skilful miners in those parts, but I found them to know of and care 
for little about minerals, except gold and silver. I was once desired to visit a 
famous cave there, some leagues from Mexico, on the north-west side of the 
city, beyond the lake : this was said to be gilded all over with a kind of leaf- 
gold, which had deluded many Spaniards with its promising colour, for they 
never could reduce it into a body, either by quicksilver or fusion ; though the 
fame ran, that the ancient Indians knew how to make use of it, and that the 
great Montezuma had borrowed thence a considerable part of his treasure. I 
rode thither one morniog, taking one Indian only for my guide. I found it 
situated somewhat high, in a place very convenient for the generation of metals. 
I went in with my candle lighted, but could not make the Indian follow me, 
being afraid of spirits and hobgoblins. The light of the candle soon discovered 
to me on all sides, but especially above my head, a glittering canopy of these 
mineral leaves ; at which I greedily stretching forth my hand to reach some 
parcels of it, there fell down so great a lump of sand on my head and shoulders, 
that not only it put out my candle, but almost my eyes also. And calling out 
with a loud voice to my Indian, who remained at the mouth of the entry, there 
rebounded within those hollow caverns such thundering and redoubled echoes, 
that I admired it, and the Indian imagining by those tumultuous voices that I 
was wrestling with some infernal ghosts, soon quitted his station, and thereby 
left a free passage for some rays of light to enter, and to serve me for a better 
guide ; my sight mean while being not a little endangered by the corrosive acri- 
mony of the mineral dust. Having got my candle lighted again, I proceeded 
in the cave, and heaped together a quantity of the mineral mixed with sand, 
and scraped also from the surface of the earth a quantity of the same kind of 
glittering leaves, none of which exceed the breadth of a man's nail ; with the 
least handling they divide themselves into many lesser spangles, and with a 
little rubbing they leave the hand all gilded over like gold. I began first to 
make experiment on the sand, which had been the matrix of the mineral ; and 
there I tried first the ordinary way used in the Indies on such occasions, which 
was, to observe the colour of the fumes yielded from the spangled sand in a 
strong reverberating fire ; but here little could be observed, by reason of the 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 2QS 

adust drying of the sand, not able to afford any visible fumes fit for such a dis- 
covery. I then proceeded to another way — to boil it in water, and having 
poured that ofi\ to observe the alcali left after the water's evaporation. By 
this means I discovered, that it abounded rather in sulphureous unctuousness, 
than saline acrimony. Finding this, I applied first the quicksilver, mingled 
with the ordinary magistrals, as they call them, used in that country, to curb 
and break the force of these sulphureous impediments. But perceiving these to 
be of no effect, I assisted the quicksilver with the caput mortuum of vitriol and 
saltpetre, kept as a secret among the miners, but with as little signs of the 
mercury's operation as before. Then I boiled my mixture over the fire, a way 
found out in Peru in such difficult cases, but all to no purpose ; so froward a 
matter it was, that it could not be brought to receive mercury, either by fair 
means or by foul. Then I devised a way to torment it with a corrosive of or- 
dinary separating water, impregnated with common salt, and it made a disso- 
lution, like that of gold; which, thus dissolved, I showed to a mineralist, who 
had been versed all his life-time in the separatory art of gold and silver; and he 
would not believe but that it was true gold. But having steamed away the aqua 
fortis, I found my hopes turned into a dirt something yellow, out of which, 
with distilled vinegar, enforced with its own tartareous salt, I extracted a tinc- 
ture more curious than useful. 

I shall only subjoin the grand use of mercury in separating silver in the 
Indies, when that metal is generated, as commonly it is, in certain rocky stones, 
abounding with bituminous and corrosive mixtures, so as to be impossible to 
free it entirely from its corrupt matrix, by the violent way of melting, whatever 
auxiliary ingredients may be added, as lead and artificial salts, and the like, be- 
cause those sulphureous and vitriolic compounds, in the way of fusion, melting 
together with the silver, sublime part of it away in a volatile fume by their 
corroding acrimony, calcining and vitrif)'ing the other part, and robbing the 
artificer of half his gain. In this case the use of quicksilver is found most ad- 
vantageous, which is in this manner: Having reduced the ore into small pieces, 
they calcine it first in a reverberating oven, yet with a moderate fire, for fear of 
fusion, and driving away into the air part of the treasure ; this calcination serves 
chiefly to free the mineral from what may hinder the operation of the quick- 
silver; and it serves also to discover, by the colour of the fumes it yields, what 
corrosive mixture chiefly abounds in it, besides that it renders the ore more 
tractable and pliant under the mill-stone, which is to reduce it to a small flour 
before the application of the mercury. This is chiefly used in those silver 
veins that are hard and dry ; for such as are softer, abounding in oleaginous 
sulphurs, before burning are first ground into powder in such mills as are often 



294 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 166Q. 

seen in glass-houses: and then they receive a gentle calcination, mixing with 
them ingredients suitable to the peccant humour, if I may so speak, of the ore. 
As if, for example, the metal be sulphureous and antimonial, rust and dross of 
iron is found to be very proper : if martial, and abounding in iron, then sulphur 
and antimony reduced to powder is used to good purpose. Sulphur has a par- 
ticular force to soften and dissolve iron. The ore being ground, calcined, and 
nicely sifted, they divide it in several heaps, and then, by lesser essays, they find 
out how much silver is contained in every heap ; where it is very common to 
find only 6 ounces in 100 pounds, sometimes 12, but if it yield 18, it is es- 
teemed a very rich vein ; yet sometimes there are found great masses all of pure 
silver, called Virgin metal. Having discovered the quantity of silver in each 
heap, they proportionably besprinkle them with quicksilver at several times, 
stirring the ore about, to mix the mass well together. I find they have only 
conjectural signs to know when the mercury has entirely performed its office in 
separating all the silver from the heterogeneal substances. When by the colour 
of the mercury, coagulated by the silver in clear massy lumps, they conjecture 
the work done, they wash it by means of three vessels, standing in order one 
under the other, so that the matter in the first and highest vessel being washed 
and stirred about, all the dust of the heterogeneous minerals, that do not in- 
corporate with the mercury, is carried away with the water into the other 
vessels, and from thence quite thrown out by the continual current of the 
water; in the mean while, the silver in clotted lumps, called pellas, is by the 
weight of the mercury depressed downi to the bottom of the tubs or vessels. 

The mercury with the silver is taken out of the vessels, and diligently 
squeezed in coarse and strong linen, and even beaten with a beetle, by which 
the quicksilver is separated, as much as may be, from the silver. And this 
mass is afterwards reduced, in moulds of the shape of the Indian pine- apple, into 
a pyramidal or conical figure, which they call Pineas de plata, and thus fashioned 
for the easier placing them round about the ridges of a large earthen vessel, like 
a blind alembic ; about the top of which, a fire being made, all the rest of 
the mercury abandons the silver, and falls to the bottom. The silver is melted 
down with the liga, as it is called, which the king of Spain allows, by which he 
returns to the people in copper that fifth part which they allow him of all the 
silver. 

To conclude, to give you some of my thoughts concerning the so much 
discoursed of transmutation of metals ; concerning which I am of opinion, that 
that change is erroneously apprehended by many, imagining that the whole 
imperfect metal is totally transformed into the more perfect, by the substance 
mixed with it; whereas the mixture added to the melted metal, joins itself, as 



VOL. HI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 205 

I conceive, to those parts which, being homogeneal, symbolize together with 
the nature of the more perfect, whereby the pure metalline parts are separated 
from the other heterogeneal impure sulphurs, which together with other causes 
hindered nature in the mine from concocting that substance into the more per- 
fect metal. 

Obse7vatio?is in Jamaica. By Mr. NoRwooDr Jan. iV" 41, p. 824. 

Aligators are shaped and they walk like lizards. Those of a full growth have 
teeth like a mastiff, and a mouth a foot and a half wide. The smell of them 
is so strong that it is felt at a great distance. They may be mastered and killed 
by any one dextrous and skilled in the way of doing it ; which is, that a man 
be armed with a long truncheon, and fall upon them side- ways; fordoing it 
front-ways they are too nimble for the assailant, and may by leaping upon him, 
which they can do the length of their whole body, overpower him ; but if he 
strike them with his club on their shoulder, and behind their fore-feet, and 
lame them there, the beast being thereby rendered unable to move, is easily 
subdued. 

Tortoises die if their blood be heated ; as their blood must not be hotter than 
the element they live in. The chegoes are not felt till a week after they have got 
into the body. They breed in great numbers, and inclose themselves in a bag, 
which when observed, there are certain skilful persons, who with little pain 
take them out ; taking care to extract the whole bag entire, that none of the 
brood, which are like nits, be left behind. 

The shining flies are a kind of cantharides, looking green in the day time, 
but glowing and shining in the night, even when they are dead ; this relator 
affirming, that he has applied them dead to a printed and written paper in the 
dark, and read it. 

The Manchinel apple is one of the most beautiful of fruits to the eye, the 
most agreeable to the smell, and pleasant to the taste, and thence called the 
Eve-apple; but if eaten, it is certain death. The wood of it yet green, if rubbed 
against the hand, will fetch off the skin, or raise blisters ; and if any drops of 
rain, falling from this tree, light upon one*s hand or other naked part of the 
body, it will also have the same effect. 

An Account of two Booh. N'' 41, pp. 833, 6fc. 

1. Tractatus duo, prior de Respiratione, alter de Rachitide, A. Joh. 
Mayow,* &c. Oxon. l668, in 8vo. 
• Ab an account of the life and opinions of Dr. Mayow was published only a few years ago by a - 



29^ PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

The author in the former of these tracts having first given an account, how 
the air by its elastic force is inspired, and upon the dilatation of the chest caused 
by the intercostal muscles drawn upwards, rushes into the lungs, which are 
thereby expanded, being nothing else but a body made up of very thin little 
membranes, in the form of innumerable small bladders; delivers his thoughts 
of the use of respiration, waving those opinions that would have respiration 
serve either to cool the heart, or to make the blood pass through the lungs out 
of the right ventricle of the heart into the left, or to reduce the thicker venal 
blood into thinner and finer parts; and affirming, that there is something in the 
air absolutely necessary to life, which is conveyed into the blood; which, 
whatever it be, being exhausted, the rest of the air is made useless and no more 
fit for respiration. Where yet he doth not exclude this use, that, together 
with the expelled air, the vapours also steaming out of the blood are thrown 
•out. 

And inquiring, what that may be in the air so necessary to life, he conjectures 
that it is the more subtle and nitrous particles with which the air abounds that 
are communicated to the blood through the lungs ; and this aerial nitre he 
makes so necessary to all life, that even plants themselves do not grow in earth 
deprived thereof, which yet, being exposed to the air, and afresh impregnated 
by that fertilizing salt, becomes fit again to nourish those plants. 

And considering further, what part this nitrous air acts, and what operation 
it performs in the animal life, he is of opinion, that this nitre, mixed with the 
sulphureous parts of the blood, causes a due fermentation, which he will have 
raised, not only in the heart alone, but immediately in the pulmonary vessels, 
and afterwards in the arteries no less than in the heart. Examining also the 
reason why death so suddenly ensues upon respiration suppressed, the blood 
being then not yet unfit for motion, he inquires yet after another use of re- 
spiration, which makes it so very necessary to life. And considering with him- 
self that the life of animals consists in the distribution of the animal spirits, for 
the supply of which is required the pulsation of the heart, and the afiiux of the 
blood to the brain, it seems to him that respiration is highly necessary to the 
motion of the heart, forasmuch as the heart is one of the muscles, the motion 
of every one of which absolutely requires this aerial nitre, so that without the 
same, even the beating of the heart cannot be performed. 

But here he declares that he does not see how that explosion, by which the 

physiciaimow living, we deem it unnecessary to insert in this place a biographical notice of this dis- 
tinguished chemist and physiologist. We shall only remark, that in his writings are to be found the 
"primordia of some of the most important theories and experiments of modern chemical philo- 
sophers. 



\0L. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TIIANSACTIONS. 207 

muscles are so suddenly inflated and contracted, should proceed from the arterial 
blood and the nervous juice. He considers rather that the nitrous particles pro- 
ceeding from the inspired air, do by the afflux of the arterial blood every where 
flow between the fibres of the muscles, and lodge therein ; and that the animal 
spirits made up of a very volatile salt, and not much dilfering from the distilled 
spirit of blood highly rectified, do as often as they are sent from the nerves for 
motion, meet with the former nitrous and differing particles; by which mixture 
of a kind of volatile spirit of blood, and a saline liquor united together, is 
caused that sudden explosion, and consequently the inflation and contraction of 
the muscles. To which ebullition, he says, the blood may perhaps also contri- 
bute something, forasmuch as its sulphureous particles, conjoined with the nitre 
inspired, may render that juice nitro-sulphureous, and yet more explosive. And 
thus he thinks the motion made in the heart, (a muscular substance) to be 
done no otherwise than that in other muscles. Whence he concludes, that 
upon the suppressing of respiration, when that darting nitre so requisite to all 
motion is deficient, the cardiac nerves convey their influx in vain, so that the 
pulsation of the heart ceasing, and consequently the afflux of the blood to the 
brain, death must needs follow; but yet that the animal may live a while with- 
out respiration, forasmuch as the blood contained in the vessels of the lungs, 
and impregnated with air enough, may suffice to maintain for some few mo- 
ments the motion of the heart. 

And thus much of the first tract; the other, treating of the rickets, examines 
in the first place wherein nutrition consists, and finds that the nervous juice per- 
forms not alone the whole office of that operation, in regard that besides it the 
blood diffused through the arteries has no small share in that work, seeing that 
the nervous liquor mixed with the blood causes a certain effen'escence, whereby 
the matter fit for nutrition is precipitated, and that for want of this ner\^ous 
liquor the blood in this distemper of the rickets, though it be laudable enough, 
yet being destitute of its own ferment, is not able to excite heat in the parts, 
nor to execute the office of nutrition. So that the rickets, in the opinion of this 
author, are a disease caused by an unequal distribution of the nervous juice, from 
whose either defect or superabundance some parts defrauded of nourishment 
are emaciated, others being surcharged, grow into a disproportionate bigness. 
Proceeding to assign the cause of this inequality in the distribution of the 
aliment, he finds it not in the influx of the brain, but in the obstruction of the 
spinal marrow, whence it happens, that, this high way of the passage of the 
spirits being dammed up, the parts to be sustained and cherished by that nutri- 
tious juice, must needs languish and fall into an atrophy and the highest con- 
sumption, 

VOL. I. P P 



298 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNN0 1668. 

Having assigned this cause, he endeavours thence to deduce all the appear- 
ances and symptoms peculiar to this disease, and suggests that upon that ground 
it ought to be the main intention of the physician to remove such obstructions, 
and to strengthen the nerves : subjoining a general method for curing this in- 
firmity, and specifying the principal remedies both internal and external to be 
used therein ; among which he chiefly recommends the spirits of sal ammoniac, 
hartshorn, blood, urine, soot, as such, that by the high volatility and subtle- 
ness of their parts are able to dislodge those obstructions which cause this 
disease.* 

II. A Discourse concerning Physic, and the many Abuses thereof by the 
Apothecaries. London, An. 1668, in 8vo. 

In this discourse there is nothing sufficiently interesting to require notice. 

A New and Universal Method for working Convex Spherical Glasses on 
a Plane. By S. Mancini. N" 42, p. 837. 

This method is found in an Italian book entitled L'Occhiale all* Occhio, 
'overo Dioptrica, Prattica del Carlo Ant. Mancini, in Bologna 1660, in 4to. It 
treats of light ; of the refraction of rays ; of the eye and the sight ; and also of 
the considerable helps that may be affbrded to the eye, to make it see what is 
almost incredible. Besides which there are delivered in it the practical rules 
for working spectacles for all sorts of sights, and especially telescopical glasses 
for observing the planets and fixed stars by sea and land ; and others to mag- 
nify the smallest of near objects thousands of times. There is also among the 
rest, a particular way, called new and universal, for making convex-glasses on a 
plane for all practicable lengths of diameters of spheres, without other dishes or 
concave moulds ; which is as follows : 

To give a spherical figure to a plane by a plane, which at first sight may 
seem a paradox, by moving one plane on another by a circular motion, pro- 
ceed in this manner : Let the piece to which the glass to be wrought is fastened 
be adjusted in the head of a pole, which is to be of such length as the semi- 
diameter of the sphere of the lens requires ; and on the stool or form where 

* In the disease termed rickets there appears to be a deficiency of ossific matter (phosphate of 
lime). Hence, in addition to the usual strengthening measures, such as a nourishing diet, country air 
and chalybeates, some physicians have of late recommended the internal use of phosphate of lime 
joined with phosphate of soda, washing the surface of the body at the same time with potash dissolved 
in water. Perhaps however the latter part of the treatment here mentioned will be regarded by some 
as too chemical j since if we improve by the first mentioned remedies the general state of health, and 
with it the processes of digestion, nutrition and secretion, a healthy ossification will necessarily 
follow. 



VOL. in.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ^QQ 

you intend to work, let there be put a plane of iron or other metal horizon- 
tilly ; and perpendicularly over this plane let the pole be fastened to the ceiling 
of the room, if it be high enough, othenvise to another steady fastening lower 
than the ceiling, in this manner : about the head of the said pole let there be 
fastened a frame, made of two concentric rings or hoops, so that the one be 
moved within the other on two poles, and this other on other poles, moveable 
between two small arms fixed to the ceiling : which frame you may imagine 
like that by which the mariners compass is kept horizontal, or that which they 
use in Italy for carrying oil-lamps by night horizontally : or the same may be 
done with a ball moveable within two circles fastened on the top of the pole. 
All which will be better understood by the figures, where, in fig. 9, pi. 7, T 
is the lens, cemented to the piece E, fastened to the pole S, which passes 
through the centre of the inner circle B, moving on the pivots I, H, (fig. 10,) 
in the outer circle A ; and this is fastened in a frame on the pivots L, M, in the 
arms C, D, (fig. Q,) in a wall, or above in the ceiling as was said ; and above 
this frame let a pin be put through the upper pole, to hinder its getting out of 
the circle B, and that it may be raised a little, but not to be made lower by the 
workman. Or else, let the pole S be thrust into the ball O, N, (fig. 11,) 
moveable within the two circles P, Q, very well fixed to the two arms Z, Z; and 
let those two circles be made parallel, to prevent the ball from getting out. But 
the office of these two circles may be performed by one alone, but larger, in the 
manner of a socket, which may gird about such a part of the circumference of 
the ball in the middle as not to let it slip out. It is enough, if the ball do but 
move freely in it ; yet so as always to touch it : which also is to be observed in 
the ball with two circles, by that means to keep always the centre when it 
moves just in the same situation. Let the plane of the iron, or other metal, 
F, (fig. 9,) on which the glass .is to be ground, be placed level on the form G, 
to do which I have practised the following contrivance : let there be prepared 
two square planks of wood, F, R, equally thick, long and broad ; but in the 
undermost let there be fixed a square ruler firm and solid, of a length equal to 
the thickness of both the planks ; and in the upper plank let there be a square 
hole or groove so fitted, as that the plank may steadily slide on the ruler ; and 
to such rulers, which may be called the regulators of the two planks, let there 
be made a ledge to keep the board more steady and firm upon it. Further, let 
these two planks have two gutters, R, U, going across from end to end ; into 
which may pass two wooden wedges like Y, of which may be made four, to 
put one of them against another in the gutters. And then placing the plate 
F, T, level on the planks F, R, take a pendulum or other levelling instrument, 
and fit it on the said plate, and adjust it by the wedges to a level position. 

p p 2 



300 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 

The use of this instrument is very easy, since it is sufficient to guide with 
your hands the turn-tool fastened to the pole on the plane, where the sand is 
spread ; making such turns as usual in this kind of work ; and continuing so 
till the glass has taken its spherical figure. It may be polished on the same 
plane, applying to it the paper smoothly cemented on. But it is to be ob- 
served that the polishing by this instrument is very long and tedious ; so that I 
would advise, after the glass is wrought to the perfect figure on the plane, to 
make use of certain gutters* proportionable to the sphere, whose semidiame- 
ter is represented by the length of the pole abovementioned ; using the rules 
known and observed in the grinding of convex-glasses. 

Though this contrivance be ingenious, yet skilful artists are of opinion that 
it will be very difficult to put it into practice with glasses of any considerable 
length. 

Extract from the Giornale de Letterati, concerning two Experiments 
of Transfusion of Blood. N" 42, p. 840. 

The following experiment was made at the house of Signior Cassini in 
Bologna, May 8, 1667, viz. The carotid artery of a lamb was opened, and 
the blood was let run as long as it would into the right branch of the jugular 
vein of another lamb, from which there had before been drawn as much blood 
as it was judged could be supplied from a lamb of the like size, whose blood 
should be let out till it died. After this, two ligatures were made pretty near 
one another in the vein of the lamb that had received the blood ; and this vein 
was quite cut through between the two ligatures. This done, the lamb was 
untied, and without any appearance of feebleness went about, following those 
that had made the operation. It lived a long while after, and its wound being 
healed up, it grew like other lambs. But the 5th of January 1668, it died, 
and its stomach was found full of corrupt food. Its neck being dissected to see 
what had happened to the vein cut through, it was found that it had joined 
itself to the next muscle by some fibres, and that the upper part of that vein 
had a communication with the lower, by the means of a little branch, which 
might in some manner supply the defect of the whole trunk. 

There was made another experiment the 20th of May last at Udina, at the 
house of Signior GrifFoni, by transfusing the blood of a lamb into the veins of 
a spaniel, of a middle size of that kind, 1 3 years old, which had been deaf for 

* These gutters are thus described : A polisher must be made in the form of a gutter, excavated 
its whole length j which may also be hollowed spherical by means of a wooden mouldy turned of a 
spheiical figure by a gage^ fixed on a mandril, and made to turn round. 



VOt. ITI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 301 

above 3 years, so that whatsoever noise was made, he gave no sign of hearing 
it. He walked very little, and was so feeble that being unable to lift up his 
feet, he could only trail his body forward. After the transfusion practised 
upon him, he remained for an hour upon the table, where he was yet untied ; 
but leaping down afterwards, he went to find his masters, who were in other 
chambers. Two days after he went abroad, and ran up and down the streets 
with other dogs, without trailing his feet as he did before. His appetite also 
returned to him, and he began to eat more and more greedily than before. 
But what is more surprising is, that from that time he gave signs that he began 
to hear, returning sometimes at the voice of his masters. The 13th of June 
he was almost quite cured of his deafness, and appeared without comparison 
more jocund than he was before the operation. At length, the 20th of the 
same month he had wholly recovered his hearing, yet in such a manner that 
when called, he turned back as if he that had called him had been very far off, 
though not always so. 

Description of a New Microscope. By Eustachio Dirim. 

iVMS, p,S42. 

Eustachio Divini has made a microscope of a new invention, wherein instead 
of an eye-glass convex on both sides, there are two plano-convex glasses, so 
placed as to touch one another in the middle of their convex surface. This in- 
strument is peculiar in this, that it shows the objects flat and not crooked, and 
although it takes in much, yet it magnifies extraordinarily. It is almost i6-l 
inches high, and adjusted at four different lengths. In the first, which is the 
least, it shows lines 41 times larger than they appear to the naked eye ; in the 
second go times; in the third 111 times; and in the fourth 143 times. 
Whence it may easily be calculated how much it magnifies surfaces and soli- 
dities. The diameter of the field, or the subtense of the visual angle measured 
upon the object-plate, in the first length is 8 inches 7 lines; in the second 12 
inches 4 lines ; in the third 13 inches; and in the fourth a little more than l6 
inches. 

In viewing with this microscope the small grains of searced sand, they per- 
ceived an animal with many feet, its back white and scaly, but less than any of 
those hitherto observed: for although the microscope showed every grain of 
sand as large as an ordinary nut, yet this animal appeared no larger than one 
of those grains of sand seen without a microscope. 



302 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1668. 



Testis Examinatus. iV" 42, p. 843. 

This is the title of a printed page, formeriy (viz. Anno l658) at Florence, 
by Vadlius Dathirius Bonglarus, and now by reason of the great scarcity of the 
original, inserted here. 

There having been at this period of time considerable dissensions among 
anatomists, concerning the structure of the testicles; some asserting them to 
be glandular, others that they were composed of a pulpy or parenchymatous 
mass, &c. ; this author undertakes to settle this controversy, by demonstrating, 
from a careful examination of the testicles, that they are made up of a congeries 
of minute vessels.* These are represented in two figures, which accompany 
these observations, one of the figures exhibiting these vessels as they appear in 
the human testicle, the other exhibiting the appearances thereof in the testicle of 
a boar, fig. 3 and 4, pi. 8. A A, Both testicles cut through the middle. B B, The 
tunica albuginea. C, The insertion of the vasa praeparantia into the tunica al- 
buginea. D D, The ductus Highmorianus, running through the middle of the 
testicle, clearly seen in the boar, but not so in the human subject. Perhaps the 
linea fibrosa of Riolan ? E E E E, The vasa praeparantia passing through the 
tunica albuginea, and joined to the duct by 'a semicircular communication. 
FFFF, The substance of the human testicle, not glandular but vascular, in 
such manner, that the whole body of the testis is nothing but a congeries of ves- 
sels. In the boar there intervenes between the vasa testicularia **** a thin strip 
of flesh, (a thin partition of cellular membrane) f f f f. 

G G, Small tubes arising from the duct, at the place where it passes from the 
tunica albuginea into the caput testis. 

H H, The beginning of the epididymis, which is not glandular, (as Highmore 
supposes) but (as Riolan asserts) is composed of a congeries of vessels. Hence 
we see that the epididymis arises from the small tubes above mentioned, and these 
tubes from the duct ; that the semen is first secreted in the vasa testicularia com- 
posing the body of the testis ; that it next distils (is conveyed) from the vasa 
testicularia into the duct ; and that it afterwards passes from the duct through 
the small tubes into the epididymis, in the convolutions of which it undergoes 
its ultimate elaboration. 

1 1, The other portion of the epididymis in like manner evidently vascular ; so 

* See the account of De Graaf 's and Van Home's treatises on the male organs of generation at 
pp. 241 and 242 of tlus Abridgement. Also Dr. Clarck's letter, p. 249 — 250, 



VOL. HI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 303 

that neither the substance of the epididymis nor of the testis itself, in the 
human subject, is glandular. 

K K, The vas ejaculatorium, a direct continuation of the epididymis. -J- 

An Account of livo Boohs, N" 42, p. 845. 

I. A Continuation of New Experiments Physico-Mechanical, touching the 
Spring and Weight of the Air, and their Effects; the first part, &c. by the Ho- 
nourable Robert Boyle, Fellow of the Royal Society. Oxford 1668, in 4to. 

The illustrious author of this book has again furnished the philosophical 
world with a set of very material and pregnant experiments, which are partly 
improvements of the former of this nature, partly superadded new ones ; con- 
cerning which, he declares, that in great part he aimed thereby to show, that 
these very phaenomena, which the school philosophers urged as clear proofs of 
nature's abhorrency of a vacuum, may not only be explained but actually exhi- 
bited, some by the gravity, and some also by the bare spring of the air ; which 
latter he now mentions as a distinct thing from the other, not as if it were ac- 
tually separated in these trials, since the weight of the upper parts of the air 
does, as it were, bend the springs of the lower, but because that having in 
the formerly published experiments, and even in some of these, manifested the 
efficacy of the air's gravitation on bodies, he thought fit to make it his task in 
many of these, to show that most of the same things that are done by the 
pressure of all the superincumbent atmosphere acting as a weight, may be like- 
wise performed by the pressure of a small portion of air, included indeed, but 
without any new compression, acting as a spring. 

II. Hydrologia Chymica ; or, the Chemical Anatomy of the Scarborough and 
other Spas in Yorkshire, &c. by W. Sympson. London, 1668, in Svo. 

Owing to the very imperfect state of chemistry at this period of time, the 
account here given of the Scarborough water is not such as can be in the least 
degree interesting to the chemical reader of the present day. 

•f The course which the semen takes is, to denote the parts through which it passes by the terms 
employed in modem anatomy, as follows : It is secreted in the tubuli sive canales seminales (of which 
the lobuli of the testicles are composed) j from these canals (which terminate in the rete vasculosum 
of Haller) it passes into the vasa efFerentia (which issue from the aforesaid rete vasculosum) and is 
carried by them (the vasa efFerentia testis) to the coni vasculosi of the epididymis; then along the 
canal of the epididymis ; from whence it is conveyed by the vas deferens to tlie vesiculae seminales j 
and lastly (dum coitus fit) it is discharged from these reservoirs (the vesiculae seminales) by their 
excretory duct (ductus excretorius sive ejaculatorius seminis) into the urethra. 



304 . 1>HIL0S0PHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66g. 

Experiments a?id Observations on Vegetation and theRunning of Sap, ^c. 
By Dr. J. Beal and Dr. E. Tonge. N" 43, p. 853. 

Dr. B. says it may be difficult to enumerate all the vegetables that will grow 
the wrong end set downwards in the ground. To mention some, there are 
elders, briars, saloes, willows, the black elder, vines, and most shrubs; two 
or three of their joints being covered in the mould, and the stem cut off near 
the overmost joint, which should be half covered in the earth, and the mould 
somewhat raised as it grows. Dr. Tonge agrees, saying, that currant trees, 
and such like, as are of a soft wood, and quick growers, seem most apt to this 
improvement. 

Dr. B. observes, that the branch of a plant, being laid in the ground, whilst 
yet growing on the tree, and there taking root, being cut off whilst so growing, 
will grow on both ends, if it be well rooted, and the like care taken of the last 
knot or joint as was before prescribed. Dr. T. says, that layers of those trees, 
mentioned in the former query, will grow on both ends, and aptly parted, when 
they have spread roots both ways, make two plants out of each layer. 

Dr. B. says, in the tapping of trees, the juice certainly ascends from the root, 
•and after it is concocted to partake of the nature of the plant, which feeds as 
well on the air as the juice furnished through the root, it descends to the orifice 
whence it issues. Ratray, the learned Scot, affirms, that he had calculated 
experimentally, that the liquor, which may be drawn from the birch in the 
spring time, is equiponderant to the whole weight of the tree, branches, roots, 
and all together. One experiment I must here mention. When both my hands 
were manacled for many years, and sometimes my arms also, with deep corroding 
tetters, to the blush of my many friendly physicians, and in despite of many 
of the best medicines and purgations, all was suddenly healed, and has so 
continued these 2,0 years, by the application of the gum of plum-trees dissolved 
in vinegar. I must not forget to add, that I applied vine-leaves, and some- 
times opened raisins to draw a moisture from those tetters some few days before 
I used the gum. 

Dr. T. is of opinion that sap always rises, and never properly descends, 
having only a kind of subsiding or recidivation, which he cannot call a circula- 
tion, nor resemble to the motion of liquors in a pelican ; but rather to the 
sinking of liquors in an alembic, whilst the thinner parts are forced over the 
helm ; yet somewhat imitating the motion of blood in animals, forasmuch as it 
continually supplies the want and expense of sap in the exterior parts, from the 
stock of the sap in the trunk, root, and branches. He understands it thus ; 
That the sap necessary to the growth of the leaves, fruit, and upper branches. 



VOL. III.j PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 305 

being dispensed and converted into the form necessary for those purposes, when 
the tree is fullest of sap, in such manner that the sap in the innermost coats 
feeds the innermost, and the sap of the outward coats the outward parts of 
fruits, &c. that which remains in the body between the several coats, and be- 
tween the bark and body, begins to condense there also, first into a jelly, and 
after into wood, bark, roots, &c. according to the several places to which it 
subsides. And because it condenses faster in some parts than in others, accord- 
ing as they are higher or lower, the sap condensed above or below filling less 
room, must needs cause the sap wliich is not yet condensed in appearance to 
descend or subside, and to sink as it were lower and lower in the pores of the 
timber and bark. The trees observed to run are, the vine; the birch plentifully, 
at body, branches, and roots; the walnut-tree, at the roots and pruned branches; 
some willows and sallows, and some sorts of maple; the sycamore, which is the 
greater maple, at a gash made on the bark of its body, and at the root and 
branches ; the poplar and asp ; to these add the whitting, or quicken-tree, in 
Latin, Fraxinus Sylvestris, and by some Fraxinus Cambro-Britannica, which in 
its season, as some affirm, will run plenteously, and whence they, would have us 
expect-!^ sovereign drink against some stubborn distempers, especially such as 
are scorbutical and splenetic. I have kept (says Dr. T.) some of the juice 
of the bCTries (which, being expressed, ferments of itself) these two years in bot- 
tles, and it has now the taste of an austere cyder : And I suppose from its 
grateful smell, that it may be kept till it ripen and become a strong vinous li- 
quor. It is the household drink of some families in these parts about Wales and 
Herefordshire, and some out of curiosity have brewed ripe berries with strong 
beer and ale, and kept it till it transcended all other beer in goodness. Dr. 
Tonge's attempts on the poplar, asp, elm, oak, ash, elder, whitting-berry or 
quicken-tree, thorn, buckthorn, tile, nut, sloe, briar, bramble, &c. have 
not succeeded ; and he doubts that they, and all apples and pears, have some 
degree of gumminess in their juices, so that they will not run. Dr. B. says 
that apparently the sap rises by the inward bark, where the quick begins, and 
where the graft first incorporates. He farther remarks, there are circles ob- 
served in trees, which are the distances of those films or coats by which the 
tree receives its yearly increase in thickness. Through these, looking full of 
circular pores, the sap seems to ascend in the same manner between coat and 
coat, as between the bark and the body ; and probably between the two outer- 
most of these coats, as large a quantity of sap as between the bark and body. 

The bark is two-fold, outward and inward. The outward is dry, and in some 
trees rough. The inner is probably a superadded new coat of that year's growth 

VOL. I. Q a 



306 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO ] 669. 

or something like it, between the nature of wood and bark. The sap rises 
within and without that superadded coat. 

Dr. B. says, if a circle be drawn round about any common English tree, as 
oak, elm, poplar, &c. by incision to the timber, how thin soever the knife be, 
so that no part of the rind or bark to the very solid timber be uncut, the tree 
will die from that part upwards, except the ash. To get the gum of plum- 
trees, I have sometimes wrenched the branch till the solid timber has cracked, 
and the rind forced open in some parts ; so leaving it to grow, but forced to 
continue in a posture somewhat wreathed, it yielded me store of gum next 
summer. 

Dr. T. remarks that a branch, whose bark of the breadth of about 2 or 3 
inches is taken off round towards the bottom, in some trees, and particularly 
the lime-tree, will live and bear leaves for many years, and grow as other 
branches by means of the sap ascending through all the pores of the inner 
coats. 

He further observes that piths are of a very different nature and substance. 
In the walnut it is a multitude of films manifestly distant from one another. 
In others, as in elders and briars, it is a continued, soft, loose, dry substance. 

Also, that the points or ends of the roots being cut off, they will in propor- 
tion bleed as copiously as the branches, and probably more ; certainly longer, 
because there is greater plenty of juice ascended above them than the branches, 
and consequently more will issue by them than by any part of the tree, higher 
than they are. 

That from the latter end of January to the middle of May, trees will bleed. 
Those that are said to run first, are the poplar, asp, abel, maple, sycamore ; 
some, as willows and the birch, tried by myself, are best to tap about the middle 
of the second season ; and the walnut towards the latter end of March. They 
generally bleed a full month in the whole. Mr. Midford of Durham, a very 
expert gatherer and preserver of saps, affirms that the saps of the poplar and 
asp rise so briskly in January, that they will bleed before the end of that month. 
The sycamore will run in hard frost, when the sap freezes as it drops. 

The best time of the day for tapping is about noon. In the latter season, 
when sap is not very plenteous in trees, they will neither run morning nor even- 
ing, nor probably at any time of the night ; but when they are very full of sap, 
and emptied but by small vents, the sap may run night and day till exhausted ; 
but never in large vents. And perhaps this observation may give light to that 
opinion which holds that the ascending of the sap depends on the pressure or 
pulsion of heat striking the earth, and thereby driving the moisture of the earth 
into the root. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 307 

Trees afford no sap at all, that has been observed, in autumn. And the 
quantity of sap depends on that of the rain. 

Answers to Queries and Observations in the East Indies, By Sir Phil. 
Vernatti, President in Java Major. iVMS, p. 863. 

The greatest length of time that pearl-divers in these parts can continue un- 
der water, is about a quarter of an hour ; and that by no other means than 
custom : for pearl-diving lasts not above six weeks, and the divers stay a great 
while longer under water at the end of the season than at the beginning. Here 
at Batavia is an expert diver, who draws wages for nothing else but diving for 
anchors, guns, &c. lost in the road. I have seen him several times go down, 
holding my breath as long as I could, and he stayed ten times as long under 
water as I could hold my breath. But he will not go down unless you give 
him a whole pint of strong-water before. 

The oil drawn out of the roots of cinnamon-trees, and resembling camphire, 
is thus : the roots being dried, bruised, and steeped in water, it is then drawn 
over by an alembic. 

The lignum aloes is part of a living tree, but commonly found when it is 
withered. The tree itself is of a white soft wood, giving a milky juice, which 
is so venomous, that if, in cutting the tree, any of the milk drop on the eye, 
it blinds it ; if on any other part of the body, it becomes scabby and a noisome 
sore. The lignum aloes or calambac is found within the white-wood, but not 
every where. When the tree decays, the white- wood soon withers and be- 
comes worm-eaten ; and the milk soon dries up, that it may be easily rubbed 
asunder with the hands. The best is found in the midst of the tree nourished 
by the heart-root, which goes straight down into the ground. The wood 
smells rank like human excrement, and grows naturally in the isles of Solor 
and Timor. 

There are serpents in these parts, which have a head on each end of their 
body, called capra capella. They are accounted sacred by these people, and 
fortunate to those in whose house and lands they are found ; but pernicious to 
those who do them harm. 

The General Laws of Motion. By Dr. John IFallis. Translated 
from the Latin. N° 43, p. 864. 

1 . If an agent A produce the effect E, then the agent 2 A will produce the 
effect lE\ 3 Aj 3E,hc. and, universally, w-^will produce the effect mJS, 
putting m for the exponent of any ratio. 

OQ 2 



308 ' PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1669. 

1. Therefore^ if the power or force V move the weight P, then the force 
m V will move m P, other circumstances being alike, as suppose through the 
same space in the same time, that is, with the same celerity. 

3. Also, if the power move the body through the length L in the time T, 
then in the time w T it will move it through the length n L. 

A. Therefore, if the power /^ in the time T, move the body P, through the 
length X, then the power m V, in the time n T, will move m P, through the 
length n L ; and consequently, as VT, the product of the force and time, is to 
PL, the product of the weight and length, so is m 7i FT to mnP L. 

5. Because the degrees of velocity are proportional to the lengths or spaces 
run over in the same time, or, which is the same thing, reciprocally propor- 
tional to the times of running over that length ; it will be, as tj^ : C :'. -^-tf : - C; 

that is, the degrees of celerity are compounded of the direct ratio of the lengths 
and the reciprocal ratio of the times. 

6. Therefore, because V T -. P L \\ m n V T : m n P L, it will be, as 

V;~ :: m/^:^j,-; that is, V: PC:: m F : mPC = mP X C = 

P X mC. 

7. That is, if the power F can move the body P with the celerity C, then 
the power m /^will either move the body P with the celerity m C, or the body 
m P with the same celerity C, or lastly, any body with such a celerity that the 
product of the body and celerity he m P C. 

8. And on this principle depends the construction of all machines for facili- 
tating motions, viz. that in whatever ratio the weight is augmented, in the very 
same ratio the celerity must be diminished ; so that the product of the celerity 
and the mass, to be moved by the same force, may be still the same, as suppose 
F': PC:: F:mP X- C= PC, 

in 

9. If the body P, moved by the power F", with the celerity C, impinge di- 
rectly against a quiescent body m P, (not obstructed) they will move on toge- 
ther with the celerity j—- C. For, because the power is the same, the greater 
the mass that is to be moved, so much the less must be the celerity ; namely, 
as V \ PC'.: V \ — ^ — P y^rr-T — C =■ P C. Consequently the impetus 
of the one body (that is, the product of the mass and velocity) will be 
— i— P C, and that of the other --i— mP C. 

10. If a body P, moved with a force V, and celerity C, be impinged on by 
another body m P, moving the same way, but with a greater celerity n C, (and 
having therefore the force mnV), then they will both move on together, with 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. SOJ) 

the celerity l^—C. For F : PC'/. mnF: mnPC \\ F-\-mnr=: 
— - — F : — - — P C= — — P X T-T — ^- Consequently the impetus of 
the preceding body will be -j-r"— P C, and that of the following or pursuing 

body - — — mP C. 

11. If bodies moving contrary ways strike each other directly, as for instance, 
the body P, with the force F, and the celerity C, moving towards the right 
hand, and the body m P, with the celerity n C, and consequently with the force 
mnF, towards the left hand, then the celerity, impetus, and direction of both 
of them, after the impact, will be thus determined. The body moved towards 
the right would communicate to the other, supposing it were at rest, the ce- 
lerity •— — C, and consequently the impetus mPC, towards the right; 

and itself would retain that same celerity, and consequently the impetus 

PC, towards the right, (by art. q). And, after the same manner^ the 
body moved towards the left hand would communicate to the other body, sup- 
posed at rest, the celerity C, and consequently the momentum — — — PC, 

towards the left hand; also itself would have that same celerity, and conse- 
quently the impetus /"" 7« P C, towards the left. Since, therefore, motion 
is made by both the bodies, the impetus of the body which at first moved to- 
wards the right, will now be the aggregate of the impetus — - — P C towards 

the right hand, and P C towards the left ; consequently the motion will 

in reality be made either towards the "right or left, according as the one or other 
of these is the greater, and with an impetus equal to the difference of the two; 
that is, putting the sign -f for the right hand, and — for the left, the impetus 

will be -|--i-PC- -^^PC = — — PC, and the celerity V^<^ ; 
which will be towards either right or left, according as 1 or w n is the greater. 
In like manner, the impetus of the other body, which at first moved towards the 

left, will be + — i-mPC '^^-^mPC = —-—mPC, and its celerity 

— — — C; which will be towards the right or left, according as 1 or mn may be 
the greater of the two. 

12. But if the bodies should neither move straight in the same direction, nor 
in directly opposite directions, but impinge obliquely; then the foregoing cal- 
culus is to be regulated according to the degree of obliquity : observing that the 
impetus of a body impinging obliquely, is to that of its direct impulse, avteris 



310 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66g. 

paribus, as radius is to the secant of the angle of obliquity; which is also to be 
understood when the body falls, not perpendicularly, but obliquely on the sur- 
face of the body which is struck, as well as when the directions of their motion 
cross each other obliquely. This consideration, rightly applied to the fore- 
going calculus, will determine what will be the celerity, the impetus, and the 
direction of bodies thus impinging obliquely ; that is, with what impetus, with 
what celerity, and towards what parts they will reflect from each other, which 
impinge in this manner. And the ratio is the same between the gravity of 
bodies descending obliquely, to that of such as fall perpendicularly; as I have 
elsewhere demonstrated. 

13. If the striking bodies be not absolutely hard, as is above supposed, but 
elastic, yielding to the stroke, and then restoring themselves to their figure 
again by an equal force, the bodies, instead of moving on together, may in that 
case recede from each other, and that more or less in proportion to the restor- 
ing force; namely, if the impetus from this force exceed the progressive im- 
petus. 

In accelerated and retarded motions, the impetus for every moment of time, 
is that which answers to the acquired degree of velocity at each of these mo- 
ments. When the motion is in a curve, its direction, in each point of the 
curve, is the same as the direction of the tangent to that point. And if an ac- 
celerated or retarded motion be made in a curve, as in the vibrations of a pen- 
dulum, then the impetus for each point is to be estimated both according to 
the degree of acceleration, and to the obliquity of the tangent at that point. 

The Law of Nature in the Collision of Bodies. By Dr. Christopher 
IVren.^ Translated from the Latin. N' 43, p. 867- 

The proper and most natural velocities of bodies, are reciprocally propor- 
tional to those bodies. Therefore the bodies R, S, having their proper velo- 

• Dr. (afterwards Sir) Christopher Wren, was one of the most extraordinary characters ever 
known, possessing the extremely rare qualification of uniting both tlieory and practice in a very 
eminent degree, being highly accomplished in tlie mathematical and philosophical sciences, as well 
as in the theory and practice of architecture. He was born in l632, and had made great ad- 
vances in the mathematics at l6 years of age. Being an Oxford scholar, he was one of those learned 
men who first associated together there for their mutual improvement in natural and experimental 
philosophy, and which at length produced the Royal Society, of which he was an original and, all 
his life, one of the most distinguished members. In the Society he gradually rose to the highest 
honours, and occupied the president's chair for two years, from 168O to l682. He made a multi- 
tude of ingenious and usefiil communications to the Society, as well of writings as of machines and 
instruments. He became successively professor of astronomy at Gresham college and at Oxford, 
making great improvements in that science. Soon after the great fire of London in 1666, from his 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 3lf 

cities, also retain proper velocities after collision. And the bodies /?, .S", hav- 
ing improper velocities, are restored to an equilibrium by collision : that is, as 
much as R exceeds, and S is deficient of their proper velocity before impulse, 
just so much by the impulse is taken from R, and is added to S : and con- 
trary wise. 

Therefore the collision of bodies having their proper velocities, is equiva- 
lent to a balance oscillating on its centre of gravity. And the collision of 
bodies having improper velocities, is equivalent to a balance upon two centres, 
which on each side are equally distant from the centre of gravity : the balance 
beam being produced when necessary. 

Therefore there are three cases of the improper motions of equal bodies. 
But of unequal bodies with improper motions, whether in the same or con- 
trary ways, there are in all ten cases ; five of which arise by conversion. 

R, S, are the two bodies, either equal or unequal, R the greater, and S the 
less {Jig. 12, 13, pi. 7) ; « is the centre of gravity, or the handle of the ba- 
lance ; Z the sum of the velocities of both bodies. Then, 

OyS 7 ffiven velocity r -S* -> , ^ . , 
Ro\ ofbodv ^{^jbeforeimpulse. 



i?e") given velocity ri?i , r ■ i 
Ser of body ^{^jbeforeimpulse. 

oR^ required velo- cR^ r. • i 
5} city of body { 5 } after .mpulse. 



Ro S of body 

e iS'i required velo- f-S" 1 n. • i 
e/J I city of body {ij lifter impulse. 



The rule is. Re, S e, make o R, o S ; Ro, S o, make e S, e R. 

Read the syllables, though disjoined. Re, S e, o R, oS, or Ro, So, e S, 

skill in architectiire, he succeeded Sir John Denham in the office of surveyor-general of the king's 
works ; and from tliis time he had the direction of a great many public edifices, by which he ac- 
quired the highest reputation ; as in tlie theatre at Oxford, St. Paul's cathedral, London, the Monu- 
ment, the churches of St. Stephen Walbrook, St. Mary-le-bow, with upwards of 60 other churches 
which that dreadful fire had rendered necessary ; also Chelsea college, one of the wings of Green- 
wich hospital, the modem part of Hampton Court, &c. He was one of the commissioners who, on 
the motion of Sir Jonas Moore, surveyor-general of the ordnance, was appointed to find out a pro- 
per place for erecting the national observatory 3 and he proposed Greenwich Park, which was ap- 
proved of J the foundation stone of which was laid the 10th of August l675, and tlie building was 
presently finished under the direction of Sir Jonas, with the advice and assistance of Sir Christopher. 
He became architect and commissioner of Chelsea college ; also principal officer or comptroller of 
the works in Windsor castle j and he sat twice in parliament, as a representative for two different 
boroughs. He died in 1723, at 91 years, and was interred with great solemnity in the cathedral of 
St. Paul's. As to his person. Sir Christopher was of alow stature, and thin frame of body 3 but by 
temperance and regularity he enjoyed a good state of health, to a very unusual age. In his manners, 
he was modest, devout, virtuous, and very communicative of his knowledge, of which he possessed 
an extraordinary fund. — Sir Christopher never printed any thing himself; but several of his works 
have been published by others ; some in the Philos. Trans, and some by Dr. Wallis and by other 
friends. His draughts and posthumous works were published by his son. 



312 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO \66g. 

eR m the line of any case ; and of these, that which is written in the scheme 
in the Hebrew manner, or from right to left, shows a motion contrary to the 
other motion, which is denoted by the syllables written in the Latin way, or 
from left to right. A syllable conjoined denotes the rest or quiescence of the 
body. 



Calculation. ] 



R -\- S : S '.[ 2j : Ra 
R + S:R:: Z: Sa 



I Re — 2Raz=:oR\\ So ^2Sa = e S. 
\aSa± Se zzzoSpRa-^- Ro = eR. 



Nature observes the rules of specious (algebraical) addition and subtraction. 

Jn Account of two Books. A^" 43, p. 868. 

I. Historia Coelestis ; Ex Libris et Commentariis MSS. Observationum 
Vicennalium Tychonis Brahe,* Dani, Augustae Vindelic. An. l666, in folio. 

* Tycho Brahe was a celebrated Danish astronomer, in the 1 6th century, and famous for having 
given name to a new, though erroneous, system of the planets. Tycho was born, of a noble family, 
in 1546, and having studied Latin, from 7 to 12 years of age, under private tutors at home, he was 
then sent to study philosophy and rhetoric at Copenhagen. While there, the great solar eclipse, 
Aug. 21, 1560, happening at tlie precise time it had been foretold by tlie astronomers, he began to 
consider astronomy as something divine, and from tliat time devoted his attention chiefly to die ce- 
lestial science, purchasing and privately studying every book relating to it tliat he could procure. 
After four years stay at Copenhagen, he was sent, in 1562, to Leipsic to study tlie law, where his 
acquirements gave clear indications of extraordinary abilities : taking every occasion however of im- 
proving his astronomical knowledge ; and having there procured a small celestial globe, he took op- 
portunities, when his tutor was in bed, to examine the constellations m the heavens, learning their 
names from the globe, and their motions from observation. After a course of three years study at 
Leipsic, he returned home, in 1565j in which year, being of an irritable temper, a quarrel arose 
between him and a Danish nobleman, when they fought, and by a stroke of a sword Tycho lost 
great part of his nose 3 which he ever after supplied so well by a substitute of precious metal and 
wax, that it was not perceived. About this time he began to apply to chemistry, proposing notliing 
less than to obtain the philosopher's stone. But becoming disgusted to see his favourite objects of 
study despised, he left his country and resided some years in different parts of Germany. In 1571 
he returned to Denmark : and was favoured by his maternal uncle, Steno Billes, a lover of learning, 
with convenient accommodations at his castle for making his observations, and building a laborator}% 
And here it was that he discovered, in 1573, a new star in the constellation Cassiopeia, But soon 
after, marrying a country girl, beneath his rank, it occasioned such a quarrel between Tycho and his 
relations, that the king was obliged to interpose to reconcile them. In 1574, by the king's order, 
he read lectures at Copenhagen on the theory of tlie planets. Soon after tliis he again travelled 
through Germany, and had thoughts of removing his family and settling at Basil : but tlie king, 
Frederick II. vmwilling to lose a man capable of doing so much honour to his country, promised 
to enable him to pursue his studies to his satisfaction, and bestowed on him for life tlie island of 
Huen in the Sound, ordering an obsen'atory and laboratory to be built for him there, with a supply 
of money for carrying on his designs. Accordingly the observatory was founded in 1576, under the 
name of Uranibourg, with an ample pension from the king. This situation Tycho enjoyed for about 
20 years, pursuing his observations and studies with great diligence ; keeping always about him ten 
or twelve young men, who assisted him in his -observations, and whom he instructed in astronomy 



rOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. JI8: 

These observations of the noble Tycho, as they were procured and preserved 
by the Emperors, Rudolph II. Ferdinand II. and III; so they were lately by the 
command of his Imperial Majesty Leopold made public. They are ushered in 
by a liber prologomenos, compendiously representing the observations made 
from the time of the very infancy of astronomy unto that of its restoration by 
the illustrious Tycho ; and reduced into seven classes, viz. 1. The Babylonian 
observations ; from An. before Christ 721, to An. 432. 2. The Grecian ; from 
An. before Christ 432, to the beginning of the vulgar Christian account. 
3. The Alexandrian; from An. Christi 1, till An. 827. 4. The Syro-Persian ; 
from A. C. 827, to 1457. 5. The Norimbergian, from A. C. 1457, to 1509. 
6. The Borussian ; from A. C. 1509, to 1529. 7. Mixt observations; from 
A. C. 1529, to 1582. In which year, 1582, begin the observations of Tycho, 
contained in 20 books, and made in as many years, ending An. Chr. 160 1, 

and mathematics. And here it was that Tycho received a visit from James the 6th, king of Scot- 
land, afterwards James the first of England, who had gone into Denmark to espouse the princes* 
Anne of that country. On this occasion James made Tycho some noble presents, and wrote a copj 
of Latin verses in his praise. 

Tycho's tranquillity however in this happy situation was at length fatally interrupted. Soon after 
the deatli of king Frederick, by the aspersions of envious and malevolent ministers he was deprived 
of his emoluments, and obliged to quit his favourite Uranibourg, in 1596. He removed to Copen- 
hagen, witli some of his instruments, continuing there his observations and his experiments, till the 
same malevolence procured from the new king, Charles the 4th, an order for him to discontinue 
them. T)'cho then turned his views to Rudolph, emperor of Germany, an encourager of learning, 
to whom he soon after repaired. That prince received him at Prague very graciously j accommo- 
dated him with a convenient situation, and a noble revenue, promising also to settle a fee for his 
descendants. Here tlien Tycho settled in the latter part of 1598, with his own family and his 
scholars, and among them the celebrated Kepler, who had joined him. But he did not long enjoy 
this happy situation ; for he died about three years after, viz. in l601, of a retention of urine, in the 
55th year of his age ; exhorting his scholars to attend closely to their exercises, and particularly re- 
commending to Kepler to complete the Rudolphin Tables, which he had constructed for regulating 
the motion of the planets. 

Tycho was autlior of many important works and improvements in astronomy. He was of a pious 
and devout disposition, which led him, to support the credit as he thought of tlie scriptures, to in- 
vent a new system of the planets, that might give stability to tlie earth, and motion to the sun. He 
was of a very irritable temper: a mere trifle put hhn in a passion j and against persons of the first 
rank, whom he thought his enemies, he openly discovered his resentment. He was very apt to rally 
others, but soon provoked when the same liberty was taken with himself. He was also very credu- 
lous with regard to judicial astrology, and superstitiously anxious about presages : if he met an old 
woman on first going out of doors, or a hare on the road in a journey, he immediately turned back, 
from the persuasion it was an ill omen : And during his residence at Uranibourg, he retained an idiot 
in his house, whom he placed at his feet at table, and fed himself j carefully noting all that was ut- 
tered by this madman, believing that every thing spoken by such persons had some secret important 
^meaning. 

VOL. I, R R 



314 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONSi [aNNO I669. 

which was the end of Tycho's life : Of which time yet there being wanting one 
year, viz. 1593, of the Brahean observations, that is supplied by the Hessian ; 
and by a catalogue of the fixed stars, made and digested by the authority and 
care of that renowned prince for learning and magnanimity, William, Land^ 
grave of Hesse, and by the labours of Rhothmann and Birge. To all these is 
added a continuation of such astronomical observations as were made from the 
time of Tycho's death, to An. l635, by Maestlin and Schickard. 

II. R. P. Andreas Tacquet* e Soc. J. Opera Mathematica. Antwerp, i66q, 
in fol. 

These works contain — 1. Eight books of astronomy, wherein the author has 
explained the whole doctrine of that science. It is remarkable that though he 
knows no argument, demonstrating the rest of the earth and motion of the 
sun ; yet the authority of holy writ, now seconded by that of the sacred con- 
gregation of the cardinals, put it out of doubt. This author asserts, that the 
comets and new stars, that have appeared since 1572, have been far above the 
moon ; and that Riccioli about this controversy seemed too favourably inclined 
to Claramont, asserting the contrary. Concerning the cause of the secondary 
light of the moon before and after the new, viz. the obscure part of her appear- 
ing like kindled glittering ashes, our author assigns it to be the sun's rays re- 
flected from the bright hemisphere of the earth to the darker portion of the 
moon, and thence again directly reflected to^ the earth destitute of the sun's 
light. This phenomenon he says is learnedly explained in Philos. Optica Nic. 
Zucchii, from p. 247 to p. 260. 

The author has not framed or annexed any tables to his book, although he 
abundantly shows how they may be computed: referring his reader to those of 
Tycho, Reinhold, Longomontan, Kepler, Lansberg, Wendelin, Bulliald, 
Petavi, Reiner, Riccioli ; to which may be added those of Buret, Billy, Street, 
which last fixes the nodes and aphelions, and Wing's, now in the press. 

2. Of practical geometry, 3 books. — In the first the author handles the 
construction of the tables of sines, tangents, and secants ; the resolution of 
right lined triangles ; the mensuration of the heights and distances of objects, 
as well unaccessible as accessible. — In the second book, he handles the dimen- 
sion of plain surfaces, either regular or irregular. 

In the third book the author treats of the measure of solids. And among 

* Tacquet was one of tliose learned Jesuits who chiefly cultivated tlie liberal sciences in the l^th 
and 17th centuries. Besides this collection of his works, he had before published himself, Elements 
of Plane and Solid Geometry, also Arithmetic, both in 8vo. He was indeed a very laborious and 
voluminous writer 5 and died in 166O. In matters of astronomy, his fear of tlie church censures 
seems to have hindered him from more eflectually defending the Copernican system of the world. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 315 

these, measures such solids as are contained in the mundane bodies, as the 
surface of the whole earth ; where he is pleased to conclude, that at the day of 
judgment a less portion of it than England will serve to hold all its inhabitants 
and their infants, that ever have been, or in likelihood may be hereafter, till 
then, supposing the world should last 10,000 years ! 

3. Of optics, 3 books. — In the first he handles the simple and direct appear- 
ances of objects, meaning such appearances as are not liable to reflection or re- 
fraction. In the second, he handles the theory and practice of the perspective 
or scenographic projection, or transcription of a given magnitude into a plain, 
which cuts the optic pyramid ; wherein he explains the direct appearance, and 
the monstrous deformation of an object, which at a certain place shall appear 
beautiful. In the third, he treats of the astronomic projections of the sphere, 
and thence derives the triple astrolabe, and shows their uses with the conveni- 
ences or inconveniences of each projection. It is observed that the horizontal 
projection is as ancient as Ptolemy, and all the four quadrants of several contri- 
vances, published by Mr. John Collins, are derived from the western side, or 
the continuance thereof, admitting but a mere mutation of the names of circles, 
and a projecting of more parallels. 

4. Of catoptrics, 3 books — In the first of which the author treats of catoptrics 
or reflection. In the second, of the affections of plain glasses simply, or of 
many such placed either in a parallel or inclined position to each other. In the 
third, of curved glasses ; and therein first the chief affections of convex spheric 
glasses ; afterwards of concave spheric glasses ; lastly, of burning glasses of 
several kinds. The death of the author prevented him from writing of the 
dioptrics, which was very far advanced by Des Chartes, and has been since 
further promoted by De Beaune, Honorato Fabri, Manzini, and in the cen- 
tury of optic problems of Eschinard ; and we may hope that ere long the 
learned Mr. Barrow will enrich the world with his labours of this and other 
kinds ; also Mr. James Gregory, the author of Optica Promota, has a treatise 
of this subject in good forwardness for the press. 

5. Follows the author's treatise of Military Architecture or Fortification. 

6. Follow his Annularia et Cylindrica; the first four books whereof were first 
published in l651. 

Angeli not only answers what is objected by Tacquet against Cavaliri's Indi- 
visibles, but shows what famous authors he has on his side, who have derived 
many excellent inventions from this method of indivisibles, viz. Bcaugrand, 
Rocca, Magiotti, Van Schooten, Rich. White, Bulliald, Torricelli, who calls 
Cavaliri's first book the Ocean of Indivisibles, and the Fountain of Inventions. 
Of which doctrine he renders many excellent examples. After many other ob- 
jections and observations, the relator adds: All which is not recited here to dis- 



3l6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66g. 

parage our author, but to take ofF the prejudice which he may beget in his 
readers against the method of indivisibles, which has been owned by other 
famous men, besides those already named, viz. by Mengoli, who from the ex- 
cellencies of this method, Archimedes' method, and Vieta's Specious Algebra, 
composed his Geometria Speciosa; by Antimo Farby, alias Hon. Fabri, in 
tract De Linea Sinuum et Cycloide; by Pascal, alias Dettonville; by Descartes 
himself, vol. 3 of Letters, who says, that by it he squared the Cycloid ; and 
lately by the excellent Sluse, &c. 2. To remove the other prejudice that may be 
against this author as defective: for the 5th book Cylindricorum et Annularium, 
now printed with the rest, the prefacer asserts to be first extant in 1659. The 
author divides this fifth book into six parts : In the first he demonstrates, that 
if any plane surface have a rotation about its axis in any situation whatsoever, 
and at any distance whatsoever or none, it produces a round solid equal to an 
upright solid, whose base is the generating figure, and height equal to the cir- 
cumference described by its centre of gravity. This universal rule was invented 
by Guldin, and is the basis of most of his doctrine ; but he could not demon- 
strate the same, though it was much desired. In like manner, if any perimeter 
have a rotation about its axis, in any situation whatsoever, it generates a round 
surface, equal to a right surface, made by the same perimeter as a base 
(which may be evolved and made a plane surface) whose height is the way 
or circumference described by its centre of gravity. These being two ad- 
mirable universal rules in geometry, the reader will find the same (with many 
others) demonstrated by Dr. Wallis in his treatise De Calculo Centri Gra- 
vitatis, which, together with his other tracts, De Motu, Statica, Me- 
chanica, are now at the press in London. The same rules are likewise de- 
monstrated in Geometriae pare Universali Jacobi Gregorii Scoti, Patavii, 1668. 
The methods of these learned men are different, and good arguments might be 
given, that they have not communicated nor seen the works of each other. 

Guldin, 1. 1, c. 12, shows a mechanical way to find the centre of gravity of a 
surface or curved line, by two free suspensions, from the points of which, per- 
pendiculars being drawn, do cross each other at the centre of gravity. This we 
mention to keep the reader from taking the centre of gravity of a curved line as 
such, which is intended in this second rule, to be the same with the centre of 
gravity of the figure thereby terminated in the first rule. 3. Considers the 
affections of round solids, generated from a parabola, in ten propositions ; where- 
of the 21st and 23d give the hoof, required by Angeli, which was formerly 
cubed by Greg, de S. Vincentio. In the 27th proposition he gives the proportion 
of the parabolical conoid to the spindle made of the same parabola by rotation 
about its base, to be as the base of the parabola is to -ff of the axis ; showing. 



TOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 817 

that Guldin erred through forgetfulness. In proposition 2Q he shows, that the 
parabola bears such a proportion to a circle described about the base as a dia- 
meter, as the axis of the parabola doth to that circumference of a circle, whose 
radius is equal to the distance of the centre of gravity of the semi-parabola from 
the axis. 4. Contains divers endeavours and manifold new ways towards the 
obtaining the quadrature of the circle in 12 propositions. 5. Contains ten pro- 
positions, from 41 to 51, in the 42d whereof he finds a sphere equal to an 
hyperbolical ring solid ; whence divers ways are opened towards the attaining the 
quadrature of the hyperbola : and he finds a sphere equal to a ring made by the 
rotation of a segment of an hyperbola, and of the segment of a circle thereto 
annexed, described about the base of the hyperbola as a chord line : Then he 
absolutely cubes certain hoofs cut out of an hyperbolical cylinder, and thence de- 
rives other ways towards the obtaining the quadrature of the hyperbola. 6. De- 
livers 3 theorems, showing the proportion between an hyperbola and a circle : 
which are conceived to be wholly new. 

But these theorems suppose the quadrature of both figures known, viz. that 
of a circle, in requiring the length of the circumference of a circle, described by 
the centre of gravity of an hyperbola ; which centre cannot be found, without 
giving the quadrature or area of the hyperbola : which has been most happily 
performed by M. Mercator in his Logarithmotechnia, and further advanced by 
Dr. Wallis, in N° 38 of these Transactions; and by Mr. Gregory also further 
promoted and otherwise performed, in his Exercitationes Geometricae, where 
he shows the same methods and approaches to be likewise applicable to the 
circle. 

A Continuation of Ohservatioiis on Vegetables. By Dr. E. Tonge, 

N' 44, p. 877.* 

If no rain come to the roots of trees, nor other moisture, they will not grow, 
but if the points of the roots only be watered, though all the rest remain dry, 
as it happens naturally in fir trees, they may grow ver}' well. For the points of 
the roots shoot out yearly a sharp-pointed tender part, somewhat like the sharp 
bud on the end of a sprig, by which the root not only enlarges itself in the 
earth, as the branch does in the air, but also receives its nourishment. And 
that tender part moves towards the best moistened and the tenderest earth ; so 
that to promote the growth of trees, it is very effectual to loosen the earth of 
trees about the points of the roots. 

The roots of plum and lime trees inoculated upon, will shoot out their buds. 

♦ See No. 43, p. 304. 



318 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONSi [aNNO I669. 

To make a successful trial, let the root be bared in the fall of the leaf, taken 
out of the earth, and at convenient distance from the body of the tree, bowed, 
and raised a foot above the earth, and then the points and fibres of the root 
carefully laid about vi^ith fresh earth, and watered till they take well, and till the 
root raised in the air have a bark like that of a branch of a tree, which probably 
it will get in the next season of inoculation. The inoculation itself is made on 
the part raised, after the ordinary way. When it is done, let it be carefully 
covered with some soft wax, to defend it from the rain. 

The arms of the roots of trees are to be cut for the advantage of their growth, 
according to the proportion they have to their head and body ; or according to 
the design you have to increase wood or fruit. For such roots as are more 
outward feed the wood, but such as are inward the fruit. 

The depth of trees to be set, should never be below the reach of the sun's 
heat, nor the goodness of the mould, and rather too shallow than too deep; 
forasmuch as they are apter to sink lower, than to raise themselves upwards, if 
they be out of the convenient reach of the sun's heat, the cause of pulsion and 
nourishment. 

The seeds of the fir, pine, &c. which bring up the shells of their seeds on the 
heads of the first shoot, will either not grow at all, or difficultly, if the blunt 
end be put downwards, because in that posture it must turn itself, before it can 
emerge into the air; for the root is shot downwards at the sharp end. But it 
may very well grow if set horizontally. 

Some young plants, if their heads be kept moist, will live all winter, if it be 
mild, though their roots be in the air, as I tried in seedlings of apples and 
crabs. The roots, set afterwards in the spring, grew and lived. The reason 
why some plants grow in sticks, may be the softness of such wood, apt there- 
by to receive nourishment like a root, and to shoot out roots and fibres from 
themselves. But in slips taken from firmer wooded trees, as bays, a moist 
temperate season is to be observed, and a stone, or chip of wood to be closed 
to the end of the slip, and set in the earth with it, which helps its rooting. 

The sap of a large walnut in the latter season of its running, i. e. when it 
yields no sap any longer in the body or branches at any time of the day, runs 
longer at the roots on the south or sunny side, than on the north or shady 
side. 

As plenty of rain can cause no more sap than the pores of the root, body, and 
branches will admit ; which must stay some time to be digested, and converted 
into nourishment : so too niuch cold rain may, by over-cooling, hinder the sap, 
by abating from the degree of heat necessary to the pulsion of sap into the root, 
and to the digestion in the tree, which is also in watering. On this ground it 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 3lQ 

seems probable, that drawing sap constantly from trees every year, will not hin- 
der their growth in body, branches, leaves, nor fruit, to any great prejudice ; 
for pulsion will still supply juice into the emptied pores, till their capacity be 
filled. 

It is possible also, that trees may grow better, and give more fruit, if the 
right art of drawing sap be found out for that end; as some persons grow fatter 
by often bleeding. If plenty of sap drawn from trees hinder at all, it seems 
probable, that it will hinder growth of fruit, leaves, or uppermost shoots in tops 
of trees, and yearly shoots in extreme parts. And hence we have a probable 
reason of suckers robbing fruit, viz. because till the whole tree be filled with 
sap, the fruit cannot be served in the uttermost branches. — Wherefore not only 
suckers, but all superfluous not-bearing branches are to be carefully cut away 
before, or at the entrance of the spring. 

An Extract of a Letter of Mr. James Gregory to the Publisher, con- 
taining some Ohservations on M. Huygens' Letter, printed in Vin- 
dication of his Exame?i of the Book entitled Vera Circuli et Hyper- 
holcB Quadratura, N" 44, p. 882. 

See N° 37, p. 268 of this Abridgement. 

Extract of the Anatomical Account, written and left hy the celebrated 
Dr. Harfev,* concerning Thomas Parr, who died in London at 
the Age of 152 Years and 9 Months. iV° 44, p. 886. 

This account is annexed to a book, lately published in Latin by Dr. John 
Betts, one of his majesty's physicians in ordinary, and fellow of the London 

• It is not possible to do justice to the memory of the great Harvey within the limits of a note. 
His life will perhaps be inserted in the miscellaneous volume intended to be added to this Abridge- 
ment. In the mean time, in place of a biographical sketch, w^e shall lay before our readers a sum- 
mary account of the circulation of the blood, as explained and demonstrated by him in his immortal 
work, entitled Exercitatio Anatom. de Cordis et Sanguinis Motu, first published in l528 ; though he 
had announced, several years antecedent to this publication, the leading facts belonging to this im- 
portant discovery, in the lectures which he delivered before the college of physicians. In tlie above- 
mentioned treatise (the abstract of which here given is taken from the account of Harvey prefixed to 
tlie edition of his works by the London college) he shows, by experiments made on living animals, 
that the motion of the heart is performed by the contraction of its muscular fibres ; that die auricles 
contract first, and thereby propel the blood into the ventricles ; then the ventricles contract, w here- 
by the blood is driven into the arteries j being prevented from returning into the auricles by die situa- 
tion and connexion of the valves. Now as by the repeated contractions of the ventricles more blood 
is constandy propelled into the arteries than can be supplied by nourishment thrown into the veins 



310 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1669. 

College of Physicians; in which treatise the author endeavours to show, that 
milk, or something analogous to it, is the universal nourishment of all living 
creatures, and the immediate and whole matter of blood; whence, and from the 
three parts thereof, viz. the butyraceous, serous, and caseous, and their vari 
ous concoction in the stomach, and constitution in the veins, he would deduce 
the different nature of the humours and spirits composing the blood ; as from 
the different quantity and quality of these he would derive the whole business 
of health and sickness, and the method of cure. 

But as to the observations made by Dr. Harvey upon the person and dissec- 
tion of Thomas Parr, it is noted: 

' (as appears upon calculation), and as moreover the arteries cannot receive blood through any other 
channel but the veins 3 it follows either tliat the veins must be quickly emptied, and the arteries on 
the contrary every moment more and more distended, which however is not the case : or that the 
blood must flow back again from the arteries into the veins, by certain secret passages, or by pores of 
the flesh, or by mutual anastomoses of the arteries and veins. He demonstrates tliat the last-mentioned 
conmiunication takes place in tlie lungs. Again ; as along the course of the arteries more blood is 
sent from the heart to all parts of the body than is necessary for the nourishment of those parts, he 
infers tliat the superfluous blood is returned by the veins (that they may not be left empty) from this 
fact, tliat no blood is found in the veins if the great artery be tied. On the other hand, if a ligature 
be passed round the vena cava at the place where it joins the right auricle, it will immediately be- 
come distended in a very surprising manner. Moreover, it must be evident to every one (he ob- 
serves) who considers the situation and connexion of the valves, that the blood passes from the smaller 
branches of the veins into their tmnks, and from thence to the heart. The true movement of the 
blood being thus discovered, Harvey was enabled through it to account for tlie distribution of nourish- 
ment and warmth to every part of the body, and to throw great light upon many obscure points re- 
lative to tlie animal oeconomy, botli in health and disease. No doctrine could be supported by proofs 
more simple aud decisive : nevertheless tliey were disputed by several of his contemporaries, and 
particularly by Riolan, to whom he made an able reply. Otliers, instead of combating the truth of 
his discovery, endeavoured to rob him of the merit of it, by pretending that it was known to Aris- 
totle and Galen among tlie ancients, and to Servetus, Columbus and Ccesalpinus among tlie moderns. 
Some indeed of the last mentioned authors had made considerable progress towards a just concep- 
tion of the blood's motion, intermingled, however, witli the errors imbibed from the ancients above- 
mentioned ; but none of the passages quoted from their writings show that they taught or under- 
stood that the blood moved in a regular uninterrupted course from the heart to the arteries, and 
from them through the veins back again to the heart. As for what relates to tlie story of Pauli of 
Venice having been acquainted with the circulation of the blood before Harvey published his account 
of it ; this circumstance has been cleared up in Dr. Clarck's letter, inserted in the preceding part of 
this Abridgement, p. 248. Thus does our countryman, the immortal Harvey, remain in full pos- 
session of the honour of a discovery wliicli has led to elucidations of some of the most important 
phaenomena of animal life, and is the main clue by which we have been conducted to a more accurate 
knowledge of diseased actions, and to more simple as well as more rational modes of counteracting tliem. 
Harvey was bom at Folkstone in Kent in 1S78, and died in 1(558, having completed his SOtliyear. 
The London College of Physicians published his works in 4to, 1766. Among tliese his Exercitatio 
de Generatione Animal, holds the next place after his treatise on tlie heart and circulation above-noticed. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 321 

1 . That he was a poor countryman of Shropshire, whence he was brought 
up by the Right Hon. Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry,* and that he 
died,-}- after he had out-lived nine princes, and during the reign of the tenth, 
at the age of 152 years and 9 months. 

2. That being opened after his death (Nov. 16) his body was found yet very 
fleshy, his breast hairy, his genitals unimpaired, serving not a little to confirm 
the report of his having undergone public censures for his incontinency ; espe- 
cially seeing that after that time, viz. at the age of 120 years, he married a 
widow, who owned, Eum cum ipsa rem habuisse ut alii mariti solent, et usque 
ad 1 2 annos retroactos solitum cum ea congressum frequentasse. Further, that 
he had a large breast, lungs not fungous, but sticking to his ribs, and distended 
with much blood; a lividness in his face, as he had a difficulty of breathing a 
little before his death, and a long-lasting warmth in his arm-pits and breast after 
it. His heart was great, thick, fibrous, and fat. The blood in the heart 
blackish and dilute. The cartilages of the sternum not more bony than in 
others, but flexile and soft. His viscera very sound and strong, especially the 
stomach ; and it was observed of him that he used to eat often by night and 
day, though contented with old cheese, milk, coarse bread, small beer, and 
whey; and, which is more remarkable, that he did eat at midnight a little be- 
fore he died. His kidneys covered with fat, and pretty sound; only in the ante- 
rior surface of them there were found some aqueous or serous abscesses, whereof 
one was nearly as large as a hen's egg, with a yellowish water in it, having made 
a roundish cavity, impressed in that kidney; whence some attributed a sup- 
pression of urine, which took place a little before his death; though others 
were of opinion, that his urine was suppressed upon the regurgitation of all the 
serosity into the lungs. Not the least appearance was there of any stony mat- 
ter either in the kidneys or bladder. His bowels were also sound, a little 
whitish without. His spleen very little, hardly equalling the bigness of one 
kidney. In short, all his inward parts appeared so healthy, that if he had not 
changed his diet and air, he might perhaps have lived a good while longer. 

3. The cause of his death was imputed chiefly to the change of food and air; 
for leaving a clear, thin, and free air, he came into the thick air of London, 
and after a constant, plain, and homely country diet, was taken into a splendid 
family, where he fed high, and drank plentifully of the best wines, whereupon 
the natural functions of the parts of his body were over-charged, his lungs ob- 

* He was brought up to town in order to be showTi to the king (Charles L) 
t November 14, l635. 

VOL.1. SS 



322 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66g. 

structed, and the habit of the whole body quite disordered, upon which there 
could not but soon ensue a dissolution. 

4. His brain was found entire and firm; and though he had not the use of 
his eyes, nor much of his memory, several years before he died, yet he had his 
hearing and apprehension very well, and was able even to the hundred and 
thirtieth year of his age to do any husbandman's work, even threshing of 
corn.* 

Jn Account of two Boohs. N° 44, p. 888. 

I. De Viscerum Structura Exercitatio Anatomica Marcelli Malpighii. Bono- 
nisc, i666, 4to. 

This book contains five dissertations : Of the liver, the exterior part of the 
brain, the kidneys, the spleen, the polypus of the heart. Concerning the liver, 
he, 1 . gives a summary account of what has been said of it. 2. He relates what 
himself has observed in that viscus, in all sorts of living creatures, finding it to 
have lobes, and to be a gland of that kind which by anatomists is called con- 
glomerate in contradistinction to the conglobate. 3. He examines the reasons 
given by Dr. Wharton -|- against its being a gland. 4. He assigns its oflfice and 
use, making it no other than that it separates the gall, which being conveyed 
into the intestines, he asserts to be subservient to digestion. 

Concerning the exterior part of the brain (cerebri cortex) he first inquires into 
the nature of its substance, and finds it a congeries of glands, more conspicu- 
ously so in boiled than in crude brains, and most discernible in fishes and birds, 
where he alleges an observation of a stone found in the brain, which was formed 
like the fruit of mulberries, conglobated and made up of many small kernels or 
grains, of ash- colour, probably thus formed by the petrified cortex of the brain, 
and so retaining the natural shape of the glands thereof. Next he solves the 
arguments of the above-mentioned Dr. Wharton produced in his book De 
Glandulis, against that opinion. Further, explaining the vessels of the brain, 
and their process, he afiirms, that the whole substance called the medulla of 
the brain and the after-brain, is a heap of fibres or vessels, which, from the 
stock or trunk of the spinal marrow, by many windings and crinkles, form those 
cavities and involutions to be found there, and are at last deeply implanted in 
the very glands of the brain ; where he teaches, that the whole work of separa- 

* The account of this dissection is inserted in Harvey's Works, edited by the London College of 
Physicians. 

f Thomas Wharton ranks among the best English anatomists of the l7th century. He wrote a 
treatise on the glands, entitled Adenographia, published in l656. The salivary ducts which have 
been named after him, were known (as Haller remarks) to the ancients. 



VOL. in.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 328 

tion and depuration is performed by the inward structure of the glands of the 
brain, the juice passing immediately out of them into the hollow and fistulous 
fibres, to be conveyed by a continued course into the subjacent parts to execute 
its several offices, as is performed by the little tubes or pipes of plants ; adding, 
for the illustration of the original of the spinal marrow and the nerves, that that 
marrow is a bundle of nerves, which whilst it makes up the brain, divides it 
into two parts (by the circumvolutions of which the sides of the ventricles are 
formed) and terminates at last in the cortex, wherein, and in whose glandular 
grains the extreme roots of the nerves, in the smallest size, are implanted. 
After this he proceeds to the use of the cortex, and is of opinion, that by these 
little glands there are separated and collected those particles which nature has 
designed for instruments of sensation, and by which, when conveyed through 
the tubulous nerves, * the coherent parts are impregnated and swelled, and the 
animal made sensible of the operatioHS of several objects. Moreover he offers 
some considerations upon Dr. Willis's opinion about the production of the in- 
ternal senses by virtue of the brain's structure; and also upon his ascribing to 
those bodies, which he calls striata and radiosa, a twofold texture, whereof the 
one ascends, the other descends, for the perception of the impressions of sensi- 
ble objects by the former, and the performance of motions by the latter. Lastly, 
he takes notice that Dr. Glissou'^ has derived the matter of the nervous juice 
through the nerves into the brain, from the glands of the mesentery, and For- 
tius from the mouth and intestines ; whereas, since he has observed the mass 
of the brain made up only of a glandular cortex, and of fibres proceeding 
thence, together with the sanguineous vessels, and not yet found any cavities 
for receiving the chyle, and conveying it into every part of the brain ; he there- 
fore conceives^ that all the nerves are produced out of the brain and the cere- 

* Each nerve consists of a bundle of filaments. Whether these filaments are solid or hollow, is a 
question concerning which anatomists and physiologists have long disputed. If we may trust to mi- 
croscopic examinations, the probability is in favour of the last-mentioned structure. They contain a 
medullary pulp of a semi-fluid consistence. 

f Francis Glisson, one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, and one of the best anato- 
mists which this country has to boast of, was born at Rampisham in Dorsetshire in 1597, He 
studied at Cambridge, and was afterwards regius professor of physic there, for a long term of years; 
till at length he removed to London, where he read lectures on anatomy before the college. During 
the civil commotions of those days he retired to Colchester, but finally returned to London, where 
he died in l677, aged 80. Among other treatises he wrote tlie following, De Rachitide 1^50, 
(wherein he gives an accurate account of tlie rickets, a disease at that time new)j De Hepate l654; 
de Ventriculo et Intestinis 1^77. In his treatise on the liver (the best of his anatomical works) he 
gives the figure of a tube which he used for injecting tlie vessels. 

SS2 



324 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTION*. [anNO l66g. 

bellum, for this end, that they may carry down the juice separated in the very 
glands, there wanting no sanguineous vessels, by which both sufficient matter 
may be furnished, and the residue of the percolated juice carried away again. 

Concerning the kidneys, he first relates what has been taught of them hi- 
therto ; and then delivers both his own observations about them, by a long use 
of the microscope, and his deductions from them. He affirms, that he has 
always observed the kidneys to be also a congeries of small glands, by injecting 
through the emulgent artery a black liquor, mixed with spirit of wine, and by 
cutting the kidneys longways, and then finding, betwixt the urinous vessels and 
their interstices, very many of such glands which like little apples are appendant 
to the sanguineous vessels, turgid with that black liquor. He adds, that, after 
many trials, he at last found also a connexion betwixt those glands and the 
vessels of urine. As to the pelvis, he considers that nothing but an expansion 
of the ureter, as consisting of the same membrane and nervous fibres with the 
ureter. 

In the treatise on the spleen, having premised, as before in the other parts, 
what has been hitherto published about it, he subjoins what himself has further 
obsen^ed thereon : viz. That the whole body of the spleen, however it may 
seem to be a substance made up of concreted blood, yet is indeed a contexture 
of membranes, formed and distinguished into little folds and cells ; clearly to be 
seen by syringing air into it by the ramus splenicus, whereby the whole spleen 
will become so turgid, as to swell into an excessive bigness ; which, if upon the 
exsiccation of the thus swelled part, it be presently cut, its whole mass will be 
found made up of membranes of the shape of the cells in bee-hives ; as he 
affirms to have clearly seen in the spleen of a sheep and hog, and in that of a 
man. But then he adds, that through this whole membranous body of the 
spleen are copiously dispersed clusters of glandules, or, if you will, bladders, 
very plainly resembling clusters of grapes, appendant on the fibres and the ex- 
tremities of the arteries and nerves of that body. Coming to discourse of the 
tise of the spleen, after he has examined the various opinions of anatomists con- 
cerning it, and declared his dissatisfaction therein, together with the reasons 
thereof, he does with great modesty as well as ingenuity offer his thoughts 
about it, viz. That, considering the whole structure of the spleen, it seems to 
be designed for a new separation and mixture of the juices conveyed into its 
glands by the arteries and nerves, and then collected in the cells ; whereby, 
and by its stay there, the blood receives such a further change, and is so much 
more exalted, that being conveyed by the splenetic branch into the neighbour- 
ing liver and there refermented, it acquires a disposition for ai> easy separation 
of the gall there. 



VOL. III.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 325 

II. Ephemerides Mediceorum Syderum, ex Hypothesibus et Tabulis Job. 
Dom. Cassini. Bononiae, 1668, in thin fol. 

What Gahlaeo Galilaei undertook, after he had discovered the satellites of 
Jupiter, of giving an easy and sure way to know the longitudes by a careful ob- 
servation of those stars ; Signior Cassini seems to have now performed more 
fully than others, by composing certain tables, after 15 years observations 
made with exactness of the motion of the said satellites. These tables are con 
tained in this book ; and for verifying them, he has added the Ephemerides 
of those stars for the year lately elapsed, viz. An. ] 668. 

END OP VOLUME THIRD OF THE ORIGINAL. 



Description of an histrument invented many Years ago hy Dr. Chris- 
TOP HER IVren, for drawing the Outlines of any Object in Perspective. 
iV 45, p. 898. (Vol I F.J 

See fig. 1, pi. 9, wherein A is a small sight with a short arm B, which may 
be turned round about, and moved up and down the small cylinder C D, which 
is screwed into the piece E D, at D, this piece E D moving round the centre 
E ; by which means the sight may be removed either towards R or F. — E F is 
a ruler fastened on to the two rulers G G, which rulers serve both to keep the 
square frame S S S S perpendicular, and by their sliding through the square 
holes T T, they serve to stay the sight, either farther from or nearer to the said 
frame ; on which frame is stuck on with a little wax the paper OOOO, where- 
on the picture is to be drawn by the pen I. This pen I is, by a small brass 
handle V, so fixed to the ruler H H, that the point I may be kept very firm, 
so as always to touch the paper. — HH is a ruler, that is always moved horizon- 
tally or parallel to itself, by means of the small strings aaaabbbb, at the end of 
which is stuck a small pin, whose head P is the sight, which is to be moved 
up and down on the outlines of any object. — ^I'he contrivance of the strings is 
this : The two strings aaa, bbb, are exactly of an equal length : Two ends of 
them are fastened into a small leaden weight QQ, which is moved in a socket 
on the backside of the frame, and serves exactly to counterpoise the ruler HH, 
being of equal weight with it. The other two ends of them are fastened to two 
small pins H, H, after they have been rolled about the small pulleys N, MM, 
LL, KK; by means of which pulleys, if the pen I be taken hold of, and moved 
up and down the paper, the strings moving very easily, the ruler will always re- 
main in a horizontal position. 

The manner of using it is this : Set the instrument on a table, and fix the 
sight A at any height above the table, and at any distance from the frame SSSS 



326 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I669. 

you please. Then looking through the sight A, and holding the pen I in your 
hand, move the head of the pin P up and down the outlines of the object, and 
the point I will describe, on the paper OO O O, the shape of the object so traced. 

An Observation of Saturn , made at Paris. By M. Huygens* and 
M. PicARD.f iV" 45, p. 900. 

On the J 7th of August, 1668, at ll-i- hr. at night, these observers, with a 
telescope of 21 feet, saw the planet Saturn, as represented fig. 2, pi. 9, the 

* Christian Huygens, a celebrated Dutch astronomer and mathematician, was born at the Hague, 
of a noble family, in I629. When very young he discovered an extraordinary genius for the sci- 
ences, and soon made a rapid progress in the mathematics, under the celebrated Schooten, professor 
at Leyden, As early as l651 he gave a good specimen of his abilities in a book entitled Theoremata 
de Quadratura Hyperbolae, Ellipsis, et Circuli, ex dato portionum gravitatis centro. In l658 he 
published his Horologium Oscillatorium, sive de Motu Pendulorum; containing great improvements 
in horology, and rendering all the vibrations of a pendulum equal, by means of the cycloid. He also 
proposed and contrived clocks for finding the longitude, and gave instructions for the use and ma- 
nagement of them. In l659 came out his Systema Saturninum, explaining his discovery of the ring 
of Saturn, and that of one of his satellites, which he was enabled to discover by the great perfection 
he had given to telescopes. He wrote divers otlier works, exhibiting several ingenious inventions j 
such as, improvements in the air-pump, the art of polishing telescopic glasses, the laws of the colli- 
sion of elastic bodies, concerning the honour of which discovery he had a dispute with Dr. Wallis 
and Dr. Wren, who had both made the same discovery about that time. In 1661 he visited Eng- 
land, where he became a Fellow of the Royal Society. He made several journeys into France, and 
at length, settled entirely in that country, with a pension from the minister Colbert, and was admitted 
a member of the Academy of Sciences. There he resided from 1666 to 168I, when through ill 
health he retired into his own country, where he died in l695, in the 67th year of his age, while 
his Cosmotheoros, or Treatise concerning the Plurality of Worlds, was printing. In 1703 appeared 
his Opuscula Posthuma, in 1 vol. 4to. But most of his works are now found in two collections, 
each of 2 vols, in 4to. viz. the Opera Varia in iZS-i, and the Opera Reliqua in 1728. 

Huygens, like most true philosophers, loved retirement, and a quiet contemplative life; but he 
was quite free from that melancholy disposition which is often contracted in solitude. He was pos- 
sessed of a fine genius j endued with great application j and manifested one of the purest tastes in ma- 
thematics of any man since the days of Archimedes. 

+ John Picard, a skilful astronomer and mathematician of France, was prior of Rille in Anjou. 
Coming to Paris, his talents and skill in those sciences secured him a favourable reception there, and 
he was admitted of the Academy of Sciences in I666, in the capacity of astronomer j and the same 
year,'with M. Auzout, he published a new micrometer. In 1671 he was sent, by order of tlie king, 
to the castle of Uraniburg, built by Tycho Brahe, in Denmark, to make astronomical observations 
there} from whence, on his return, he brought the originals of those made by Tycho, which are tlie 
more valuable as they differ in several places from the printed observations, and contain a book more 
than had been published. Picard made several other important discoveries in astronomy; he was one 
of the first who applied the telescope to astronomical quadrants; he first instituted the work called 
Connoissance des Temps, which he conducted from l679 to l683 inclusively; he first observed the 
light in the vacuum of the barometer, or the mercurial phosphorus; he also first of any measured 



VOL. IV.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 32f 

middle of the globe manifestly appearing both above and below beyond the oval 
of his anses; which was hardly discernible the last year. The inclination of the 
great diameter of the oval to the equator was measured several ways, and was 
found of about 9 degrees, although at that time it should be only of 4 degrees, 
according to what M. Huygens has affirmed in his system of Saturn, viz. that 
the plane ojf the ring which environs the globe of this planet is inclined to the 
plane of the ecliptic but 13° 30'. But from this, and other more exact obser- 
vations, M. Huygens finds that, instead of 23° 30', the angle of the planes of the 
ring and of the ecliptic must be about 31° ; and that not only the shape which 
Saturn has at present, but also all those that have been noted since the true 
ones were observed, do perfectly agree with the hypothesis of the ring ; and par- 
ticularly that of July l664, which was made and published by Sig. Campani, 
wherein the great diameter is double the less. See fig. 3. pi. 9. 

Extract of M. de la Quintiny's Letter, concerning his Way of ordering 
Melons; now communicated for the satisfaction of several curious 
Melonists in England. N" 45, p. 901, 

Observ^ations now of no manner of use. 

An Account of two Boohs. N"" 45, p. 903. 

I. Renati Franc. Slusii* Mesolabum. Seu duae medi^ Proportionales inter 
extremas datas per Circulum et per Infinitas Hyperbolas vel Ellipses, et per 
quamlibet exhibitae. Ac Problematum omnium Solidorum efFectio per easdem 

the degrees of the French meridian, which have since been carried on both to greater extent and with 
more accuracy, by tlie Cassinis, also by Mechain and Delambrej and he died in l682 or l683. His 
works are chiefly as follow: 1. A Treatise of Levelling j 2. Practical Dialling, by calculation; 3. 
Fragments of Dioptrics; 4. Experiments on Running Water; 5. Of Measurements; 6. Mensuration 
of Fluids and Solids; 7. Abridgement of the Measure of the Earth; 8. Journey to Uraniburg, or As- 
tronomical Observations made in Denmark; 9- Astronomical Observations made in different parts of 
France; 10. The Connoissance des Temps, from l679 to l683. All these, and some other tracts, 
are to be found in the 6th and 7th volumes of the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. 

' * Rene Francis Walter Slusius, or Sluse, was born in l622 at Vise> in the county of Liege, 
where he enjoyed honours and preferment. He became abbe of Amas and canon of Liege; and ac- 
quired great celebrity by his knowledge in mathematics and physics. The Royal Society elected him 
one of their members, and inserted several of his compositions in the volumes of tlieir Transactions : 
viz. Method of drawing Tangents to all Geometrical Curves, in vol. 7; Demonstration of the same, 
in vol. 8; and a paper on the Optic Angle of Alhazen, also in vol. 8. There were also published 
some learned letters of his, besides the Mesolabium et Problemata Solida, above described. This 
learned and ingenious man died at Liege in l685, at 63 years of age. 



328 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO l66g. 

Curvas. Accessit pars altera de Analysi, et Miscellanea. Leodii Eburonum 
1668, in thin 4to. 

This problem is declared to be the same with that in the geometry of the 
famous Descartes, viz. That ancient problem of finding two means, or of 
doubling the cube, which troubled all Greece. The solution of which problem 
in geometry may be compared to that of finding the cube root of any number 
proposed in arithmetic : For in arithmetic, the first of two continual propor- 
tionals between an unit and any number proposed, is the cube root of that 
number; and the unit in arithmetic is represented by a line in geometry, which 
is one of the extremes. Concerning this problem, the author declares himself 
to be none of those that search for that which cannot be found, to wit, to per- 
form it by right lines and a circle. The author observes, that amongst those 
that solve this problem by the conic sections, very few have done it by aid of 
a circle and an hyperbola or parabola; by a circle and ellipsis none, that he could 
observe to have been published. But that he has found out not only one, but 
infinite such efFectioiis, and that not in one method but many ; following the 
guidance of which methods, by the like felicity, he has constructed all solid pro- 
blems infinite ways, by a circle and an ellipsis or hyperbola. — 1. His general 
methods for finding two means, by a circle and either an hyperbola or ellipsis, 
are laid down in Prop. 1,2, 16, and in this prop. 16, he shows how to do it with 
any ellipsis and a circle. — 2. Particular efFections for finding out one or both of 
the means, and doubling the cube in prop. 3 to 6. — 3. And though all cubic equa- 
tions may be solved, either by the finding of two means, or the trisection of an 
angle, yet he shows the extent of his method, in finding out other infinite ways 
for the doing thereof, from prop. 7 to 12. — 4. The trisection of an angle by a 
circle and hyperbola, prop. 13, and by a parabola instead thereof, prop. 15. 
And the finding of two means by a circle and parabola, prop. 14. 

In the second part of his book De Analysi, the author first gives the analysis 
or algebra, whereby all his general methods of finding two means were invented. 
And afterwards, for the advancement of geometry, gives the analysis that re- 
lates to his particular methods. After that he comes to show how the efFections 
or delineations for cubic equations were invented ; and then how those con- 
structions for the trisection of an angle were found out. — Lastly, he comes to 
treat of general constructions for the resolving of all solid problems, without 
reduction of the equations proposed ; and shoAVS a general construction for all 
cubic and biquadratic equations, by means of a circle and a parabola, letting 
ordinates fall from the points of intersection on some diameter of the parabola, 
which is always parallel to the axis, whereas Descartes, letting those ordinates 
always fall upon the axis, was forced to prepare and alter the equations by taking 



VOL. IV.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Sig 

away the second term, that the sum of the negative roots might be equal to the 
sum of the affirmative ones, as his constructions always require. 

We come next to speak of the last part of the book, to wit, his miscellany, 
and because it falls in here somewhat properly, we therefore first mention his 
4th chap. viz. De Maximis et Minimis, from which he derives this proposition : 
If any magnitude, or number, as the whole, be divided into such parts, that are 
to each other as a number to a number, the product of those powers of the 
parts that are of the same degree as the parts themselves denominate, is the 
greatest of all products of the like powers of the parts of the same magnitude 
when otherwise divided. 

Concerning the rest of the miscellanies; our author. In chap. 1, treats of the 
infinite spirals, and of the measure of the spaces comprehended by them and 
the radius of the circle. Concerning which he observes, that Archimedes 
squared that spiral which was made by an equal motion both in the radius and 
circumference of the circle : that Stephano Angeli has done the like, when the 
motion in the radius is equal, but in the circumference according to any degree 
of acceleration ; which gave him occasion to render this doctrine easy and uni- 
versal by reducing it to one analysis, when the motion is accelerated according 
to any degree either in the radius or circumference. He applies this doctrine, 
in chap. 3, to